Hepatocyte transplantation; Injury; Rescue; Stem cells; Tissue engineering
Leukemia cutis is the term used for cutaneous manifestations of leukemia, which can have varied clinical presentations. A skin biopsy can help in diagnosing such condition and differentiating it from other skin diseases. We present a case where a 45 years old man presented with diffuse papulovesicular skin lesions mimicking dessiminated herpes. Further workup revealed patient having acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) and skin biopsy showed infiltration by myeloblasts. With chemotherapy patient went into remission and skin lesions healed.
Acute myeloid leukemia; Leukemia cutis; Myeloperoxidase
Transplanting pancreatic islets is of significant interest for type 1 diabetes mellitus. After intraportal injection of islets, inferior engraftment and eventual loss of transplanted islets constitute major limitations. Therefore, alternative approaches will be helpful. Here, we evaluated in animals whether an isolated venous sac would support survival of transplanted islets, along with correction of hyperglycemia.
Pancreatic islets isolated from adult Lewis rats were transplanted either into an isolated venous sac made from lumbar vein or into the portal vein of syngeneic rats. The integrity and vascular organization of the venous sac was determined by studies of the local microcirculation. The engraftment, survival, and function of transplanted islets were analyzed by histology, including endocrine function in situ and by glycemic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Transplanted islets showed normal morphology with insulin expression in isolated venous sac during the long term. Transplanted islets received blood supply from vasa vasorum and had access to drainage through venous tributaries in the venous sac. This resulted in restoration of euglycemia in diabetic rats. Removal of islet graft-bearing venous sac in diabetic rats led to recurrence of hyperglycemia. By contrast, euglycemia was not restored in rats treated by intraportal transplantation of islets.
We demonstrated that pancreatic islets successfully engrafted and functioned in the isolated venous sac with ability to restore euglycemia in diabetic rats. Therefore, the isolated venous sac offers a new site for transplantation of pancreatic islets. This would be clinically beneficial as an alternative to intrahepatic islet transplantation.
Islets; Pancreas; Intravascular transplantation
Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a common feature of human tumors and has been shown to enhance cancer progression. Several components of the miRNA biogenesis machinery (XPO5, DICER and TRBP) have been shown to act as haploinsufficient tumor suppressors. How the deregulation of miRNA biogenesis promotes tumor development is not clearly understood. Here we show that loss of miRNA biogenesis increased resistance to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death. We observed that HCT116 cells with a DICER hypomorphic mutation (Exn5/Exn5) or where DICER or DROSHA were knocked down were resistant to ER stress-induced cell death. Extensive analysis revealed little difference in the unfolded protein response (UPR) of WT compared to Exn5/Exn5 HCT116 cells upon ER stress treatment. However, analysis of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway showed that resistance occurred upstream of the mitochondria. In particular, BAX activation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential was attenuated, and there was altered expression of BCL-2 family proteins. These observations demonstrate a key role for miRNAs as critical modulators of the ER stress response. In our model, downregulation of miRNA biogenesis delays ER stress-induced apoptosis. This suggests that disrupted miRNA biogenesis may contribute to cancer progression by inhibiting ER stress-induced cell death.
The Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in immunity, tissue repair, and regeneration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the association of TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536858 (merged into rs10759931), rs1927911, and rs1927914 with increased diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping TLR4 SNPs in 125 T2DM patients with DFU and 130 controls. The haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs were determined using Haploview software. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was done to observe their predictability for the risk of DFU in T2DM patients. Risk genotypes of all SNPs except rs1927914 were significantly associated with DFU. Haplotype ACATC (P value = 9.3E − 5) showed strong association with DFU risk. Two haplotypes ATATC (P value = 0.0119) and ATGTT (P value = 0.0087) were found to be protective against DFU. In conclusion TLR4 SNPs and their haplotypes may increase the risk of impairment of wound healing in T2DM patients. ANN model (83%) is found to be better than the MLR model (76%) and can be used as a tool for the DFU risk assessment in T2DM patients.
Excretion of copper into bile requires the copper transporter Atp7b, which is deficient in Wilson disease. We hypothesized that a radiocopper–histidine complex would be effective for diagnosing Wilson disease by molecular imaging and tested this hypothesis in the Long–Evans cinnamon (LEC) rat model with Atp7b deficiency.
We complexed 64Cu to l-histidine and analyzed clearance from blood, uptake in tissues, and excretion in bile of healthy Long–Evans agouti (LEA) rats versus LEC rats modeling Wilson disease. Sixty-minute dynamic PET recordings were obtained in LEA and LEC rats. Possible effects of acute and chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride were studied in LEA rats. Atp7b deficiency in LEC rats was reconstituted by transplantation of healthy cells to establish the specificity of findings.
Examination of blood, tissue, and bile showed that in healthy rats, radiocopper was incorporated in the liver, followed by rapid excretion in bile. Corresponding blood, tissue, and bile studies in LEC rats showed incorporation of radiocopper in the liver but without copper excretion in bile, leading to hepatic retention of the radiotracer. PET showed onset of copper clearance in the liver of LEA rats, whereas liver copper content progressively increased in LEC rats during the 1-h period. Hepatic radiocopper excretion was not altered by either acute or chronic liver injury. In LEC rats with liver repopulation by transplanted healthy hepatocytes, excretion of radiocopper confirmed that Atp7b was responsible for this effect.
Imaging with the radiocopper–histidine complex successfully identified Atp7b-dependent biliary copper excretion. This principle will advance molecular imaging for Wilson disease.
Atb7b; positron emission tomography; radiocopper; Wilson disease
The global incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is rising. Significant morbidity leading to unacceptable cosmetic outcomes and/or functional impairment is a major concern. Search for non-surgical, non-invasive and tissue-sparing treatment modalities has led to development of new therapeutic agents. Actinic keratoses (AK) are one part of a continuous spectrum of benign sun damage to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Although it is not possible to predict which AK might progress to SCC, the presence of AK is a biomarker of risk for patients and must be treated to avoid possible morbidity and mortality. Ingenol mebutate is a novel topical drug from the latex sap of a plant-Euphorbia peplus that acts by chemoablative and immunostimulatory properties. Clinical studies have proven it to be safe and efficacious, leading to FDA approval of this chemotherapeutic agent for field therapy of AK in 2012. Current topical agents for field therapy of AK must be applied for weeks, whereas ingenol needs to be applied for three days. Ingenol offers a new therapeutic option that is convenient, safe, effective, acceptable and well-tolerated.
Actinic keratosis; ingenol mebutate; nonmelanoma skin cancer
Neuropathology centers are expected to offer a prompt and accurate intraoperative diagnosis regarding tumor/lesion type and grade on fresh unfixed tissue. Level of diagnostic accuracy according to type and grade and also, the experience at a new center has not been reported before.
The aim of this study is to review the agreement patterns according to tumor/lesion type and grade between intraoperative and final histopathologic diagnosis in central nervous system (CNS) lesion samples received by a newly established neuropathology center at a tertiary care neuropsychiatric hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Agreement between intraoperative and final histopathologic diagnosis was classified as: (I) Grade in agreement but type not in agreement; (II) grade not in agreement but type in agreement; (III) grade and type both not in agreement; (IV) grade and type both in agreement.
Confidence interval (CI) of agreements was calculated for various categories of neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic lesions. CI was also calculated for groups where n × p and n × (1 − p) were more than 5, i.e., fulfilled the requirement of the central limit theorem.
On retrospective analysis of 333 cases, 284 (85.3%) cases were categorized as neoplastic while 49 (14.7%) cases were categorized as non-neoplastic. Among the neoplastic lesions agreement was seen in 237 (83.5%) cases while 47 (16.5%) cases showed disagreement. Similarly in non-neoplastic category; 46 (93.9%) cases showed agreement while 3 (6.15%) cases showed disagreement. Of the non-neoplastic lesions, one case fell into the agreement category I, 2 in category III and 46 in IV. Among neoplastic lesions, there were 21 cases in agreement category I, 17 in II, 9 in III and 237 in IV. On analyzing the accuracy of intraoperative reporting according to tumor type, the break up was: - Astrocytic: 2 (I), 16 (II), 2 (III), 86 (IV); oligodendroglial: 8 (I), 1 (II); ependymal: 2 (III), 6 (IV); embryonal: 23 (IV); cranial and spinal nerve tumors: 2 (II), 21 (IV); choroid plexus tumors: 4 (IV); meningeal tumors: 3 (I), 1 (III), 49 (IV); metastatic tumors: 3 (I), 17 (IV); cysts (tumor-like conditions): 14 (IV); neuronal and mixed neuronal glial tumors: 1 (III); malignant lymphoma: 1 (III); sellar tumors: 17 (IV); and mixed gliomas: 5 (I).
This study identifies problem areas of CNS intraoperative reporting, in a new center, with reference to tumor typing and grading. It may forewarn upcoming centers of neuropathology about the potential problem areas of intraoperative reporting.
Central nervous system lesions; intraoperative reporting; new center
Studies of natural hepatitis B virus infection must be restricted to humans or primates due to viral species-specificity. Alternative hepadnavirus animal models, e.g., woodchuck hepatitis virus in captive woodchucks, are not convenient, while in transgenic mice hepatitis B virus or viral proteins are expressed permanently through integrated genomes. Availability of small animal models that are easily produced and permit rapid assays will be quite helpful.
We examined whether transplantation of human cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice will generate an appropriate mass of cells with hepatitis B virus replication.
HepG2 2.2.15 cells were transplanted intraperitoneally into NOD/SCID mice. Replication of hepatitis B virus and viral gene expression was determined by analysis of blood and transplanted tissues with viral DNA and hepatitis B core antigen expression. Interruption of viral replication was examined.
After intraperitoneal transplantation with microcarrier scaffolds, 2.2.15 cells engrafted and proliferated in the peritoneal cavity of NOD/SCID mice. Hepatitis B virus replicated in transplanted 2.2.15 cells as shown by hepatitis B core antigen expression. Moreover, viral particles were secreted into the blood. Hepatitis B virus replication was susceptible to conventional antiviral drug therapy, such as lamivudine, as well as experimental antiviral gene therapy with a synthetic mimic of an antiviral cellular microRNA.
Intraperitoneal transplantation of human cells rapidly provided reservoirs of hepatitis B virus in mice. This simple xeno-transplantation approach will be effective and convenient for studies of hepatitis B and other human viruses in vivo.
cell transplantation; hepatitis B virus; liver; replication; treatment
Organs from nonheart-beating donors are attractive for use in cell therapy. Understanding the nature of molecular perturbations following reperfusion/reoxygenation will be highly significant for nonheart-beating donor cells. We studied nonheart-beating donor rats for global gene expression with Affymetrix microarrays, hepatic tissue integrity, viability of isolated hepatocytes, and engraftment and proliferation of transplanted cells in dipeptidyl peptidase IV-deficient rats. In nonheart-beating donors, liver tissue was morphologically intact for >24 hours with differential expression of 1, 95, or 372 genes, 4, 16 or 34 hours after death, respectively, compared with heart-beating donors. These differentially-expressed genes constituted prominent groupings in ontological pathways of oxidative phosphorylation, adherence junctions, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, as well as other discrete pathways. We successfully isolated viable hepatocytes from nonheart-beating donors, especially up to 4 hours after death, although the hepatocyte yield and viability were inferior to hepatocytes from heart-beating donors, p<0.05. Similarly, although hepatocytes from nonheart-beating donors engrafted and proliferated after transplantation in recipient animals, this was inferior to hepatocytes from heart-beating donors, p<0.05. Gene expression profiling in hepatocytes isolated from nonheart-beating donors showed far greater perturbations compared with corresponding liver tissue, including representation of pathways in focal adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix-receptor interactions, multiple ligand-receptor interactions, and signaling in insulin, calcium, wnt, Jak-Stat, or other cascades. Conclusion: Liver tissue remained intact over prolonged periods after death in nonheart-beating donors but extensive molecular perturbations following reperfusion/reoxygenation impaired viability of isolated hepatocytes from these donors. Insights into molecular changes in hepatocytes from nonheart-beating donors offers opportunities for improving donor cell viability, which will advance utility of nonheart-beating donor organs for cell therapy or other applications.
Cell therapy; gene expression; hepatocytes; liver; nonheart-beating donor
Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.
Air pollution Delhi; control measures; health
The Government of India initiated a cash incentive scheme—Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)—to promote institutional deliveries with an aim to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR). An observational study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital of Madhya Pradesh, India, before and after implementation of JSY, with a sample of women presenting for institutional delivery. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the total number of institutional deliveries before and after implementation of JSY, (ii) determine the MMR, and (iii) compare factors associated with maternal mortality and morbidity. The data were analyzed for two years before implementation of JSY (2003-2005) and compared with two years following implementation of JSY (2005-2007). Overall, institutional deliveries increased by 42.6% after implementation, including those among rural, illiterate and primary-literate persons of lower socioeconomic strata. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia, pre-eclampsia and severe anaemia both before and after implementation of JSY. Anaemia was the most common morbidity factor observed in this study. Among those who had institutional deliveries, there were significant increases in cases of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage (APH), postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), and malaria after implementation of JSY. The scheme appeared to increase institutional delivery by at-risk mothers, which has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve child survival, and ensure equity in maternal healthcare in India. The lessons from this study and other available sources should be utilized to improve the performance and implementation of JSY scheme in India.
Conditional cash transfer; Institutional deliveries; Maternal mortality; Maternal survival; India
Background & objectives:
The presence of efficient malaria vectors namely Anopeles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. annularis (Diptera: Culicidae), rapid industrialization causing large influx of population and poor health infrastructure are some of the factors that make malaria an important public health problem in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand State, India. A geographical information system (GIS) based retrospective study using spatial statistical tools was initiated in 328 subcentres of 14 primary health centres (PHCs) of the district using malaria epidemiological data of three years (2007-2009) to identify spatial distribution pattern of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) occurrence, delineation of hot spots and to map directional distribution trend of Pf spread to help formulate evidence-based policy and to prioritize control during 2011.
Spatial statistics tools like Global Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* and Standard Deviational Ellipse were used in GIS domain for analysis.
Spatial distribution pattern of Pv occurrence was found random while Pf distribution was significantly clustered. During 2007-2009, the number of subcentres under Pf hot spot category exhibited downward trend while high Pf risk subcentres exhibited upward trend. One consistent Pf hot spot consisting of five subcentres was identified in Silli PHC. During 2009, one Pf hot spot consisting of 20 subcentres and 18 subcentres under high Pf risk category were identified in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs. A shifting trend in Pf spread was noticed from north-west to western direction from 2008 onwards.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The study recommended priority control in 20 Pf hot spot and 18 high Pf risk reporting subcentres including five consistent Pf hot spot subcentres in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs during 2011 to address grave malaria situation in the district in a cost-effective manner.
Cold spots; high risk; hot spots; spatial statistics; Standard Deviational Ellipse
The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care.
To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition.
Materials and Methods:
All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants’ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110–125 mg/dL.
Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3–21.5). It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3–23.7). It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women.
Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.
Awareness; diabetes; elderly; older persons; slum
The nature of host-virus interactions in hepatitis B virus infection is incompletely understood. Since soluble factors, e.g., cytokines and metals, may exacerbate liver injury in chronic hepatitis, we considered that defining the effects of receptor-mediated signaling upon viral replication will be significant. Consequently, we studied effects of iron or TGF-β-induced TGF-β/BMP signaling in the HepG2 2.2.15 cell model of hepatitis B virus replication. We found iron and TGF-β increased hepcidin mRNA expression or TGF-β receptor kinase activity, respectively, which indicated that 2.2.15 cells responded appropriately to these substances. However, iron increased but TGF-β decreased hepatitis B virus mRNA and DNA expression. TGF-β induced expression at the mRNA level of multiple TGF-β/BMP pathway genes. This change was not observed in iron-treated cells. On the other hand, presence of SMAD proteins in iron or TGF-β-treated cells, including of SMAD4, did confirm convergence of TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways under these conditions. Since transcription factors in TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways could not have directly targeted hepatitis B virus itself, we studied whether iron or TGF-β exerted their effects through alternative mechanisms, such as by involvement of antiviral cellular microRNAs. We discovered cellular microRNA expression profiles were significantly different in iron or TGF-β-treated cells compared with untreated control cells. In many cases, exposure to iron or TGF-β changed microRNA expression in opposite directions. Introduction in cells of sequences representing such differentially expressed microRNAs, e.g., hsa-miR-125a-5p and -151-5p, even reproduced effects on virus replication of iron- or TGF-β. We surmised that TGF-β/BMP pathway members, i.e., SMADs, likely governed iron or TGF-β-induced microRNA expression. Iron may have mediated Drosha/DGCR8/heme-mediated processing of microRNAs. In turn, cellular microRNAs regulated replication of hepatitis B virus in iron or TGF-β-treated cells. This knowledge should advance studies of mechanisms in viral-host interactions, hepatic injury, and therapeutic developments for hepatitis B.
The endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to accelerate the rate of adipogenesis and increase the amount of triglyceride accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate if that observation is mirrored in human primary cells. Here we investigated the effect of BPA on adipogenesis in cultured human primary adult stem cells. Continuous exposure to BPA throughout the 14 days of differentiation dramatically reduced triglyceride accumulation and suppressed gene transcription of the lipogenic enzyme, lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Results presented in the present study show for the first time that BPA can reduce triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis by attenuating the expression of LPL gene transcription. Also, by employing image cytometric analysis rather than conventional Oil red O staining techniques we show that BPA regulates triglyceride accumulation in a manner which does not appear to effect adipogenesis per se.
Exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) can give rise to the formation of various DNA damage products. Among them, d(G[8-5 m]T) can be induced in isolated DNA treated with Fenton reagents and in cultured human cells exposed to γ-rays, d(G[8-5m]T) can be recognized and incised by purified Escherichia coli UvrABC nuclease. However, it remains unexplored whether d(G[8-5 m]T) accumulates in mammalian tissues and whether it is a substrate for nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo. Here, we found that d(G[8-5 m]T) could be detected in DNA isolated from tissues of healthy humans and animals, and elevated endogenous ROS generation enhanced the accumulation of this lesion in tissues of a rat model of Wilson’s disease. Additionally, XPA-deficient human brain and mouse liver as well as various types of tissues of ERCC1-deficient mice contained higher levels of d(G[8-5 m]T) but not ROS-induced single-nucleobase lesions than the corresponding normal controls. Together, our studies established that d(G[8-5 m]T) can be induced endogenously in mammalian tissues and constitutes a substrate for NER in vivo.
We have studied the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and its isoforms in gall bladder cancer, cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Quantitative and qualitative assays of lactate dehydrogenase and its various isoforms were carried out in the blood sera of patients and healthy controls along with parallel estimation of various liver function test enzymes. Statistical analysis was done using the software Graph Pad Prism. Significantly high expression of lactate dehydrogenase along with alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin (P ≤ 0.05) was observed in all the three clinical conditions as compared to controls. LDH showed an increasing trend from stage I to stage IV of GBC indicating a significant positive association with the disease progression. The levels of LDH 3 and 4 isoforms appeared significantly more elevated in GBC than cholelithiasis or chronic cholecystitis. We suggest that a careful estimation of total LDH and its isoforms 3 and 4 alone or along with alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin during different clinical stages, like chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and GBC, may prove to be a potentially useful biomarker in the prognostic management of gall bladder diseases, specifically GBC.
Gallbladder cancer; Lactate dehydrogenase; Cholelithiasis; Chronic cholecystitis
The purpose of our study was to develop suitable methods to quantify oxidative DNA lesions in the setting of transition metal-related diseases. Transition metal-driven Fenton reactions constitute an important endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In genetic diseases with accumulation of transition metal ions, excessive ROS production causes pathophysiological changes, including DNA damage. Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper toxicosis due to deficiency of ATP7B protein needed for excreting copper into bile. The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat bears a deletion in Atp7b gene and serves as an excellent model for hepatic Wilson’s disease. We used a sensitive capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method in conjunction with stable-isotope dilution technique to quantify several types of oxidative DNA lesions in liver and brain of LEC rats. These lesions included 5-formyl-2′-deoxyuridine, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine, and the 5′R and 5′S diastereomers of 8,5′-cyclo-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8,5′-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine. Moreover, the levels of these DNA lesions in the liver and brain increased with age and correlated with age-dependent regulation of the expression of DNA repair genes in LEC rats. These results provide significant new knowledge for better understanding the implications of oxidative DNA lesions in transition metal-induced diseases, such as Wilson’s disease, as well as in ageing and ageing-related pathological conditions.
Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a self-limiting viral infection of skin and mucosa caused by Varicella zoster virus. Cutaneous lesions of HZ usually heal without any scarring and hyper/hypopigmentation. Though, post-inflammatory depigmentation and deep scarring can occur in immunocompromised or HIV positive individuals. The present report is of a elderly immunocompetent female who had HZ involving the ophthalmic division (including nasociliary branch) of trigeminal nerve. The lesions over nose caused mutilating scarring resulting in complete obstruction of the right anterior nare.
Elderly; herpes zoster; immunocompetent; necrodestructive
This study evaluated the potential of vascularized small intestinal segments for pancreatic islet transplantation.
We isolated islets from Lewis rats and transplanted these diabetic syngeneic rats. Vascularized segments of small intestine were fabricated with denudation of the mucosal layer followed by implantation of pancreatic islets into the segments. Animal groups were established to determine engraftment, survival and function of islets transplanted into either intestinal segments or portal vein over up to 60 days.
Transplantation of functionally intact pancreatic islets into small intestinal segments was well tolerated. Transplanted islets were rapidly reorganized in intestinal segments with vascularization and expression of insulin and glucagon, throughout the 60-day duration of the studies. Transplantation of islets restored euglycemia in diabetic rats, which was similar to animals receiving islets intraportally. Moreover, animals treated with islet transplants showed normal responses to glucose challenges. Removal of graft-bearing intestinal segments led to recurrence of hyperglycemia indicating transplanted islets were responsible for improved outcomes.
Vascularized intestinal segments supported reorganization, survival and function of transplanted islets with therapeutic efficacy in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. The approache described here will be appropriate for studying islet biogenesis, reorganization and function, including for cell therapy applications.
Islets; pancreas; portal vein; small intestine; transplantation
Studies from the UK and North America have reported vitamin C deficiency in around 1 in 5 men and 1 in 9 women in low income groups. There are few data on vitamin C deficiency in resource poor countries.
To investigate the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in India.
We carried out a population-based cross-sectional survey in two areas of north and south India. Randomly sampled clusters were enumerated to identify people aged 60 and over. Participants (75% response rate) were interviewed for tobacco, alcohol, cooking fuel use, 24 hour diet recall and underwent anthropometry and blood collection. Vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid. We categorised vitamin C status as deficient (<11 µmol/L), sub-optimal (11–28 µmol/L) and adequate (>28 µmol/L). We investigated factors associated with vitamin C deficiency using multivariable Poisson regression.
The age, sex and season standardized prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was 73.9% (95% confidence Interval, CI 70.4,77.5) in 2668 people in north India and 45.7% (95% CI 42.5,48.9) in 2970 from south India. Only 10.8% in the north and 25.9% in the south met the criteria for adequate levels. Vitamin C deficiency varied by season, and was more prevalent in men, with increasing age, users of tobacco and biomass fuels, in those with anthropometric indicators of poor nutrition and with lower intakes of dietary vitamin C.
In poor communities, such as in our study, consideration needs to be given to measures to improve the consumption of vitamin C rich foods and to discourage the use of tobacco.
Eyebrow threading is a practice of shaping the eyebrows. Many dermatological complications have been briefly mentioned in various publications. There are scant data regarding the appearance of molluscum in the line of eyebrows after a session of threading. We report a series of eight patients both males (3) and females (5) who had lesions of molluscum in the eyebrow region after threading. The earlier reported cases are only among the females. The present study is highlighting the appearance of molluscum in the region of eyebrow after a session of threading from beauty salon. So, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind describing same pathology in males. The rational of reporting this case series is to create awareness among the dermatologists as well as in general population about potential hazards of threading.
Beauty parlor dermatoses; males; molluscum contagiosum; threading