Although HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for developing a variety of infection-related cancers, the prevalence of infections with the seven known cancer-associated viruses has not been studied. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems were used to evaluate antiviral antibodies in four 23-person groups: healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia (OLP), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Antibody profiling revealed that all HIV-positive individuals were strongly seropositive for anti-gp41 and antireverse transcriptase antibodies. However, anti-p24 HIV antibody levels were highly variable and some OLP and KS patients demonstrated weak or negative responses. Profiling two EBV antigens revealed no statistical difference in antibody levels among the three HIV-infected groups. A high frequency of KSHV infection was detected in HIV patients including 100% of KS, 78% of OLP, and 57% of NHL patients. Most HIV-infected subjects (84%) showed anti-HBV core antibodies, but only a few showed antibodies against HCV. MCV seropositivity was also common (94%) in the HIV-infected individuals and KS patients showed statistically higher antibody levels compared to the OLP and NHL patients. Overall, 68% of the HIV-infected patients showed seropositivity with at least four cancer-associated viruses. Antibody profiles against these and other infectious agents could be useful for enhancing the clinical management of HIV patients.
The Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) is an ongoing NIH-funded registry whose cohort ranges from those with symptoms of possible Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) to those with obvious disease. Using this database we examined associations between labial salivary gland (LSG) histopathology and other phenotypic features of SS.
LSG biopsy specimens from SICCA participants underwent protocol-directed histopathological assessments. Among 1726 LSG specimens exhibiting any pattern of sialadenitis, we compared biopsy diagnoses against concurrent salivary, ocular and serological assessments.
LSG specimens included 61% with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis, (FLS; 66% of which had focus scores [FS] ≥ 1 per 4 mm2) and 38% with non-specific or sclerosing chronic sialadenitis (NS/SCS). FS ≥ 1 was strongly associated with positive serum anti-SS-A/-B, rheumatoid factor and the ocular component of SS, but not with symptoms of dry mouth or eyes. Those with positive anti-SS-A/-B were 9 times more likely to have a FS ≥ 1 (95% CI: 7.4; 11.9) than FS<1 or another pattern, while those with unstimulated whole salivary flow < 0.1 ml/min were only 2 times more likely to have a FS ≥ 1 (95% CI:1.7; 2.8) than FS<1 or another pattern, while controlling for other phenotypic features of SS.
Distinguishing FLS from NS/SCS is essential in assessing LSG biopsies, before determining FS. A diagnosis of FLS with FS ≥ 1 per 4 mm2, as compared to FLS with FS< 1 or with NS/SCS, was strongly associated with the ocular and serological components of SS and reflects SS autoimmunity.
The challenge of controlling HIV infection involves an understanding of the heterogeneity of the virus, its wide cellular host range, its primary routes of transmission, and the immunologic and intrinsic cellular factors that can prevent its transmission and replication. Identification of HIV-infected individuals who have survived more than 10 years without signs of the infection and without therapy encourages studies examining the natural mechanisms for resistance to infection and disease. Within the immune system, emphasis should be given to the innate or natural response that appears within minutes of the infection and offers the optimal time for controlling HIV. All these parameters in HIV pathogenesis underline the information needed to develop optimal anti-HIV therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine.
HIV heterogeneity; innate immunity; intracellular antiviral activity
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), caused primarily by Candida albicans, is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Although Th1-type CD4+ T cells are the predominant host defense mechanism against OPC, CD8+ T cells and epithelial cells become important when blood CD4+ T cells are reduced below a protective threshold during progression to AIDS. In an early cross-sectional study, OPC+ tissue biopsied from HIV+ persons had an accumulation of activated memory CD8+ T cells at the oral epithelial–lamina propria interface, with reduced expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, suggesting a protective role for CD8+ T cells but a dysfunction in the mucosal migration of the cells. In a subsequent 1-year longitudinal study, OPC− patients with high oral Candida colonization (indicative of a preclinical OPC condition), had higher numbers of CD8+ T cells distributed throughout the tissue, with normal E-cadherin expression. In OPC+ patients, where lack of CD8+ T cell migration was associated with reduced E-cadherin, subsequent evaluations following successful treatment of infection revealed normal E-cadherin expression and cellular distribution. Regarding epithelial cell responses, intact oral epithelial cells exhibit fungistatic activity via an acid-labile protein moiety. A proteomic analysis revealed that annexin A1 is a strong candidate for the effector moiety. The current hypothesis is that under reduced CD4+ T cells, HIV+ persons protected from OPC have CD8+ T cells that migrate to the site of a preclinical infection under normal expression of E-cadherin, whereas those with OPC have a transient reduction in E-cadherin that prohibits CD8+ T cells from migrating for effector function. Oral epithelial cells concomitantly function through annexin A1 to keep Candida in a commensal state but can easily be overwhelmed, thereby contributing to susceptibility to OPC.
AIDS; Candida albicans; epithelial cells; T cells; mucosal immunity; cytokines
The AIDS pandemic continues. Little is understood about how HIV gains access to permissive cells across mucosal surfaces, yet such knowledge is crucial to the development of successful topical anti-HIV-1 agents and mucosal vaccines. HIV-1 rapidly internalizes and integrates into the mucosal keratinocyte genome, and integrated copies of HIV-1 persist upon cell passage. The virus does not appear to replicate, and the infection may become latent. Interactions between HIV-1 and oral keratinocytes have been modeled in the context of key environmental factors, including putative copathogens and saliva. In keratinocytes, HIV-1 internalizes within minutes; in saliva, an infectious fraction escapes inactivation and is harbored and transferable to permissive target cells for up to 48 hours. When incubated with the common oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, CCR5− oral keratinocytes signal through protease-activated receptors and Toll-like receptors to induce expression of CCR5, which increases selective uptake of infectious R5-tropic HIV-1 into oral keratinocytes and transfer to permissive cells. Hence, oral keratinocytes—like squamous keratinocytes of other tissues—may be targets for low-level HIV-1 internalization and subsequent dissemination by transfer to permissive cells.
HIV/AIDS; epithelia; oral epithelium; infectious disease; mucosal immunity; vaccines
In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses—gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection.
HIV; AIDS; viral; antiviral; innate immune system
The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, the largest HIV clinical trial organization in the world, and it is funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The alliance’s main objective is to investigate the oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving—in particular, the effects of potent antiretrovirals on the development of oral mucosal lesions and associated fungal and viral pathogens. Furthermore, oral fluids are being explored for their potential monitoring and diagnostic role with respect to HIV disease and coinfections. This article presents an overview of the alliance, its scientific agenda, and an outline of the novel interventional and noninterventional clinical studies ongoing and developing within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group infrastructure in the United States and internationally.
HIV/AIDS; OHARA; infectious diseases; AIDS Clinical Trials Group; oral cavity
With the advent of treatments and diseases such as AIDS resulting in increasing numbers of patients with suppressed immune systems, fungal diseases are an escalating problem. Candida albicans is the most common of these fungal pathogens, causing infections in many of these patients. It is therefore important to understand how immunity to this fungus is regulated and how it might be manipulated. Although work has been done to identify the receptors, fungal moieties, and responses involved in anti-Candida immunity, most studies have investigated interactions with myeloid or lymphoid cells. Given that the first site of contact of C. albicans with its host is the mucosal epithelial surface, recent studies have begun to focus on interactions of C. albicans with this site. The results are startling yet in retrospect obvious, indicating that epithelial cells play an important role in these interactions, initiating responses and even providing a level of protection. These findings have obvious implications, not just for fungal pathogens, but also for identifying how host organisms can distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microbes. This review highlights some of these recent findings and discusses their importance in the wider context of infection and immunity.
HIV/AIDS; mycology; innate immunity; oral epithelium; fungal pathogens
Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD.
Virus; salivary gland; HIV; DILS
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes hairy leukoplakia (HL), a benign lesion of oral epithelium that occurs primarily in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immunodeficiency. However, the mechanisms of EBV infection of oral epithelium are poorly understood. Analysis of HL tissues shows a small number of EBV-positive intraepithelial macrophages and dendritic/Langerhans cells. To investigate a role for these cells in spreading EBV to epithelial cells, we used tongue and buccal explants infected ex vivo with EBV. We showed that EBV first infects submucosal CD14+ monocytes, which then migrate into the epithelium and spread virus to oral epithelial cells, initiating productive viral infection within the terminally differentiated spinosum and granulosum layers. Incubation of EBV-infected monocytes and oral explants with antibodies to CCR2 receptor and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 prevented entry of monocytes into the epithelium and inhibited EBV infection of keratinocytes. B lymphocytes played little part in the spread of EBV to keratinocytes in our explant model. However, cocultivation of EBV-infected B lymphocytes with uninfected monocytes in vitro showed that EBV may spread from B lymphocytes to monocytes. Circulating EBV-positive monocytes were detected in most HIV-infected individuals, consistent with a model in which EBV may be spread from B lymphocytes to monocytes, which then enter the epithelium and initiate productive viral infection of keratinocytes.
Secreted aspartyl proteinases are putative virulence factors in Candida infections. Candida albicans possesses at least nine members of a SAP gene family, all of which have been sequenced. Although the expression of the SAP genes has been extensively characterized under laboratory growth conditions, no studies have analyzed in detail the in vivo expression of these proteinases in human oral colonization and infection. We have developed a reliable and sensitive procedure to detect C. albicans mRNA from whole saliva of patients with oral C. albicans infection and those with asymptomatic Candida carriage. The reverse transcription-PCR protocol was used to determine which of the SAP1 to SAP7 genes are expressed by C. albicans during colonization and infection of the oral cavity. SAP2 and the SAP4 to SAP6 subfamily were the predominant proteinase genes expressed in the oral cavities of both Candida carriers and patients with oral candidiasis; SAP4, SAP5, or SAP6 mRNA was detected in all subjects. SAP1 and SAP3 transcripts were observed only in patients with oral candidiasis. SAP7 mRNA expression, which has never been demonstrated under laboratory conditions, was detected in several of the patient samples. All seven SAP genes were simultaneously expressed in some patients with oral candidiasis. This is the first detailed study showing that the SAP gene family is expressed by C. albicans during colonization and infection in humans and that C. albicans infection is associated with the differential expression of individual SAP genes which may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.
Lymphocyte heterogeneity was studied in peripheral blood and salivary gland lesions in 24 patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Peripheral blood B cells, measured by immunofluorescence with specific antiserum to immunoglobulins or by rosette assay with complementcoated erythrocytes, were increased in most patients. Peripheral blood T cells, measured by immunofluorescence with rabbit antiserum to human thymocytes or by rosette assay with sheep erythrocytes, were reduced in eight patients. Three had associated rheumatoid arthritis, two had a generalized lymphoproliferative disorder, and one each had scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neuropathy.
The salivary gland lymphocytic infiltrates present in labial biopsy specimens were compared in 10 patients using an indirect immunofluorescent method with anti-human T cell serum and a quantitative focus-scoring method. In general, there was a correlation between the number of T cells and the extent of the infiltrate. Striking accumulations of T cells were present in some patients, but clusters of presumed B cells were also seen. These results indicate an increase in peripheral blood B cells in most patients, a decrease in T cells in some, and a mixed T and B cell infiltrate in the salivary gland lesions.