In multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable B-cell neoplasm, mutation or deletion of p53 is rarely detected at diagnosis. Using small-molecule inhibitors of MDM2, we provide evidence that miR-192, 194 and 215, which are down-regulated in a subset of newly diagnosed MMs, can be transcriptionally activated by p53 and then modulate MDM2 expression. Furthermore, ectopic re-expression of these miRNAs in MM cells increases the therapeutic action of MDM2 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo by enhancing their p53-activating effects. In addition, miR-192 and 215 target the IGF pathway, preventing enhanced migration of plasma cells into bone marrow. The results suggest that these miRNAs are positive regulators of p53 and that their down-regulation plays a key role in MM development.
MicroRNAs expression is deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia, but the corresponding functional microRNA-controlled pathways are poorly understood. Integration of mRNA and microRNA expression profiling may allow the identification of functional links between the whole transcriptome and microRNome that are involved in myeloid leukemogenesis.
Therefore, here we integrated microRNA and mRNA expression profiles obtained from 48 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients by using two different microarray platforms and performed correlation, gene ontology and network analysis. Experimental validation was also performed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines using microRNA mimics oligonucleotides and functional assays.
Our analysis identified a strong positive correlation of HOX related genes with miR-10 and miR-20a. Furthermore, we observed a negative correlation between miR-181a and -181b, -155 and -146 expression with that of genes involved in immunity and inflammation (e.g. IRF7 and TLR4) and a positive correlation between miR-23a, miR-26a, miR-128a and miR-145 expression with that of pro-apoptotic genes (e.g., BIM and PTEN). These correlations were confirmed by gene ontology analyses, which evidenced the enrichment of members of the homeobox, immunity and inflammation and apoptosis biologic process, respectively. Furthermore, we validated experimentally the association of miR-145, miR-26a and miR-128a with apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia.
Our results indicate that by integrating the transcriptome and microRNome in acute myeloid leukemia cells is possible to identify previously unidentified putative functional microRNA-mRNA interactions in acute myeloid leukemia.
microRNA; networks; AML; microarrays
The involvement of the MET oncogene in de novo and acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been reported, but the precise mechanism by which MET overexpression contributes to TKI-resistant NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand the role of microRNAs in TKI-resistant NSCLC, we examined TK receptor-mediated microRNA changes. Here we report that miR-30b/c and miR-221/222, modulated by both EGF and MET receptors, and miR-103, -203, controlled only by MET, play important roles in gefitinib-induced apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NSCLC cells, in vitro and in vivo, by inhibiting the expression of Bim, APAF-1, PKC-ε and SRC genes. The finding suggests that modulation of specific microRNAs may provide a therapeutic approach for future treatment of NSCLC.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) outwardly appear to be indistinguishable from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A study of gene expression profiles of mouse and human ESCs and iPSCs suggests that, while iPSCs are quite similar to their embryonic counterparts, a recurrent gene expression signature appears in iPSCs regardless of their origin or the method by which they were generated. Upon extended culture, hiPSCs adopt a gene expression profile more similar to hESCs; however, they still retain a gene expression signature unique from hESCs that extends to miRNA expression. Genome-wide data suggested that the iPSC signature gene expression differences are due to differential promoter binding by the reprogramming factors. High-resolution array profiling demonstrated that there is no common specific subkaryotypic alteration that is required for reprogramming and that reprogramming does not lead to genomic instability. Together, these data suggest that iPSCs should be considered a unique subtype of pluripotent cell.
Short RNA molecules were considered to be junk for decades, but in recent years they have been shown to have important functional roles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in particular have attracted much attention. They have been assumed to be highly conserved in humans and other species; however, a recent study published in Genome Medicine reveals an unexpected level of variability in human miRNAs, including variations within the seed region. This challenges the current view of miRNAs, and may explain previous reports of pathogenic mutations in miRNAs.
See research article http://genomemedicine.com/content/4/8/62/abstract
MicroRNA; non-coding RNA; pathogenic mutations; variation
Treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with Ranpirnase (Onconase) results in disruption of protein translation and cell apoptosis. We hypothesize that Onconase acts via down regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKβ) by specific microRNAs (miRNA) and that interference of this pathway could have implications for MPM resistance to chemotherapy.
Three immortalized MPM cell lines (H2959, H2373, and H2591) were exposed to Onconase at 0–20 µg/mL. Cell counts were measured at 48 and 72 hours. Gene expression in miRNA-enriched RNA was validated by RT-PCR. The functional implications of miRNA expression were evaluated by transfecting miRNA mimics or inhibitors into MPM cell lines, and performing Matrigel™ invasion, cell proliferation, soft agar colony formation, and scratch closure assays. Effects on NFKβ expression and downstream targets including ABC transporters, BCL-xl, and IAP were assessed by RT-PCR and Western Blotting.
Treatment with 20µg/mL of Onconase significantly decreased cell count and invasion. Hsa-miR-17* was significantly upregulated and hsa-miR-30c significantly down-regulated by Onconase treatment in all cell lines. Forced expression of hsa-miR-17* mimic and hsa-miR-30c inhibitor each significantly decreased functional activity of Onconase in all assays. NFKB1(p50) expression and downstream targets were also decreased with Onconase treatment as well as with forced expression miRNA mimic and inhibitors.
Onconase treatment caused a significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion, and in expression of certain miRNAs. Recapitulation of the resultant miRNA expression pattern with hsa-miR-17* mimic and hsa-miR-30c inhibitor resulted in downregulation of NFKB1 and reduced malignant behavior in functional assays. Thus, Onconase likely exerts its anti-tumor effect through these miRNAs.
Mesothelioma; microRNA; multidrug resistance
By transactivating expression of miRNAs that repress expression of the ZEB1 and ZEB2 transcription factors, p53 inhibits the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
p53 suppresses tumor progression and metastasis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in tumor progression and metastasis. The transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 promote EMT. Here, we show that p53 suppresses EMT by repressing expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. By profiling 92 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 9 HCC cell lines, we found that p53 up-regulates microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-200 and miR-192 family members. The miR-200 family members transactivated by p53 then repress ZEB1/2 expression. p53-regulated miR-192 family members also repress ZEB2 expression. Inhibition or overexpression of the miRNAs affects p53-regulated EMT by altering ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. Our findings indicate that p53 can regulate EMT, and that p53-regulated miRNAs are critical mediators of p53-regulated EMT.
Loss of heterozygosity at the FHIT locus is coincident with activation of DNA damage response checkpoint proteins; thus damage at fragile loci may trigger checkpoint activation. We examined preneoplastic lesions adjacent to non-small cell lung carcinomas for alterations to expression of Fhit and activated checkpoint proteins. Expression scores were analyzed for pair-wise associations and correlations among proteins and type of lesion. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were positive for nuclear H2AX expression; 12/20 dysplastic lesions were negative for Fhit expression. Fhit positive lesions showed expression of most checkpoint proteins examined, while Fhit negative lesions showed absence of expression of Chk1 and phosphoChk1. The results show that loss of expression of Fhit is significantly directly correlated with absence of activated Chk1 in dysplasia, and suggest a connection between loss of Fhit and modulation of checkpoint activity.
Fhit; Preneoplastic lesions of lung; DNA damage response checkpoint; chromosome fragile sites; squamous dysplasia
Several lines of evidence have suggested that estrogen receptor α (ERα)–negative breast tumors, which are highly aggressive and nonresponsive to hormonal therapy, arise from ERα-positive precursors through different molecular pathways. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression, we hypothesized that they may have a role in ER-negative tumor formation.
Gene expression profiles were used to highlight the global changes induced by miRNA modulation of ERα protein. miRNA transfection and luciferase assays enabled us to identify new targets of miRNA 206 (miR-206) and miRNA cluster 221-222 (miR-221-222). Northern blot, luciferase assays, estradiol treatment, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to identify the miR-221-222 transcription unit and the mechanism implicated in its regulation.
Different global changes in gene expression were induced by overexpression of miR-221-222 and miR-206 in ER-positive cells. miR-221 and -222 increased proliferation of ERα-positive cells, whereas miR-206 had an inhibitory effect (mean absorbance units [AU]: miR-206: 500 AU, 95% confidence interval [CI]) = 480 to 520; miR-221: 850 AU, 95% CI = 810 to 873; miR-222: 879 AU, 95% CI = 850 to 893; P < .05). We identified hepatocyte growth factor receptor and forkhead box O3 as new targets of miR-206 and miR-221-222, respectively. We demonstrated that ERα negatively modulates miR-221 and -222 through the recruitment of transcriptional corepressor partners: nuclear receptor corepressor and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor.
These findings suggest that the negative regulatory loop involving miR-221-222 and ERα may confer proliferative advantage and migratory activity to breast cancer cells and promote the transition from ER-positive to ER-negative tumors.
Continual discoveries on non-coding RNA (ncRNA) have changed the landscape of human genetics and molecular biology. Over the past ten years it has become clear that ncRNAs are involved in many physiological cellular processes and contribute to molecular alterations in pathological conditions. Several classes of ncRNAs, such as small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-associated RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs and transcribed ultra-conserved regions, are implicated in cancer, heart diseases, immune disorders, and neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. ncRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and, given their molecular nature, they are thus both emerging therapeutic targets and innovative intervention tools. Next-generation sequencing technologies (for example SOLiD or Genome Analyzer) are having a substantial role in the high-throughput detection of ncRNAs. Tools for non-invasive diagnostics now include monitoring body fluid concentrations of ncRNAs, and new clinical opportunities include silencing and inhibition of ncRNAs or their replacement and re-activation. Here we review recent progress on our understanding of the biological functions of human ncRNAs and their clinical potential.
Chromosomal common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific mammalian genomic regions that show an increased frequency of gaps and breaks when cells are exposed to replication stress in vitro. CFSs are also consistently involved in chromosomal abnormalities in vivo related to cancer. Interestingly, several CFSs contain one or more tumor suppressor genes whose structure and function are often affected by chromosomal fragility. The two most active fragile sites in the human genome are FRA3B and FRA16D where the tumor suppressor genes FHIT and WWOX are located, respectively. The best approach to study tumorigenic effects of altered tumor suppressors located at CFSs in vivo is to generate mouse models in which these genes are inactivated. This paper summarizes our present knowledge on mouse models of cancer generated by knocking out tumor suppressors of CFS.
MicroRNAs are conserved, small (20–25 nucleotide) noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Aberrant expression of certain microRNAs plays a causal role in tumorigenesis. Here, we report identification of hepatic microRNAs that are dysregulated at early stages of feeding C57BL/6 mice choline deficient and amino acid defined (CDAA) diet that is known to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis after 84 weeks. Microarray analysis identified 30 hepatic microRNAs that are significantly (P≤0.01) altered in mice fed CDAA diet for 6, 18, 32 and 65 weeks compared to those fed choline sufficient and amino acid defined diet. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated upregulation of oncogenic miR-155, miR-221/222 and miR-21 and downregulation of the most abundant liver specific miR-122 at early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Western blot analysis showed reduced expression of hepatic PTEN and C/EBPβ respective targets of miR-21 and miR-155, in these mice at early stages. DNA binding activity of NF-kB that transactivates miR-155 gene was significantly (P=0.002) elevated in the liver nuclear extract of mice fed CDAA diet. Further, the expression of miR-155, as measured by in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR, correlated with diet-induced histopathological changes in the liver. Ectopic expression of miR-155 promoted growth of HCC cells whereas its depletion inhibited cell growth. Notably, miR-155 was significantly (P=0.0004) upregulated in primary human HCCs with concomitant decrease (P=0.02) in C/EBPβ level compared to matching liver tissues.
Temporal changes in microRNA profile occur at early stages of CDAA diet-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Reciprocal regulation of specific oncomirs and their tumor suppressor targets implicate their role in NASH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and suggest their use in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of liver cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs targeting multiple effectors of cell homeostasis and development, whose malfunctions are associated with major pathologies such as cancer. Herein we show that GAM/ZFp/ZNF512B works within an intricate gene regulatory network involving cell-cycle regulators, TGFβ effectors and oncogenic miRNAs of the miR-17-92 cluster. Thus, GAM impairs the transcriptional activation of the miR-17-92 promoter by c-Myc, downregulates miR-17-92 miRNAs differentially, and limits the activation of genes responsive to TGFβ canonical pathway. In contrast, TGFβ decreases GAM transcripts levels while differentially upregulating miR-17-92 miRNAs. In turn, miR-17, miR-20a and miR-92a-1 target GAM transcripts, thus establishing a feedback autoregulatory loop. GAM transcripts are also targeted by miRNAs of the let-7 family. GAM downregulates Drosha, the main effector of miRNA maturation in the nucleus, and interacts with it in a RNA-dependent manner. Finally, GAM modulates the levels of E2F1 and Ras, and increases apoptosis while reducing cell proliferation. We propose that GAM represents a new kind of vertebrate regulator aimed at balancing the opposite effects of regulators of cell homeostasis by increasing the robustness of gene circuitries controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and development.
During an immune response T cells enter memory fate determination, a program that divides them into two main populations: effector memory and central memory T cells. Since in many systems protection appears to be preferentially mediated by T cells of the central memory it is important to understand when and how fate determination takes place. To date, cell intrinsic molecular events that determine their differentiation remains unclear. MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, causing translational repression and/or messenger RNA degradation. Here, using an in vitro system where activated CD8 T cells driven by IL-2 or IL-15 become either effector memory or central memory cells, we assessed the role of microRNAs in memory T cell fate determination. We found that fate determination to central memory T cells is under the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs including miR-150, miR-155 and the let-7 family. Based on miR-150 a new target, KChIP.1 (K + channel interacting protein 1), was uncovered, which is specifically upregulated in developing central memory CD8 T cells. Our studies indicate that cell fate determination such as surface phenotype and self-renewal may be decided at the pre-effector stage on the basis of the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs. These results may have implications for the development of T cell vaccines and T cell-based adoptive therapies.
Background & Aims
Zinc-deficiency is implicated in the pathogenesis of human esophageal cancer. In the rat esophagus, it induces cell proliferation, modulates genetic expression, and enhances carcinogenesis. Zinc-replenishment reverses proliferation and inhibits carcinogenesis. The zinc-deficient rat model allows the identification of biological differences affected by zinc during early esophageal carcinogenesis.
We evaluated gene expression profiles of esophageal epithelia from zinc-deficient and replenished rats versus sufficient rats using Affymetrix Rat Genome GeneChip. We characterized the role of the top-upregulated gene S100A8 in esophageal hyperplasia/reversal and in chemically-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in zinc-modulated animals by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
The hyperplastic deficient esophagus has a distinct expression signature with the proinflammation-gene S100A8 and S100A9 upregulated 57- and 5-fold. “Response to external stimulus” comprising S100A8 was the only significantly overrepresented biological pathway among the upregulated genes. Zinc-replenishment rapidly restored to control levels the expression of S100A8/A9 and 27 other genes and reversed the hyperplastic phenotype. With its receptor RAGE, co-localization and overexpression of S100A8 protein occurred in the deficient esophagus that overexpressed NF-κB p65 and COX-2 protein. Zinc-replenishment but not by a COX-2 inhibitor reduced the overexpression of these 4 proteins. Additionally, esophageal S100A8/A9 mRNA levels were directly associated with the diverse tumorigenic outcome in zinc-deficient and zinc-replenished rats.
In vivo zinc regulates S100A8 expression and modulates the link between S100A8-RAGE interaction and downstream NF-κB/COX-2 signaling. The finding that zinc regulates an inflammatory pathway in esophageal carcinogenesis may lead to prevention and therapy for this cancer.
Expression of Fhit and Wwox proteins, tumor suppressors encoded by fragile loci FRA3B and FRA16D, are concordantly lost in breast cancers. The current study examined correlations among Fhit, Wwox, transcription factors AP2α and AP2γ, cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2 and their associations with breast cancer phenotypes.
Tissue microarrays constructed from 837 breast cancer blocks were immunostained. Expression in >10% of tumor cells was considered positive for cytoplasmic CK5/6, membranous EGFR, nuclear AP2α and AP2γ. Cytoplasmic Fhit and Wwox staining was scored according to staining intensity. ER, PR and HER2 status of tumors was from records. Correlations among immunohistochemical markers and tumor subtypes were assessed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods.
Triple negative tumors showed more frequent expression of EGFR, CK5/6 (p<0.001) and AP2γ (p = 0.003) and more frequent loss of Fhit and Wwox (p<0.001), with inverse correlation between Fhit, Wwox and EGFR, ER, PR expression (p<0.001). Reduced Fhit expression was more common in HER2 and AP2γ positive cases (p<0.001, p=0.002). There was direct correlation between Fhit and Wwox (p<0.001) and a borderline positive relation between AP2α and γ (p=0.054).
Results suggest that reduced Fhit, Wwox and nuclear AP2γ expression have roles in pathogenesis of basal-like differentiation in breast cancer. Alteration of expression of fragile site genes occurs in most of these cancers and may contribute to defects in DNA repair, as observed in BRCA1-deficient cancers. Thus DNA damage response checkpoint proteins could be targets for treatment.
breast cancer subtypes; triple negative breast cancers; common fragile sites; Fhit; Wwox; AP2 transcription factors
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are approximately 22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression in a sequence-specific manner via translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. Our recent studies showed that miRNAs exhibit genomic alterations at a high frequency and their expression is remarkably deregulated in ovarian cancer, strongly suggesting that miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of this disease. In the present study, we performed miRNA microarray to identify the miRNAs associated with chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer and found that let-7i expression was significantly reduced in chemotherapy-resistant patients (n = 69, P = 0.003). This result was further validated by stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-PCR (n = 62, P = 0.015). Both loss-of-function (by synthetic let-7i inhibitor) and gain-of-function (by retroviral overexpression of let-7i) studies showed that reduced let-7i expression significantly increased the resistance of ovarian and breast cancer cells to the chemotherapy drug, cis-platinum. Finally, using miRNA microarray, we found that decreased let-7i expression was significantly associated with the shorter progression-free survival of patients with late-stage ovarian cancer (n = 72, P = 0.042). This finding was further validated in the same sample set by stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-PCR (n = 62, P = 0.001) and in an independent sample set by in situ hybridization (n = 53, P = 0.049). Taken together, our results strongly suggest that let-7i might be used as a therapeutic target to modulate platinum-based chemotherapy and as a biomarker to predict chemotherapy response and survival in patients with ovarian cancer.
Motivation: Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) act as regulators of global protein output. While their major effect is on protein levels of target genes, it has been proven that they also specifically impact on the messenger RNA level of targets. Prominent interest in miRNAs strongly motivates the need for increasing the options available to detect their cellular activity.
Results: We used the effect of miRNAs over their targets for the detection of miRNA activity using mRNAs expression profiles. Here we describe the method, called T-REX (from Targets' Reverse EXpression), compare it to other similar applications, show its effectiveness and apply it to build activity maps. We used six different target predictions from each of four algorithms: TargetScan, PicTar, DIANA-microT and DIANA Union. First, we proved the sensitivity and specificity of our technique in miRNA over-expression and knock-out animal models. Then, we used whole transcriptome data from acute myeloid leukemia to show that we could identify critical miRNAs in a real life, complex, clinically relevant dataset. Finally, we studied 66 different cellular conditions to confirm and extend the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in cellular physiology and in cancer.
Availability: Software is available at http://aqua.unife.it and is free for all users with no login requirement.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
RNA interference through non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) represents a vital component of the innate antiviral immune response in plants and invertebrate animals; however, a role for cellular miRNAs in the defence against viral infection in mammalian organisms has thus far remained elusive1. Here we show that interferon beta (IFNβ) rapidly modulates the expression of numerous cellular miRNAs, and that eight of these IFNβ-induced miRNAs have sequence-predicted targets within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA. The introduction of synthetic miRNA-mimics corresponding to these IFNβ-induced miRNAs reproduces the antiviral effects of IFNβ on HCV replication and infection, whereas neutralization of these antiviral miRNAs with anti-miRNAs reduces the antiviral effects of IFNβ against HCV. In addition, we demonstrate that IFNβ treatment leads to a significant reduction in the expression of the liver-specific miR-122, an miRNA that has been previously shown to be essential for HCV replication2. Therefore, our findings strongly support the notion that mammalian organisms too, through the interferon system, use cellular miRNAs to combat viral infections.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. To test the hypothesis that there is a specific miRNA expression signature which characterizes male breast cancers, we performed miRNA microarray analysis in a series of male breast cancers and compared them with cases of male gynecomastia and female breast cancers.
Paraffin blocks were obtained at the Department of Pathology of Thomas Jefferson University from 28 male patients including 23 breast cancers and five cases of male gynecomastia, and from 10 female ductal breast carcinomas. The RNA harvested was hybridized to miRNA microarrays (~1,100 miRNA probes, including 326 human and 249 mouse miRNA genes, spotted in duplicate). To further support the microarray data, an immunohistochemical analysis for two specific miRNA gene targets (HOXD10 and VEGF) was performed in a small series of male breast carcinoma and gynecomastia samples.
We identified a male breast cancer miRNA signature composed of a large portion of underexpressed miRNAs. In particular, 17 miRNAs with increased expression and 26 miRNAs with decreased expression were identified in male breast cancer compared with gynecomastia. Among these miRNAs, some had well-characterized cancer development association and some showed a deregulation in cancer specimens similar to the one previously observed in the published signatures of female breast cancer. Comparing male with female breast cancer miRNA expression signatures, 17 significantly deregulated miRNAs were observed (four overexpressed and 13 underexpressed in male breast cancers). The HOXD10 and VEGF gene immunohistochemical expression significantly follows the corresponding miRNA deregulation.
Our results suggest that specific miRNAs may be directly involved in male breast cancer development and that they may represent a novel diagnostic tool in the characterization of specific cancer gene targets.
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. To evaluate the involvement of microRNAs in prostate cancer, we determined genome-wide expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in 60 primary prostate tumors and 16 non-tumor prostate tissues. The mRNA analysis revealed that key components of microRNA processing and several microRNA host genes, e.g., MCM7 and C9orf5, were significantly up-regulated in prostate tumors. Consistent with these findings, tumors expressed the miR-106b-25 cluster, which maps to intron 13 of MCM7, and miR-32, which maps to intron 14 of C9orf5, at significantly higher levels than non-tumor prostate. The expression levels of other microRNAs, including a number of miR-106b-25 cluster homologues, were also altered in prostate tumors. Additional differences in microRNA abundance were found between organ-confined tumors and those with extraprostatic disease extension. Lastly, we found evidence that some microRNAs are androgen-regulated and that tumor microRNAs influence transcript abundance of protein-coding target genes in the cancerous prostate. In cell culture, E2F1 and p21/WAF1 were identified as targets of miR-106b, Bim of miR-32, and exportin-6 and protein tyrosine kinase 9 of miR-1. In summary, microRNA expression becomes altered with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Some of these microRNAs regulate the expression of cancer-related genes in prostate cancer cells.
Prostate cancer; microRNA; gene expression profile
There are relatively few protocols described for the in situ detection of microRNA (miRNA) and they often use cryostat sections, signal amplification and hybridization or washes of 50−60 °C. This protocol describes in situ miRNA detection that can be done in paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue. Detection of the miRNA precursors can be done by RT in situ PCR, which can theoretically detect one copy per cell. The key variable for the RT in situ PCR protocol is optimal protease digestion, which is then followed by overnight DNase digestion and target specific incorporation of the reported nucleotide into the amplified cDNA. Detection of mature miRNAs is achieved by in situ hybridization with locked nucleic acid probes. This part of the protocol involves a brief protease digestion, followed by an overnight hybridization, short low stringency wash and detection of the labeled probe. The key variables for this method include probe concentration and stringency conditions. Each miRNA in situ method takes 1 d. The final step of the protocol involves colabeling by immunohistochemistry for the putative target of the miRNA, which is done after the in situ hybridization step and takes a few hours.
MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small (~21 nucleotide) noncoding RNAs that, in general, negatively regulate gene expression. Some miRs harboring CpG islands (CGIs) undergo methylation-mediated silencing, a characteristic of many tumor suppressor genes. To identify such miRs in liver cancer the microRNA expression profile was analyzed in hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cell lines treated with 5-azacytidine (DNA hypomethylating agent) and/or trichostatin A (histone deacetylase inhibitor). The results showed that these epigenetic drugs differentially regulate expression of a few miRs, particularly miR-1-1, in HCC cells. The CGI spanning exon 1 and intron 1 of miR-1-1 was methylated in HCC cell lines and in primary human HCCs but not in matching liver tissues. The miR-1-1 gene was hypomethylated and activated in DNMT1−/− HCT 116 cells but not in DNMT3B null cells, indicating a key role for DNMT1 in its methylation. miR-1 expression was also markedly reduced in primary human hepatocellular carcinomas compared to matching normal liver tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-1 in HCC cells inhibited cell growth, reduced replication potential and clonogenic survival. The expression of FoxP1 and MET harboring three and two miR-1 cognate sites, respectively, in their respective 3′-UTRs, was markedly reduced by ectopic miR-1. Upregulation of several miR-1 targets including FoxP1, MET and HDAC4 in primary human HCCs and downregulation of their expression in 5-AzaC-treated HCC cells suggest their role in hepatocarcinogenesis. The inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis following re-expression of miR-1 are one of the mechanisms by which DNA hypomethylating agents suppress hepatocarcinoma cell growth.
MicroRNA; miR-1; Microarray; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Methylation mediated suppression; MET; FoxP1; HDAC4
MicroRNAs have been implicated in the modulation of gene expression programs important for normal and cancer cell development. miR-155 is known to play a role in B-cell development and is upregulated in various B-cell lymphomas, including several that are latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We show here that EBV infection of primary human B lymphocytes leads to the sustained elevation of miR-155 and its precursor RNA, BIC. The EBV-encoded latency membrane protein 1 (LMP1) can partially reconstitute BIC activation in B lymphocytes but not in epithelial cell cultures. LMP1 is a potent activator of NF-κB signaling pathways and is essential for EBV immortalization of B lymphocytes. An inhibitor to miR-155 further stimulated NF-κB responsive gene transcription, and IKKɛ was identified as a potential target of miR-155 translational repression. Remarkably, miR-155 inhibitor reduced EBNA1 mRNA and the EBV copy number in latently infected cells. This suggests that miR-155 contributes to EBV immortalization by modulation of NF-κB signaling and the suppression of host innate immunity to latent viral infection.
Four hundred and eighty-one ultraconserved sequences (UCRs) longer than 200 bases were discovered in the genomes of human, mouse and rat. These are DNA sequences showing 100% identity among the three species. UCRs are frequently located at genomic regions involved in cancer, differentially expressed in human leukemias and carcinomas and in some instances regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we present UCbase & miRfunc, the first database which provides ultraconserved sequences data and shows miRNA function. Also, it links UCRs and miRNAs with the related human disorders and genomic properties. The current release contains over 2000 sequences from three species (human, mouse and rat). As a web application, UCbase & miRfunc is platform independent and it is accessible at http://microrna.osu.edu/.UCbase4.