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1.  Fatigue-Induced Alterations of Static and Dynamic Postural Control in Athletes With a History of Ankle Sprain 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(2):203-208.
Context:
Sensorimotor control is impaired after ankle injury and in fatigued conditions. However, little is known about fatigue-induced alterations of postural control in athletes who have experienced an ankle sprain in the past.
Objective:
To investigate the effect of fatiguing exercise on static and dynamic balance abilities in athletes who have successfully returned to preinjury levels of sport activity after an ankle sprain.
Design:
Cohort study.
Setting:
University sport science research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
30 active athletes, 14 with a previous severe ankle sprain (return to sport activity 6–36 months before study entry; no residual symptoms or subjective instability) and 16 uninjured controls.
Intervention(s):
Fatiguing treadmill running in 2 experimental sessions to assess dependent measures.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
Center-of-pressure sway velocity in single-legged stance and time to stabilization (TTS) after a unilateral jump-landing task (session 1) and maximum reach distance in the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) (session 2) were assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing treadmill exercise. A 2-factorial linear mixed model was specified for each of the main outcomes, and effect sizes (ESs) were calculated as Cohen d.
Results:
In the unfatigued condition, between-groups differences existed only for the anterior-posterior TTS (P = .05, ES = 0.39). Group-by-fatigue interactions were found for mean SEBT (P = .03, ES = 0.43) and anterior-posterior TTS (P = .02, ES = 0.48). Prefatigue versus postfatigue SEBT and TTS differences were greater in previously injured athletes, whereas static sway velocity increased similarly in both groups.
Conclusions:
Fatiguing running significantly affected static and dynamic postural control in participants with a history of ankle sprain. Fatigue-induced alterations of dynamic postural control were greater in athletes with a previous ankle sprain. Thus, even after successful return to competition, ongoing deficits in sensorimotor control may contribute to the enhanced ankle reinjury risk.
doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.08
PMCID: PMC3600922  PMID: 23672384
sensorimotor control; neuromuscular activity; copers; balance; time to stabilization; Star Excursion Balance Test
2.  Effects of behavioural exercise therapy on the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic non-specific low back pain: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Background
In Germany, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation named “behavioural medical rehabilitation” (BMR) is available for treatment of chronic low back pain (clbp). A central component of BMR is standard exercise therapy (SET), which is directed mainly to improve physical fitness. There is a need to address psychosocial factors within SET and therefore to improve behavior change with a focus on the development of self-management skills in dealing with clbp. Furthermore, short-term effectiveness of BMR with a SET has been proven, but the impact of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET) for improvement of the long-term effectiveness of BMR is unclear.
Methods/design
To compare the effectiveness of two exercise programs with different approaches within BMR on the effects of BMR a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) in two rehabilitation centres will be performed. 214 patients aged 18–65 with clbp will be, based on an "urn randomisation"-algorithm, randomly assigned to a BMR with SET (function-oriented, n=107) and BMR with BET (behaviour-oriented, n=107). Both exercise programs have a mean duration of 26 hours in three weeks and are delivered by a limited number of not-blinded study therapists in closed groups with six to twelve patients who will be masked regarding study group. The main differences of BET lie in its detailed manualised program with a theory-based, goal-orientated combination of exercise, education and behavioural elements, active participation of patients and consideration of their individual preferences and previous experiences with exercise. The primary outcome is functional ability assessed with the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire directly before and after the rehabilitation program, as well as a six and twelve-month follow-up.
Discussion
This RCT is designed to explore the effects of BET on the effectiveness of a BMR compared to a BMR with SET in the management of patients with clbp. Methodological challenges arise from conducting a RCT within routine health care as well as from ensuring high treatment integrity. Findings of this study might contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of BMR and the special effects of BET and may be used to improve the quality of these interventions in routine care, therefore reducing the burden to patients with disabling clbp.
Trial registration
Current controlled trials NCT01666639
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-89
PMCID: PMC3610103  PMID: 23496822
Chronic non-specific low back pain; Exercise therapy; Behavioural exercise therapy; Multidisciplinary rehabilitation; Self-management; Physical activity
3.  Residual effects of muscle strength and muscle power training and detraining on physical function in community-dwelling prefrail older adults: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:68.
Background
Although resistance exercise interventions have been shown to be beneficial in prefrail or frail older adults it remains unclear whether there are residual effects when the training is followed by a period of detraining. The aim of this study was to establish the sustainability of a muscle power or muscle strength training effect in prefrail older adults following training and detraining.
Methods
69 prefrail community-dwelling older adults, aged 65–94 years were randomly assigned into three groups: muscle strength training (ST), muscle power training (PT) or controls. The exercise interventions were performed for 60 minutes, twice a week over 12 weeks. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery=SPPB), muscle power (sit-to-stand transfer=STS), self-reported function (SF-LLFDI) and appendicular lean mass (aLM) were measured at baseline and at 12, 24 and 36 weeks after the start of the intervention.
Results
For the SPPB, significant intervention effects were found at 12 weeks in both exercise groups (ST: p = 0.0047; PT: p = 0.0043). There were no statistically significant effects at 24 and 36 weeks. In the ST group, the SPPB declined continuously after stop of exercising whereas the PT group and controls remained unchanged. No effects were found for muscle power, SF-LLFDI and aLM.
Conclusions
The results showed that both intervention types are equally effective at 12 weeks but did not result in statistically significant residual effects when the training is followed by a period of detraining. The unchanged SPPB score at 24 and 36 weeks in the PT group indicates that muscle power training might be more beneficial than muscle strength training. However, more research is needed on the residual effects of both interventions. Taken the drop-out rates (PT: 33%, ST: 21%) into account, muscle power training should also be used more carefully in prefrail older adults.
Trial registration
This trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00783159)
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-68
PMCID: PMC3538686  PMID: 23134737
Prefrailty; Exercise; Mobility; Residual effects; Detraining
4.  Balance Training for Neuromuscular Control and Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review 
Journal of Athletic Training  2010;45(4):392-403.
Abstract
Objective:
As a result of inconsistencies in reported findings, controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of balance training for improving functional performance and neuromuscular control. Thus, its practical benefit in athletic training remains inconclusive. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of training interventions in enhancing neuromuscular control and functional performance.
Data Sources:
Two independent reviewers performed a literature search in Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), and SCOPUS.
Study Selection:
Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials without randomization with healthy and physically active participants aged up to 40 years old were considered for inclusion. Outcomes of interest were postural control, muscle strength, agility, jump performance, sprint performance, muscle reflex activity, rate of force development, reaction time, and electromyography.
Data Extraction:
Data of interest were methodologic assessment, training intervention, outcome, timing of the outcome assessment, and results. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated when data were sufficient.
Data Synthesis:
In total, 20 randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Balance training was effective in improving postural sway and functional balance when compared with untrained control participants. Larger effect sizes were shown for training programs of longer duration. Although controversial findings were reported for jumping performance, agility, and neuromuscular control, there are indications for the effectiveness of balance training in these outcomes. When compared with plyometric or strength training, conflicting results or no effects of balance training were reported for strength improvements and changes in sprint performance.
Conclusions:
We conclude that balance training can be effective for postural and neuromuscular control improvements. However, as a result of the low methodologic quality and training differences, further research is strongly recommended.
doi:10.4085/1062-6050-45.4.392
PMCID: PMC2902034  PMID: 20617915
methodologic quality assessment; postural control; motor control
5.  Long-term changes in tree-ring – climate relationships at Mt. Patscherkofel (Tyrol, Austria) since the mid 1980s 
Trees (Berlin, Germany : West)  2008;22(1):31-40.
Although growth limitation of trees at Alpine and high-latitude timberlines by prevailing summer temperature is well established, loss of thermal response of radial tree growth during last decades has repeatedly been addressed. We examined long-term variability of climate-growth relationships in ring width chronologies of Stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) by means of moving response functions (MRF). The study area is situated in the timberline ecotone (c. 2000 – 2200 m a.s.l.) on Mt. Patscherkofel (Tyrol, Austria). Five site chronologies were developed within the ecotone with constant sample depth (≥ 19 trees) throughout most of the time period analysed. MRF calculated for the period 1866-1999 and 1901-1999 for c. 200 and c. 100 yr old stands, respectively, revealed that mean July temperature is the major and long-term stable driving force of Pinus cembra radial growth within the timberline ecotone. However, since the mid 1980s, radial growth in timberline and tree line chronologies strikingly diverges from the July temperature trend. This is probably a result of extreme climate events (e.g. low winter precipitation, late frost) and/or increasing drought stress on cambial activity. The latter assumption is supported by a < 10 % increase in annual increments of c. 50 yr old trees at the timberline and at the tree line in 2003 compared to 2002, when extraordinary hot and dry conditions prevailed during summer. Furthermore, especially during the second half of the 20th century, influence of climate variables on radial growth show abrupt fluctuations, which might also be a consequence of climate warming on tree physiology.
doi:10.1007/s00468-007-0166-7
PMCID: PMC3083837  PMID: 21532976
Climate warming; moving response function; Pinus cembra; temperature sensitivity; tree ring
6.  An interdisciplinary intervention to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly persons: protocol of a cluster-randomized trial [PreFalls] 
BMC Geriatrics  2011;11:7.
Background
Prevention of falls in the elderly is a public health target in many countries around the world. While a large number of trials have investigated the effectiveness of fall prevention programs, few focussed on interventions embedded in the general practice setting and its related network. In the Prevent Falls (PreFalls) trial we aim to investigate the effectiveness of a pre-tested multi-modal intervention compared to usual care in this setting.
Methods/Design
PreFalls is a controlled multicenter prospective study with cluster-randomized allocation of about 40 general practices to an experimental or a control group. We aim to include 382 community dwelling persons aged 65 and older with an increased risk of falling. All participating general practitioners are trained to systematically assess the risk of falls using a set of validated tests. Patients from intervention practices are invited to participate in a 16-weeks exercise program with focus on fall prevention delivered by specifically trained local physiotherapists. Patients from practices allocated to the control group receive usual care. Main outcome measure is the number of falls per individual in the first 12 months (analysis by negative binomial regression). Secondary outcomes include falls in the second year, the proportion of participants falling in the first and the second year, falls associated with injury, risk of falls, fear of falling, physical activity and quality of life.
Discussion
Reducing falls in the elderly remains a major challenge. We believe that with its strong focus on a both systematic and realistic fall prevention strategy adapted to primary care setting PreFalls will be a valuable addition to the scientific literature in the field.
Trial registration
NCT01032252
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-7
PMCID: PMC3050704  PMID: 21329525
7.  A bio-psycho-social exercise program (RÜCKGEWINN) for chronic low back pain in rehabilitation aftercare - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Background
There is strong, internationally confirmed evidence for the short-term effectiveness of multimodal interdisciplinary specific treatment programs for chronic back pain. However, the verification of long-term sustainability of achieved effects is missing so far. For long-term improvement of pain and functional ability high intervention intensity or high volume seems to be necessary (> 100 therapy hours). Especially in chronic back pain rehabilitation, purposefully refined aftercare treatments offer the possibility to intensify positive effects or to increase their sustainability. However, quality assured goal-conscious specific aftercare programs for the rehabilitation of chronic back pain are absent.
Methods/Design
This study aims to examine the efficacy of a specially developed bio-psycho-social chronic back pain specific aftercare intervention (RÜCKGEWINN) in comparison to the current usual aftercare (IRENA) and a control group that is given an educational booklet addressing pain-conditioned functional ability and back pain episodes. Overall rehabilitation effects as well as predictors for compliance to the aftercare programs are analysed. Therefore, a multicenter prospective 3-armed randomised controlled trial is conducted. 456 participants will be consecutively enrolled in inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation and assigned to either one of the three study arms. Outcomes are measured before and after rehabilitation. Aftercare programs are assessed at ten month follow up after dismissal form rehabilitation.
Discussion
Special methodological and logistic challenges are to be mastered in this trial, which accrue from the interconnection of aftercare interventions to their residential district and the fact that the proportion of patients who take part in aftercare programs is low. The usability of the aftercare program is based on the transference into the routine care and is also reinforced by developed manuals with structured contents, media and material for organisation assistance as well as training manuals for therapists in the aftercare.
Trial Registration
Trial Registration number: NCT01070849
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-266
PMCID: PMC2996344  PMID: 21083918
8.  Assessing a risk tailored intervention to prevent disabling low back pain - protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial 
Background
Although most patients with low back pain (LBP) recover within a few weeks a significant proportion has recurrent episodes or will develop chronic low back pain. Several mainly psychosocial risk factors for developing chronic LBP have been identified. However, effects of preventive interventions aiming at behavioural risk factors and unfavourable cognitions have yielded inconsistent results. Risk tailored interventions may provide a cost efficient and effective means to take systematic account of the individual risk factors but evidence is lacking.
Methods/Design
This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial comparing screening and a subsequent risk tailored intervention for patients with low back pain to prevent chronic low back pain compared to treatment as usual in primary care. A total of 600 patients from 20 practices in each study arm will be recruited in Berlin and Goettingen. The intervention comprises the following elements: Patients will be assigned to one of four risk groups based on a screening questionnaire. Subsequently they receive an educational intervention including information and counselling tailored to the risk group. A telephone/email consulting service for back pain related problems are offered independent of risk group assignment. The primary outcomes will be functional capacity and sick leave.
Discussion
This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of screening for risk factors for chronic low back pain followed by a risk tailored intervention to prevent chronic low back pain. This trial will contribute new evidence regarding the flexible use of individual physical and psychosocial risk factors in general practice.
Trial registration
ISRCTN 68205910
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-5
PMCID: PMC2820020  PMID: 20051119

Results 1-8 (8)