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1.  2-Benzamido-N-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives as potent inhibitors of CK1δ/ε 
Amino Acids  2012;43(4):1577-1591.
In this study we identified two heterocyclic compounds (5 and 6) as potent and specific inhibitors of CK1δ (IC50 = 0.040 and 0.042 μM, respectively). Whereas compound 5 exhibited fivefold higher affinity towards CK1δ than to CK1ε (IC50 CK1ε = 0.199 μM), compound 6 also inhibited CK1ε (IC50 = 0.0326 μM) in the same range as CK1δ. Selected compound 5 was screened over 442 kinases identifying 5 as a highly potent and selective inhibitor of CK1δ. X-ray analysis of 5 bound to CK1δ demonstrated its binding mode. In addition, characterization of 5 and 6 in a cell biological approach revealed the ability of both compounds to inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines in a dose and cell line specific manner. In summary, our optimizations lead to the development of new highly selective CK1δ and ε specific inhibitors with biological activity.
PMCID: PMC3448056  PMID: 22331384
CK1δ; CK1ε; Phosphorylation; Small molecule inhibitor; Crystal structure; MTT; FACS
2.  Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris 
Tree physiology  2010;30(4):490-501.
We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site).
In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05).
Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly influenced by water availability, the onset of cambial activity and cell differentiation is controlled by temperature.
PMCID: PMC3046340  PMID: 20197285
Cambium; dry inner Alpine valley; intra-annual growth; Scots pine; tracheid production; xylogenesis

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