As therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) become a major focus in biotechnology and a source of the next-generation drugs, new analytical methods or combination methods are needed for monitoring changes in higher order structure and effects of post-translational modifications. The complexity of these molecules and their vulnerability to structural change provide a serious challenge. We describe here the use of complementary mass spectrometry methods that not only characterize mutant mAbs but also may provide a general framework for characterizing higher order structure of other protein therapeutics and biosimilars. To frame the challenge, we selected members of the IgG2 subclass that have distinct disulfide isomeric structures as a model to evaluate an overall approach that uses ion mobility, top-down MS sequencing, and protein footprinting in the form of fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP). These three methods are rapid, sensitive, respond to subtle changes in conformation of Cys→Ser mutants of an IgG2, each representing a single disulfide isoform, and may be used in series to probe higher order structure. The outcome suggests that this approach of using various methods in combination can assist the development and quality control of protein therapeutics.
Antibody characterization; Protein structure; Fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP); Top-down; Ion mobility; Antibody mutants; IgG2
The impact of the Borrelia burgdorferi surface-localized immunogenic lipoprotein BBA66 on vector and host infection was evaluated by inactivating the encoding gene, bba66, and characterizing the mutant phenotype throughout the natural mouse-tick-mouse cycle. The BBA66-deficient mutant isolate, BbΔA66, remained infectious in mice by needle inoculation of cultured organisms, but differences in spirochete burden and pathology in the tibiotarsal joint were observed relative to the parental wild-type (WT) strain. Ixodes scapularis larvae successfully acquired BbΔA66 following feeding on infected mice, and the organisms persisted in these ticks through the molt to nymphs. A series of tick transmission experiments (n = 7) demonstrated that the ability of BbΔA66-infected nymphs to infect laboratory mice was significantly impaired compared to that of mice fed upon by WT-infected ticks. trans-complementation of BbΔA66 with an intact copy of bba66 restored the WT infectious phenotype in mice via tick transmission. These results suggest a role for BBA66 in facilitating B. burgdorferi dissemination and transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host as part of the disease process for Lyme borreliosis.
Neurodegenerative diseases are typically associated with an activation of glia and an increased level of cytokines. In our previous studies of prion disease, the cytokine response in the brains of clinically sick scrapie-infected mice was restricted to a small group of cytokines, of which IL-12p40, CCL2, and CXCL10 were present at the highest levels. The goal of our current research was to determine the relationship between cytokine responses, gliosis, and neuropathology during prion disease. Here, in time course studies of C57BL/10 mice intracerebrally inoculated with 22L scrapie, abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), astrogliosis, and microgliosis were first detected at 40 days after intracerebral scrapie inoculation. In cytokine studies, IL-12p40 was first elevated by 60 days; CCL3, IL-1β, and CXCL1 were elevated by 80 days; and CCL2 and CCL5 were elevated by 115 days. IL-12p40 showed the most extensive increase throughout disease and was 30-fold above control levels at the terminal stage. Because of the early onset and dramatic elevation of IL-12p40 during scrapie, we investigated whether IL-12p40 contributed to the development of prion disease neuropathogenesis by using three different scrapie strains (22L, RML, 79A) to infect knockout mice in which the gene encoding IL-12p40 was deleted. We also studied knockout mice lacking IL-12p35, which combines with IL-12p40 to form active IL-12 heterodimers. In all instances, knockout mice did not differ from control mice in survival time, clinical tempo, or levels of spongiosis, gliosis, or PrPres in the brain. Thus, neither IL-12p40 nor IL-12p35 molecules were required for prion disease-associated neurodegeneration or neuroinflammation.
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets wounded epithelial barriers, but the cellular alteration that increases susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection remains unclear. This study examined how cell migration contributes to the establishment of P. aeruginosa infections using (i) highly migratory T24 epithelial cells as a cell culture model, (ii) mutations in the type III secretion (T3S) effector ExoS to manipulate P. aeruginosa infection, and (iii) high-resolution immunofluorescent microscopy to monitor ExoS translocation. ExoS includes both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activities, and P. aeruginosa cells expressing wild-type ExoS preferentially bound to the leading edge of T24 cells, where ExoS altered leading-edge architecture and actin anchoring in conjunction with interrupting T3S translocation. Inactivation of ExoS GAP activity allowed P. aeruginosa to be internalized and secrete ExoS within T24 cells, but as with wild-type ExoS, translocation was limited in association with disruption of actin anchoring. Inactivation of ExoS ADPRT activity resulted in significantly enhanced T3S translocation by P. aeruginosa cells that remained extracellular and in conjunction with maintenance of actin-plasma membrane association. Infection with P. aeruginosa expressing ExoS lacking both GAP and ADPRT activities resulted in the highest level of T3S translocation, and this occurred in conjunction with the entry and alignment of P. aeruginosa and ExoS along actin filaments. Collectively, in using ExoS mutants to modulate and visualize T3S translocation, we were able to (i) confirm effector secretion by internalized P. aeruginosa, (ii) differentiate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ExoS GAP and ADPRT activities on P. aeruginosa internalization and T3S translocation, (iii) confirm that ExoS ADPRT activity targeted a cellular substrate that interrupted T3S translocation, (iv) visualize the ability of P. aeruginosa and ExoS to align with actin filaments, and (v) demonstrate an association between actin anchoring at the leading edge of T24 cells and the establishment of P. aeruginosa infection. Our studies also highlight the contribution of ExoS to the opportunistic nature of P. aeruginosa infection through its ability to exert cytotoxic effects that interrupt T3S translocation and P. aeruginosa internalization, which in turn limit the P. aeruginosa infectious process.
Soon after the discovery of lasers in the 1960s it was realized that laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain, inflammation and swelling. In recent years the field sometimes known as photobiomodulation has broadened to include light-emitting diodes and other light sources, and the range of wavelengths used now includes many in the red and near infrared. The term “low level laser therapy” or LLLT has become widely recognized and implies the existence of the biphasic dose response or the Arndt-Schulz curve. This review will cover the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular and at a tissular level and will summarize the various light sources and principles of dosimetry that are employed in clinical practice. The range of diseases, injuries, and conditions that can be benefited by LLLT will be summarized with an emphasis on those that have reported randomized controlled clinical trials. Serious life-threatening diseases such as stroke, heart attack, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury may soon be amenable to LLLT therapy.
Low level laser therapy; Photobiomodulation; Mitochondria; Tissue optics; Wound healing; Hair regrowth; Laser acupuncture
Low-level laser light therapy (LLLT) exerts beneficial effects on motor and histopathological outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), and coherent near-infrared light has been reported to improve cognitive function in patients with chronic TBI. However, the effects of LLLT on cognitive recovery in experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that LLLT administered after controlled cortical impact (CCI) would improve post-injury Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Low-level laser light (800 nm) was applied directly to the contused parenchyma or transcranially in mice beginning 60–80 min after CCI. Injured mice treated with 60 J/cm2 (500 mW/cm2×2 min) either transcranially or via an open craniotomy had modestly improved latency to the hidden platform (p<0.05 for group), and probe trial performance (p<0.01) compared to non-treated controls. The beneficial effects of LLLT in open craniotomy mice were associated with reduced microgliosis at 48 h (21.8±2.3 versus 39.2±4.2 IbA-1+ cells/200×field, p<0.05). Little or no effect of LLLT on post-injury cognitive function was observed using the other doses, a 4-h administration time point and 7-day administration of 60 J/cm2. No effect of LLLT (60 J/cm2 open craniotomy) was observed on post-injury motor function (days 1–7), brain edema (24 h), nitrosative stress (24 h), or lesion volume (14 days). Although further dose optimization and mechanism studies are needed, the data suggest that LLLT might be a therapeutic option to improve cognitive recovery and limit inflammation after TBI.
cognition; controlled cortical impact; inflammation; low-level laser light therapy; mice; microglia
Leptospires lack many of the homologs for oxidative defense present in other bacteria, but do encode homologs of the Bacteriodes aerotolerance (Bat) proteins, which have been proposed to fulfill this function. Bat homologs have been identified in all families of the phylum Spirochaetes, yet a specific function for these proteins has not been experimentally demonstrated.
We investigated the contribution of the Bat proteins in the model organism Leptospira biflexa for their potential contributions to growth rate, morphology and protection against oxidative challenges. A genetically engineered mutant strain in which all bat ORFs were deleted did not exhibit altered growth rate or morphology, relative to the wild-type strain. Nor could we demonstrate a protective role for the Bat proteins in coping with various oxidative stresses. Further, pre-exposing L. biflexa to sublethal levels of reactive oxygen species did not appear to induce a general oxidative stress response, in contrast to what has been shown in other bacterial species. Differential proteomic analysis of the wild-type and mutant strains detected changes in the abundance of a single protein only – HtpG, which is encoded by the gene immediately downstream of the bat loci.
The data presented here do not support a protective role for the Leptospira Bat proteins in directly coping with oxidative stress as previously proposed. L. biflexa is relatively sensitive to reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and H2O2, suggesting that this spirochete lacks a strong, protective defense against oxidative damage despite being a strict aerobe.
Prion protein (PrP) is expressed on a wide variety of cells and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, its normal function remains unclear. Mice that do not express PrP exhibit deficits in spatial memory and abnormalities in excitatory neurotransmission suggestive that PrP may function in the glutamatergic synapse. Here we show that transport of D-aspartate, a non-metabolized L-glutamate analog, through excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) was faster in astrocytes from PrP knockout (PrPKO) mice than in astrocytes from C57BL/10SnJ wildtype (WT) mice. Experiments using EAAT subtype-specific inhibitors demonstrated that in both WT and PrPKO astrocytes, the majority of transport was mediated by EAAT1. Furthermore, PrPKO astrocytes were more effective than WT astrocytes at alleviating L-glutamate-mediated excitotoxic damage in both WT and PrPKO neuronal cultures. Thus, in this in vitro model, PrPKO astrocytes exerted a functional influence on neuronal survival and may therefore influence regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in vivo.
Prion protein; excitatory amino acid transporters; astrocyte; excitotoxicity; NMDA receptor
The growing use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics underscores the importance of epitope mapping as an essential step in characterizing antibody-antigen complexes. The use of protein footprinting coupled with mass spectrometry, which is emerging as a tool in structural biology, offers opportunities to map antibody-binding regions of antigens. We report here the use of footprinting via fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) with OH radicals to characterize the epitope of the serine-protease thrombin. The data correlate well with previously published results that determined the epitope of thrombin. This study marks the first time oxidative labeling has been used for epitope mapping.
Mass spectrometry; oxidation; epitope mapping; protein footprinting
The increased demand for clinician-educators in academic medicine necessitates additional training in educational skills to prepare potential candidates for these positions. Although many teaching skills training programs for residents exist, there is a lack of reports in the literature evaluating similar programs during fellowship training.
To describe the implementation and evaluation of a unique program aimed at enhancing educational knowledge and teaching skills for subspecialty medicine fellows and chief residents.
Fellows as Clinician-Educators (FACE) program is a 1-year program open to fellows (and chief residents) in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Iowa.
The course involves interactive monthly meetings held throughout the academic year and has provided training to 48 participants across 11 different subspecialty fellowships between 2004 and 2009.
FACE participants completed a 3-station Objective Structured Teaching Examination using standardized learners, which assessed participants' skills in giving feedback, outpatient precepting, and giving a mini-lecture. Based on reviews of station performance by 2 independent raters, fellows demonstrated statistically significant improvement on overall scores for 2 of the 3 cases. Participants self-assessed their knowledge and teaching skills prior to starting and after completing the program. Analyses of participants' retrospective preassessments and postassessments showed improved perceptions of competence after training.
The FACE program is a well-received intervention that objectively demonstrates improvement in participants' teaching skills. It offers a model approach to meeting important training skills needs of subspecialty medicine fellows and chief residents in a resource-effective manner.
Due to the publicity about stem cell transplantation for the treatment of cerebral palsy, many families seek information on treatment, and many travel overseas for cell transplantation. Even so, there is little scientific confirmation of benefit, and therefore existing knowledge in the field must be summarized.
This paper addresses the clinical protocols examining the problem, types of stem cells available for transplant, experimental models used to test the benefit of the cells, possible mechanisms of action, potential complications of cell treatment, and what is needed in the field to help accelerate cell-based therapies.
While stem cells may be beneficial in acute injuries of the central nervous system, the biology of stem cells is not well enough understood in chronic injuries or disorders such as cerebral palsy. More work is required at the basic level of stem cell biology, in the development of animal models, and finally in well-conceived clinical trials.
Animal models; cerebral palsy; embryonic stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; mesenchymal cells; multipotent adult progenitor cells; stem cells; transplantation
Acute prevertebral calcific tendonitis (APCT) is a rare condition, the exact incidence of which is unknown. It is of particular interest to the emergency physician owing to the other potentially devastating conditions in the differential diagnosis of neck stiffness and/or odynophagia (including retropharyngeal abscess, infectious spondylitis, and meningitis.) In contrast, APCT has a benign clinical course and can be easily managed in the emergency department. We will present a case of APCT, followed by a brief discussion of the disease and current literature.
Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been known since 1967 but still remains controversial due to incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms and the selection of inappropriate dosimetric parameters that led to negative studies. The biphasic dose-response or Arndt-Schulz curve in LLLT has been shown both in vitro studies and in animal experiments. This review will provide an update to our previous (Huang et al. 2009) coverage of this topic. In vitro mediators of LLLT such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential show biphasic patterns, while others such as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species show a triphasic dose-response with two distinct peaks. The Janus nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may act as a beneficial signaling molecule at low concentrations and a harmful cytotoxic agent at high concentrations, may partly explain the observed responses in vivo. Transcranial LLLT for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice shows a distinct biphasic pattern with peaks in beneficial neurological effects observed when the number of treatments is varied, and when the energy density of an individual treatment is varied. Further understanding of the extent to which biphasic dose responses apply in LLLT will be necessary to optimize clinical treatments.
low level laser therapy; photobiomodulation; biphasic dose response; reactive oxygen species; nitric oxide; traumatic brain injury
Background and Objective
Low level light (or laser) therapy (LLLT) is a rapidly growing modality used in physical therapy, chiropractic, sports medicine and increasingly in mainstream medicine. LLLT is used to increase wound healing and tissue regeneration, to relieve pain and inflammation, to prevent tissue death, to mitigate degeneration in many neurological indications. While some agreement has emerged on the best wavelengths of light and a range of acceptable dosages to be used (irradiance and fluence), there is no agreement on whether continuous wave or pulsed light is best and on what factors govern the pulse parameters to be chosen.
Study Design/Materials and Methods
The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1970 and 2010.
The basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of LLLT are discussed. The type of pulsed light sources available and the parameters that govern their pulse structure are outlined. Studies that have compared continuous wave and pulsed light in both animals and patients are reviewed. Frequencies used in other pulsed modalities used in physical therapy and biomedicine are compared to those used in LLLT.
There is some evidence that pulsed light does have effects that are different from those of continuous wave light. However further work is needed to define these effects for different disease conditions and pulse structures.
low level light therapy; photobiomodulation; frequency; pulse duration; duty cycle; clinical trials
One hundred and eight patients with severe falciparum malaria underwent a placebo controlled trial with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an adjunctive therapy along with standard intravenous artesunate therapy. Three NAC dosage regimens were used: an intravenous loading dose of 140 mg/kg followed by 70 mg/kg every four hours intravenously for up to 18 doses (Group 1); a single intravenous loading dose followed by oral NAC in the same amount as for Group 1 (Group 2); a regimen identical to Group 1 except that oral NAC was administered after the first 24 hours (Group 3). Fifty-four patients received placebo plus artesunate. Two critically ill patients died in Group 1. No patient sustained an adverse reaction to the NAC other than vomiting, and the deaths were attributed to severe disease with multiple organ involvement. The excellent results with NAC, the lack of adverse effects, and the rationale for NAC benefit supports the need for a large, double blind trial of NAC as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria.
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1) replication during tick engorgement, 2) migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3) host transmission, and 4) susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease characterized by widespread tissue dissemination and chronic infection. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of T. pallidum by the isoelectric focusing (IEF) and nonequilibrating pH gel electrophoresis (NEPHGE) forms of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. We determined the identity of 148 T. pallidum protein spots, representing 88 T. pallidum polypeptides; 63 of these polypeptides had not been identified previously at the protein level. To examine which of these proteins are important in the antibody response to syphilis, we performed immunoblot analysis using infected rabbit sera or human sera from patients at different stages of syphilis infection. Twenty-nine previously described antigens (predominantly lipoproteins) were detected, as were a number of previously unidentified antigens. The reactivity patterns obtained with sera from infected rabbits and humans were similar; these patterns included a subset of antigens reactive with all serum samples tested, including CfpA, MglB-2, TmpA, TmpB, flagellins, and the 47-kDa, 17-kDa, and 15-kDa lipoproteins. A unique group of antigens specifically reactive with infected human serum was also identified and included the previously described antigen TpF1 and the hypothetical proteins TP0584, TP0608, and TP0965. This combined proteomic and serologic analysis further delineates the antigens potentially useful as vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers and may provide insight into the host-pathogen interactions that occur during T. pallidum infection.
Nisin A is the most widely characterized lantibiotic investigated to date. It represents one of the many antimicrobial peptides which have been the focus of much interest as potential therapeutic agents. This has resulted in the search for novel lantibiotics and more commonly, the engineering of novel variants from existing peptides with a view to increasing their activity, stability and solubility.
The aim of this study was to compare the activities of nisin A and novel bioengineered hinge derivatives, nisin S, nisin T and nisin V. The microtitre alamar blue assay (MABA) was employed to identify the enhanced activity of these novel variants against M. tuberculosis (H37Ra), M. kansasii (CIT11/06), M. avium subsp. hominissuis (CIT05/03) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (ATCC 19698). All variants displayed greater anti-mycobacterial activity than nisin A. Nisin S was the most potent variant against M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, retarding growth by a maximum of 29% when compared with nisin A. Sub-species variations of inhibition were also observed with nisin S reducing growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis by 28% and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by 19% and nisin T contrastingly reducing growth of MAP by 27% and MAC by 16%.
Nisin S, nisin T and nisin V are potent novel anti-mycobacterial compounds, which have the capacity to be further modified, potentially generating compounds with additional beneficial characteristics. This is the first report to demonstrate an enhancement of efficacy by any bioengineered bacteriocin against mycobacteria.
mycobacteria; nisin variants; alamar blue; peptide engineering; lantibiotic; bacteriocin
A microtiter alamarBlue assay was adapted and optimized for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Using cell concentrations ranging from 104 to 108 CFU/ml, a minimum incubation time to indicate viability was obtained after 24 h. Rifampin (rifampicin) was used to demonstrate that this method has applications for high-throughput screening against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Postoperative ileus (POI) is a predictable delay in gastrointestinal (GI) motility that occurs after abdominal surgery. Probable mechanisms include disruption of the sympathetic/parasympathetic pathways to the GI tract, inflammatory changes mediated over multiple pathways, and the use of opioids for the management of postoperative pain. Pharmacologic treatment of postoperative ileus continues to be problematic as most agents are unreliable and unsubstantiated with robust clinical trials. The selective opioid antagonist alvimopan has shown promise in reducing POI, but needs more rigorous investigation. Clinician interventions proven to be of benefit include laparoscopy, thoracic epidural anesthesia, avoidance of opioids, and early feeding. Early ambulation may also contribute to early resolution of POI; however, routine nasogastric decompression plays no role and may increase complications. Multimodal care plans remain the mainstay of treatment for POI.
Postoperative ileus; motility; postoperative patient care; postoperative stay
The mechanism of the multiple charging of macromolecules in electrospray ionization (ESI) continues to inspire debate and controversy. Recently, we proposed that the number of charges on a macromolecule is determined by the emission of small charge carriers from macromolecule-containing nanodroplets and that, after solvent evaporation, the remaining charge is transferred to the macromolecule. In this study, we tested the applicability of this new theory for macromolecular, positive-ion ESI mass spectrometry by measuring the mean charge states and charge distributions of globular proteins under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. Predictions of protein mean charge states for native state proteins are in excellent agreement with mass spectrometric measurements, giving strong credence to the proposed theory. Theoretical predictions are also in good agreement with mean charge states measured for proteins in basic solutions (pH = 11.5). For some proteins in acidic solutions (pH = 2.1), the measured mean charge states are anomalously higher than the Rayleigh limit of a water droplet with a volume equivalent to that of the protein. We propose that some macromolecules that are highly charged in solution may desorb from charged droplets of the same polarity in a similar manner to that whereby charge carriers emit from nanodroplets, leading to “supercharged” macromolecular ions. Examination of rate expressions for solvent evaporation and charge-carrier emission demonstrates that the newly proposed model for ESI is consistent with previously reported ion-emission kinetics. Overall, we obtained additional experimental evidence for the charge carrier emission model for macromolecular charging, suggesting opportunities for understanding and applying ESI-MS.
Electrospray Ionization; Macromolecules; Mass Spectrometry; Ion Emission; Nanodroplets
The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response.
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia and Category A biodefense agent, is known to replicate within host macrophages, though the pathogenesis of this organism is incompletely understood. We have isolated a variant of F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) based on colony morphology and its effect on macrophages. Human monocyte-derived macrophages produced more tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 following exposure to the variant, designated the activating variant (ACV). The immunoreactivity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from both LVS and ACV was comparable to the previously described blue variant and was distinct from the gray variant of LVS. We found, however, the soluble protein fractions of LVS and ACV differed. Further investigation using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated higher levels of several proteins in the parental LVS isolate. The differentially-expressed proteins featured several associated with virulence in F. tularensis and other pathogens, including intracellular growth locus C (IglC), a σ54 modulation protein family member (YhbH), and aconitase. ACV reverted to the LVS phenotype, indicated by low cytokine induction and high IglC expression, after growth in a chemically-defined media. These data provide evidence that the levels of virulence factors in F. tularensis are modulated based on culture conditions and that this modulation impacts host responses. This work provides a basis for investigation of Francisella virulence factor regulation and the identification of additional factors, co-regulated with IglC, that affect macrophage responses.
Francisella; macrophage; cytokine; virulence factors
Although multiple charging in electrospray ionization (ESI) is essential to protein mass spectrometry, the underlying mechanism of multiple charging has not been explicated. Here, we present a new theory to describe ESI of native-state proteins and predict the number of excess charges on proteins in ESI. The theory proposes that proteins are ionized as charged residues in ESI, as they retain residual excess charges after solvent evaporation and do not desorb from charged ESI droplets. However, their charge state is not determined by the Rayleigh limit of a droplet of similar size to the protein; rather, their final charge state is determined by the electric field-induced emission of small charged solute ions and clusters from protein-containing ESI droplets. This theory predicts that the number of charges on a protein in ESI should be directly proportional to the square of the gas-phase protein diameter and to E*, the critical electric field strength at which ion emission from droplets occurs. This critical field strength is determined by the properties of the excess charge carriers (i.e., the solute) in droplets. Charge-state measurements of native-state proteins with molecular masses in the 5–76 kDa range in ammonium acetate and triethyl ammonium bicarbonate are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and strongly support the mechanism of protein ESI proposed here.
Once hypoxic–ischemic (HI) injury ensues in the human neonate at birth, the resulting brain damage lasts throughout the individual’s lifetime, as no ameliorative treatments are currently available. We have recently shown that intracerebral transplantation of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) results in behavioral improvement and reduction in ischemic cell loss in neonatal rat HI-injury model. In an attempt to advance this cellular therapy to the clinic, we explored the more practical and less invasive intravenous administration of MAPCs. Seven-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats were initially subjected to unilateral HI injury, then 7 days later received intracerebral or intravenous injections of allogeneic rat MAPCs. On post-transplantation days 7 and 14, the animals that received MAPCs via the intracerebral or intravenous route exhibited improved motor and neurologic scores compared with those that received vehicle infusion alone. Immunohistochemical evaluations at day 14 after transplantation revealed that both intracerebrally and intravenously transplanted MAPCs were detected in the ischemic hippocampal area. The degree of hippocampal cell preservation was almost the same in the two treatment groups and greater than that in the vehicle group. These results show that intravenous delivery of MAPCs is a feasible and efficacious cell therapy with potential for clinical use.
transplantation; stem cells; neural progenitors; cell migration; animal behavior