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1.  External validation of risk classification in patients with docetaxel-treated castration-resistant prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2014;14:31.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients have poor prognoses, and docetaxel (DTX) is among the few treatment options. An accurate risk classification to identify CRPC patient groups for which DTX would be effective is urgently warranted. The Armstrong risk classification (ARC), which classifies CRPC patients into 3 groups, is superior; however, its usefulness remains unclear, and further external validation is required before clinical use. This study aimed to examine the clinical significance of the ARC through external validation in DTX-treated Japanese CRPC patients.
CRPC patients who received 2 or more DTX cycles were selected for this study. Patients were classified into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups according to the ARC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses and overall survival (OS) were calculated and compared between the risk groups. A multivariate analysis was performed to clarify the relationship between the ARC and major patient characteristics.
Seventy-eight CRPC patients met the inclusion criteria. Median PSA levels at DTX initiation was 20 ng/mL. Good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups comprised 51 (65%), 17 (22%), and 10 (13%) patients, respectively. PSA response rates ≥30% and ≥50% were 33%, 41%, and 30%, and 18%, 41%, and 20% in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectivcixely, with no significant differences (p = 0.133 and 0.797, respectively). The median OS in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001) at 30.1, 14.2, and 5.7 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that the ARC and PSA doubling time were independent prognostic factors.
Most of CRPC patients were classified into good-risk group according to the ARC and the ARC could predict prognosis in DTX-treated CRPC patients.
Trial registration
University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) number, UMIN000011969.
PMCID: PMC3997751  PMID: 24742323
Castration-resistant prostate cancer; Docetaxel; Risk classification; Validation study
2.  Approach via a small retroperitoneal anterior subcostal incision in the supine position for gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy: initial experience of 42 patients 
BMC Urology  2014;14:29.
Gasless laparoendoscopic single-port surgery (GasLESS) for radical nephrectomy (GasLESSRN) in the flank position is a minimally invasive treatment option for patients with T1–3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, RCC patients considered suitable for supine positioning rather than flank positioning for radical nephrectomy are occasionally encountered. This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of approach via a small retroperitoneal anterior subcostal incision (RASI) in the supine position for GasLESSRN (RASI-GasLESSRN) on the basis of our initial experience.
RASI-GasLESSRN was performed on 42 patients with RCC or suspected RCC from 2011–2013. The RASI, which was 6 cm long in principle, was made parallel to the tip of the rib from the lateral border of rectus abdominis muscle toward the flank in the supine position. The specimen was extracted via the RASI using a retrieval device. All procedures were performed retroperitoneally under flexible endoscopy with reusable instruments and without carbon dioxide insufflation or insertion of hands into the operative field.
RASI-GasLESSRN was successfully performed in all patients without complications. The mean incision length was 6.3 cm, mean operative time was 198 minutes, and mean blood loss was 284 mL. All 42 patients were classified as Clavien grade I. The mean times to oral feeding and walking were 1.1 and 2 days, respectively. The mean number of postoperative days required for patients to be dischargeable was 3.7 days.
The approach via a small RASI in the supine position for GasLESSRN is a safe and feasible technique. RASI-GasLESSRN in the supine position is an alternative minimally invasive treatment option, especially for RCC patients considered suitable for supine positioning.
PMCID: PMC3977956  PMID: 24708621
Retroperitoneal anterior subcostal incision; Supine position; Renal cell carcinoma; Radical nephrectomy; Laparoendoscopic single-port surgery; Gasless laparoendoscopic single-port surgery
3.  Involvement of magnitude of ambient temperature change in nonspecific effect in perceived placebo effect on lower urinary tract symptoms: study on switching of naftopidil in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia 
To determine if switching from one brand of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist naftopidil (Avishot™) to another brand (Flivas™) under the same conditions causes the same changes in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and quality of life (QOL) as the perceived placebo effect, and if ambient temperature as a nonspecific factor is related to those changes in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.
Patients and methods
A retrospective study was carried out on 217 BPH patients who had received Avishot™ for more than 6 months and then were switched to Flivas™ at the same dose and timing. The two drugs contain the same principal ingredient and display the same pharmacokinetic properties. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), QOL score, and average monthly ambient temperature at the patients’ residence area from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System in Japan were used for the evaluation.
A significant change in urinary storage symptoms (P = 0.006), and especially in nighttime frequency (P< 0.001), was observed by switching drugs, suggesting the perceived placebo effect. There was significant improvement of daytime frequency (P< 0.05), nighttime frequency (P< 0.001), storage symptoms (P< 0.001), and total IPSS (P< 0.05) when the magnitude of ambient temperature change from before and 3 months after switching drugs was higher than 10°C, while no significant improvement was noted in any of the parameters examined when the same was lower than 10°C.
The present study showed the nonspecific effect of magnitude of ambient temperature change was involved in the perceived placebo effect on LUTS, especially on storage symptoms, by switching drugs. The nonspecific effect on LUTS with BPH needs to be considered when evaluating subjective treatment efficacy of drugs for LUTS with BPH in routine clinical practice. The present study supports the lifestyle advice “avoid exposing the lower body to cold temperature” or “keep warm when it is cold” for LUTS with BPH.
PMCID: PMC3826939  PMID: 24400239
ambient temperature; benign prostatic hyperplasia; lower urinary tract symptoms; naftopidil; nonspecific effect; placebo effect
4.  Investigation of ejaculatory disorder by silodosin in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia 
BMC Urology  2012;12:29.
To assess the ejaculatory disorder caused by silodosin in the prostatic hyperplasia patients who carry out sexual actions (sexual intercourse, masturbation).
The subjects of this study were 91 patients who had been clinically diagnosed to have LUTS/BPH at this hospital, who were administered silodosin at 4 mg twice a day, and who gave response to a questionnaire survey related to ejaculatory disorder. Sexual intercourse and masturbation were regarded as sexual actions in this study.
Ejaculatory disorder occurred in 38 (42%) of the 91 silodosin administration cases. Forty (44%) of the 91 patients answered that they carried out sexual actions after oral intake of silodosin. When the investigation was conducted only in those who exercised sexual actions, ejaculatory disorder was observed in 38 (95%) of these 40 patients, indicating a high incidence. When asked if disturbed by the ejaculatory disorder, 29 (76%) of the 38 patients who had ejaculatory disorder answered yes. Oral silodosin was discontinued due to the ejaculatory disorder in 2 (5%) of these patients. On the whole, the discontinuation rate of oral silodosin was 2% (2/91 patients).
It was demonstrated that the administration of silodosin induced ejaculatory disorder at a high incidence. Since it is possible that the high frequency of ejaculatory disorder by silodosin may reduce QOL, it is considered necessary to provide sufficient information related to ejaculatory disorder at the time of treatment with silodosin.
PMCID: PMC3507909  PMID: 23082785
Silodosin; α1 blocker; Ejaculatory disorder; Adverse reaction; Sexual action
5.  Docetaxel with or without estramustine for estramustine refractory castration-resistant prostate cancer: a single institution experience 
BMC Urology  2012;12:3.
The significance of combination of docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine phosphate (EMP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of DTX with or without EMP and to elucidate the significance of DTX and EMP combination therapy in Japanese EMP-refractory CRPC patients.
To compare the efficacy and toxicity of DTX and EMP, we divided CRPC patients, who were confirmed to be resistant to EMP, into the following two groups: group D (n = 28), which included patients treated with DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) alone, and group DE (n = 33), which included patients treated with a combination of DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) and EMP (twice daily oral administration at 280 mg).
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response (> 50% decline in PSA) was observed in six patients (21%) in group D and eight patients (24%) in group DE. The median time to progression (TTP) was 12.0 months and 6.2 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.4 months and 24.3 months in group D and DE, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of PSA response, TTP, and OS. The incidence of adverse events of grade 3/4 was low in both the groups, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups.
Although treatment with DTX at 60 mg/m2 was effective and highly tolerated in EMP-refractory Japanese CRPC patients, the DTX and EMP combination therapy might not exhibit any survival benefit for CRPC patients.
PMCID: PMC3305626  PMID: 22353627
6.  Life-threatening acute acalculous cholecystitis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma treated by sunitinib: a case report 
Sunitinib, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor and has had a variety of adverse events. However, sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis has been reported in only two patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor and renal cell carcinoma (clear cell subtype).
Case presentation
A 75-year-old Japanese woman with a right sided abdominal swelling was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) showed a hypervascular bulky tumor in her right kidney, suggesting right renal cell carcinoma in clinical T4N0M0. Although sunitinib therapy was started as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, during the fourth week of the first cycle, she developed acute acalculous cholecystitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with sunitinib. Sunitinib therapy was discontinued immediately and she recovered after subsequent treatment with antibiotics and gabexate mesilate followed by percutaneous cholecystostomy. Cholecystectomy and right radical nephrectomy were performed and pathological examination showed that her renal tumor was a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (pT2) with necrosis. Inflammation and ischemia were observed in the gallbladder wall, which was compatible with acute acalculous cholecystitis. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence for more than six months.
We described the third case of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis in a patient with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Attention is required to sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis which, while uncommon, could be life-threatening.
PMCID: PMC3307430  PMID: 22348690
7.  Marked leukocytosis in response to estramustine phosphate in a hormone-refractory prostate cancer patient 
A 67-year-old man was refered to our institution with a complaint of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (54 ng/mL). Diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the prostate with a Gleason score of 9, with bone metastasis (stageD2). He was treated with maximal androgen blockade followed by estramustine phosphate (EMP) because of the progression to hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Leukocytosis over 20000/μL was repeatedly observed at each administration of EMP. This is the first case report of leukocytosis in response to EMP in an HRPC patient. The present case suggests that EMP could modulate leukocyte differentiation in HRPC patients.
PMCID: PMC3658217  PMID: 23754886
leukocytosis; neutrophilia; estramustine phosphate; hormone-refractory prostate cancer
8.  Magnetic resonance imaging as a clue to successful diagnosis of renal tuberculosis: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8879.
Computed tomography is considered as the imaging modality of choice in the diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis, while magnetic resonance imaging may provide some informative features corresponding to the pathologic stage of the disease. We herein present a case report where magnetic resonance imaging showed the informative features, and a clue to further examinations in focusing on renal tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC2769481  PMID: 19918351
9.  Different responses to two types of 5-fluorouracil prodrugs in combination with interferon-alpha in pulmonary metastases of renal cell carcinoma: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:6567.
A 66-year-old Japanese man with pulmonary metastases of renal cell carcinoma found 8 months after radical nephrectomy was treated with interferon-alpha and tegafur-uracil. Since it failed to achieve tumor responses resulting in progression, he was given interferon-alpha and capecitabine. After 2 courses of combination therapy with IFN-alpha and capecitabine, significant tumor responses were obtained; two out of four pulmonary metastatic sites disappeared completely, one site showed over 50% decrease in size, and the remaining one site did no change in size. The regimen was well tolerated and toxicity observed was World Health Organization grade 1 anorexia. His disease status was maintained as stable disease by the repeated treatment with interferon-alpha and capecitabine for 17 months after tumor responses were obtained. However, tumor progression was observed thereafter. He is at present under treatment with sorafenib. This is the first case report of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which showed different responses to two types of 5-fluorouracil prodrugs in combination with interferon-alpha, suggesting the biochemical modulation of capecitabine by interferon-alpha as a possible mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of the combination of interferon-alpha and capecitabine at the clinical setting. Present case also suggests that a combination of tumor-selective capecitabine with interferon-alpha is a potentially useful therapeutic option in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC2740210  PMID: 19829827

Results 1-9 (9)