Pseudomonas fluorescence Pf0-1 requires the large repeat protein LapA for stable surface attachment. This study presents direct evidence that LapA is a cell-surface-localized adhesin. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a significant twofold reduction in adhesion force for mutants lacking the LapA protein on the cell surface compared to the wild-type strain. Deletion of lapG, a gene encoding a periplasmic cysteine protease that functions to release LapA from the cell surface, resulted in a twofold increase in the force of adhesion. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) revealed the presence of the LapA protein on the cell surface, consistent with its role as an adhesin. The protein is only visualized in the cytoplasm for a mutant of the ABC transporter responsible for translocating LapA to the cell surface. Together, these data highlight the power of combining the use of AFM and 3D-SIM with genetic studies to demonstrate that LapA, a member of a large group of RTX-like repeat proteins, is a cell-surface adhesin.
AFM; Adhesin; Biofilm; Weibull analysis; 3D-SIM
Bacterial aminopeptidases play important roles in pathogenesis by providing a source of amino acids from exogenous proteins, destroying host immunological effector peptides and executing posttranslational modification of bacterial and host proteins. We show that MHJ_0125 from the swine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae represents a new member of the M42 class of bacterial aminopeptidases. Despite lacking a recognizable signal sequence, MHJ_0125 is detectable on the cell surface by fluorescence microscopy and LC-MS/MS of (i) biotinylated surface proteins captured by avidin chromatography and (ii) peptides released by mild trypsin shaving. Furthermore, surface-associated glutamyl aminopeptidase activity was detected by incubation of live M. hyopneumoniae cells with the diagnostic substrate H-Glu-AMC. MHJ_0125 moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin, binding to both heparin and plasminogen. Native proteomics and comparative modelling studies suggest MHJ_0125 forms a dodecameric, homopolymeric structure and provide insight into the positions of key residues that are predicted to interact with heparin and plasminogen. MHJ_0125 is the first aminopeptidase shown to both bind plasminogen and facilitate its activation by tissue plasminogen activator. Plasmin cleaves host extracellular matrix proteins and activates matrix metalloproteases, generating peptide substrates for MHJ_0125 and a source of amino acids for growth of M. hyopneumoniae. This unique interaction represents a new paradigm in microbial pathogenesis.
Mycoplasma; aminopeptidase; moonlighting; plasminogen; heparin; homopolymeric complex
Cell-to-cell transmission of vaccinia virus can be mediated by enveloped virions that remain attached to the outer surface of the cell or those released into the medium. During egress, the outer membrane of the double-enveloped virus fuses with the plasma membrane leaving extracellular virus attached to the cell surface via viral envelope proteins. Here we report that F-actin nucleation by the viral protein A36 promotes the disengagement of virus attachment and release of enveloped virus. Cells infected with the A36YdF virus, which has mutations at two critical tyrosine residues abrogating localised actin nucleation, displayed a 10-fold reduction in virus release. We examined A36YdF infected cells by transmission electron microscopy and observed that during release, virus appeared trapped in small invaginations at the plasma membrane. To further characterise the mechanism by which actin nucleation drives the dissociation of enveloped virus from the cell surface, we examined recombinant viruses by super-resolution microscopy. Fluorescently-tagged A36 was visualised at sub-viral resolution to image cell-virus attachment in mutant and parental backgrounds. We confirmed that A36YdF extracellular virus remained closely associated to the plasma membrane in small membrane pits. Virus-induced actin nucleation reduced the extent of association, thereby promoting the untethering of virus from the cell surface. Virus release can be enhanced via a point mutation in the luminal region of B5 (P189S), another virus envelope protein. We found that the B5P189S mutation led to reduced contact between extracellular virus and the host membrane during release, even in the absence of virus-induced actin nucleation. Our results posit that during release virus is tightly tethered to the host cell through interactions mediated by viral envelope proteins. Untethering of virus into the surrounding extracellular space requires these interactions be relieved, either through the force of actin nucleation or by mutations in luminal proteins that weaken these interactions.
Traversing the plasma membrane of the host cell is a significant challenge for many viruses during the infection cycle, and the efficiency of detachment from the host cell and subsequent release can have implications in pathogenesis. Vaccinia virus exits cells through the loss of an outer membrane but remains attached via viral envelope proteins that mediate adhesion between the cell and virus. Here we report that actin filament nucleation by the viral protein A36 promotes the disengagement of virus attachment. Viruses unable to locally induce actin nucleation displayed significantly reduced release and particles were found trapped in small pits at the plasma membrane. Mutations in luminal viral proteins that disrupt attachment identified an alternative route to virus release, bypassing the requirement for actin nucleation. Our results suggest that untethering virus attachment to the cell surface is a rate-limiting step during exocytic release of vaccinia virus. We have elucidated that the force of actin nucleation is the primary mechanism that operates to relieve these interactions.
Skin and chronic wound infections caused by highly antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide, particularly with sharp increases in obesity and diabetes. New Zealand manuka honey has potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of MRSA strains, and bacteria resistant to this honey have not been obtainable in the laboratory. Combinational treatment of chronic wounds with manuka honey and common antibiotics may offer a wide range of advantages including synergistic enhancement of the antibacterial activity, reduction of the effective dose of the antibiotic, and reduction of the risk of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Medihoney in combination with the widely used antibiotic rifampicin on S. aureus. Using checkerboard microdilution assays, time-kill curve experiments and agar diffusion assays, we show a synergism between Medihoney and rifampicin against MRSA and clinical isolates of S. aureus. Furthermore, the Medihoney/rifampicin combination stopped the appearance of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus in vitro. Methylglyoxal (MGO), believed to be the major antibacterial compound in manuka honey, did not act synergistically with rifampicin and is therefore not the sole factor responsible for the synergistic effect of manuka honey with rifampicin. Our findings support the idea that a combination of honey and antibiotics may be an effective new antimicrobial therapy for chronic wound infections.
Treatment of chronic wounds is becoming increasingly difficult due to antibiotic resistance. Complex natural products with antimicrobial activity, such as honey, are now under the spotlight as alternative treatments to antibiotics. Several studies have shown honey to have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity at concentrations present in honey dressings, and resistance to honey has not been attainable in the laboratory. However not all honeys are the same and few studies have used honey that is well defined both in geographic and chemical terms. Here we have used a range of concentrations of clover honey and a suite of manuka and kanuka honeys from known geographical locations, and for which the floral source and concentration of methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide potential were defined, to determine their effect on growth and cellular morphology of four bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the general trend in effectiveness of growth inhibition was manuka>manuka-kanuka blend>kanuka>clover, the honeys had varying and diverse effects on the growth and cellular morphology of each bacterium, and each organism had a unique response profile to these honeys. P. aeruginosa showed a markedly different pattern of growth inhibition to the other three organisms when treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of honey, being equally sensitive to all honeys, including clover, and the least sensitive to honey overall. While hydrogen peroxide potential contributed to the antibacterial activity of the manuka and kanuka honeys, it was never essential for complete growth inhibition. Cell morphology analysis also showed a varied and diverse set of responses to the honeys that included cell length changes, cell lysis, and alterations to DNA appearance. These changes are likely to reflect the different regulatory circuits of the organisms that are activated by the stress of honey treatment.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in infants in developing countries. We have identified a functional type II secretion system (T2SS) in EPEC that is homologous to the pathway responsible for the secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin by enterotoxigenic E. coli. The wild-type EPEC T2SS was able to secrete a heat-labile enterotoxin reporter, but an isogenic T2SS mutant could not. We showed that the major substrate of the T2SS in EPEC is SslE, an outer membrane lipoprotein (formerly known as YghJ), and that a functional T2SS is essential for biofilm formation by EPEC. T2SS and SslE mutants were arrested at the microcolony stage of biofilm formation, suggesting that the T2SS is involved in the development of mature biofilms and that SslE is a dominant effector of biofilm development. Moreover, the T2SS was required for virulence, as infection of rabbits with a rabbit-specific EPEC strain carrying a mutation in either the T2SS or SslE resulted in significantly reduced intestinal colonization and milder disease.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that is involved in the regulation of multiple virulence systems of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intracellular concentration of cAMP in P. aeruginosa cells is tightly controlled at the levels of cAMP synthesis and degradation through regulation of the activity and/or expression of the adenylate cyclases CyaA and CyaB or the cAMP phosphodiesterase CpdA. Interestingly, mutants of fimL, which usually demonstrate defective twitching motility, frequently revert to a wild-type twitching-motility phenotype presumably via the acquisition of an extragenic suppressor mutation(s). In this study, we have characterized five independent fimL twitching-motility revertants and have determined that all have increased intracellular cAMP levels compared with the parent fimL mutant. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that only one of these fimL revertants has acquired a loss-of-function mutation in cpdA that accounts for the elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. As mutation of cpdA did not account for the restoration of twitching motility observed in the other four fimL revertants, these observations suggest that there is at least another, as yet unidentified, site of extragenic suppressor mutation that can cause phenotypic reversion in fimL mutants and modulation of intracellular cAMP levels of P. aeruginosa.
cAMP; tfp; type IV pili
Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction – the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.
Super resolution three-dimensional imaging reveals a new picture of how bacterial cell division proteins localize to the division site, including the formation of dynamic bead-like patterns, and explains how the division ring constricts.
FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome.
Because bacterial cells are so small, it is challenging to image the spatial organization of proteins inside them. All the proteins that orchestrate cell division in these organisms localize to the division site prior to division, but it has not so far been possible to obtain a clear highresolution three-dimensional picture of the dynamics of their localization. In this study we use a new type of super resolution microscopy called three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to analyze the localization of proteins involved in cell division in two types of bacteria that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the spherical Staphylococcus aureus. We show that FtsZ, a cytoskeletal protein that serves as a scaffold for the cytokinetic ring, localizes to the division site in a dynamic bead-like pattern, rather than a uniform ring as was previously proposed, in both types of bacteria. Our observations also provide an explanation of how this ring constricts to split a bacterial cell in two and suggests that this spatial organization of division proteins is conserved among bacteria and is crucial for the regulation of this central cellular process.
Increased signaling by Gi-coupled receptors has been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy. To investigate the mechanisms, we used transgenic mice that develop dilated cardiomyopathy after conditional expression of a cardiac-targeted Gi-coupled receptor (Ro1). Activation of Gi signaling by the Ro1 agonist spiradoline caused decreased cellular cAMP levels and bradycardia in Langendorff-perfused hearts. However, acute termination of Ro1 signaling with the antagonist nor-binaltorphimine did not reverse the Ro1-induced contractile dysfunction, indicating that Ro1 cardiomyopathy was not due to acute effects of receptor signaling. Early after initiation of Ro1 expression, there was a 40% reduction in the abundance of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (P < 0.05); thereafter, there was progressive impairment of both Ca2+ handling and force development assessed with ventricular trabeculae. Six weeks after initiation of Ro1 expression, systolic Ca2+ concentration was reduced to 0.61 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.07 μM for control (n = 6–8; P < 0.05), diastolic Ca2+ concentration was elevated to 0.41 ± 0.07 vs. 0.23 ± 0.06 μM for control (n = 6–8; P < 0.01), and the decline phase of the Ca2+ transient (time from peak to 50% decline) was slowed to 0.25 ± 0.02 s vs. 0.13 ± 0.02 s for control (n = 6–8; P < 0.01). Early after initiation of Ro1 expression, there was a ninefold elevation of matrix metalloprotein-ase-2 (P < 0.01), which is known to cause myofilament injury. Consistent with this, 6 wk after initiation of Ro1 expression, Ca2+-saturated myofilament force in skinned trabeculae was reduced to 21 ± 2 vs. 38 ± 0.1 mN/mm2 for controls (n = 3; P < 0.01). Furthermore, electron micrographs revealed extensive myofilament damage. These findings may have implications for some forms of human heart failure in which increased activity of Gi-coupled receptors leads to impaired Ca2+ handling and myofilament injury, contributing to impaired ventricular pump function and heart failure.
matrix metalloproteinase-2; sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase; contraction; κ-opioid receptor; conditional expression
Actin dynamics have been implicated in a variety of developmental processes during the malaria parasite lifecycle. Parasite motility, in particular, is thought to critically depend on an actomyosin motor located in the outer pellicle of the parasite cell. Efforts to understand the diverse roles actin plays have, however, been hampered by an inability to detect microfilaments under native conditions. To visualise the spatial dynamics of actin we generated a parasite-specific actin antibody that shows preferential recognition of filamentous actin and applied this tool to different lifecycle stages (merozoites, sporozoites and ookinetes) of the human and mouse malaria parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and P. berghei along with tachyzoites from the related apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Actin filament distribution was found associated with three core compartments: the nuclear periphery, pellicular membranes of motile or invasive parasite forms and in a ring-like distribution at the tight junction during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes in both human and mouse malaria parasites. Localisation at the nuclear periphery is consistent with an emerging role of actin in facilitating parasite gene regulation. During invasion, we show that the actin ring at the parasite-host cell tight junction is dependent on dynamic filament turnover. Super-resolution imaging places this ring posterior to, and not concentric with, the junction marker rhoptry neck protein 4. This implies motor force relies on the engagement of dynamic microfilaments at zones of traction, though not necessarily directly through receptor-ligand interactions at sites of adhesion during invasion. Combined, these observations extend current understanding of the diverse roles actin plays in malaria parasite development and apicomplexan cell motility, in particular refining understanding on the linkage of the internal parasite gliding motor with the extra-cellular milieu.
The most deadly of the human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, has different stages specialized for invasion of hepatocytes, erythrocytes, and the mosquito gut wall. In each case, host cell invasion is powered by an actin-myosin motor complex that is linked to an inner membrane complex (IMC) via a membrane anchor called the glideosome-associated protein 50 (PfGAP50). We generated P. falciparum transfectants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras of PfGAP50 (PfGAP50-GFP). Using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence photobleaching, we show that C-terminally tagged PfGAP50-GFP can form a complex with endogenous copies of the linker protein PfGAP45 and the myosin A tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP). Full-length PfGAP50-GFP is located in the endoplasmic reticulum in early-stage parasites and then redistributes to apical caps during the formation of daughter merozoites. In the final stage of schizogony, the PfGAP50-GFP profile extends further around the merozoite surface. Three-dimensional (3D) structured illumination microscopy reveals the early-stage IMC as a doubly punctured flat ellipsoid that separates to form claw-shaped apposed structures. A GFP fusion of PfGAP50 lacking the C-terminal membrane anchor is misdirected to the parasitophorous vacuole. Replacement of the acid phosphatase homology domain of PfGAP50 with GFP appears to allow correct trafficking of the chimera but confers a growth disadvantage.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), adapts for survival in the CF lung through both mutation and gene expression changes. Frequent clonal strains such as the Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1), have increased ability to establish infection in the CF lung and to superimpose and replace infrequent clonal strains. Little is known about the factors underpinning these properties. Analysis has been hampered by lack of expression array templates containing CF-strain specific genes. We sequenced the genome of an acute infection AES-1 isolate from a CF infant (AES-1R) and constructed a non-redundant micro-array (PANarray) comprising AES-1R and seven other sequenced P. aeruginosa genomes. The unclosed AES-1R genome comprised 6.254Mbp and contained 6957 putative genes, including 338 not found in the other seven genomes. The PANarray contained 12,543 gene probe spots; comprising 12,147 P. aeruginosa gene probes, 326 quality-control probes and 70 probes for non-P. aeruginosa genes, including phage and plant genes. We grew AES-1R and its isogenic pair AES-1M, taken from the same patient 10.5 years later and not eradicated in the intervening period, in our validated artificial sputum medium (ASMDM) and used the PANarray to compare gene expression of both in duplicate. 675 genes were differentially expressed between the isogenic pairs, including upregulation of alginate, biofilm, persistence genes and virulence-related genes such as dihydroorotase, uridylate kinase and cardiolipin synthase, in AES-1M. Non-PAO1 genes upregulated in AES-1M included pathogenesis-related (PAGI-5) genes present in strains PACS2 and PA7, and numerous phage genes. Elucidation of these genes' roles could lead to targeted treatment strategies for chronically infected CF patients.
The recent resurgence of invasive group A streptococcal disease has been paralleled by the emergence of the M1T1 clone. Recently, invasive disease initiation to has been linked to mutations in the covR/S two-compnent regulator. Here we investigate if a fitness cost is associated with covS mutation that counterbalances hypervirulence.
Wild-type M1T1 GAS and an isogenic covS mutant derived from animal passage were compared for adherence to human laryngeal epithelial cells, keratinocytes or fibronectin, biofilm formation, and binding to intact mouse skin. Targeted mutagenesis of capsule expression from both strains was performed for analysis of its unique contribution to the observed phenotypes.
The covS mutant bacteria showed reduced capacity to bind to epithelial cell layers as a consequence of increased capsule expression. The covS mutant strain also had reduced capacity to bind fibronectin and to form biofilms on plastic and epithelial cell layers. A defect in skin adherence of the covS mutant strain was demonstrated in a murine model.
Reduced colonization capacity provides a potential explanation as to why the covS mutation conferring hypervirulence has not become fixed in the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS clone, but rather may arise anew under innate immune selection in individual patients.
Chronic lung infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with worsening lung function, increased hospitalisation and reduced life expectancy. A virulent clonal strain of P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain I; AES-I) has been found to be widespread in CF patients in eastern Australia.
Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify genetic sequences that are present in the AES-I strain but absent from the sequenced reference strain PAO1. We used PCR to evaluate the distribution of several of the AES-I loci amongst a collection of 188 P. aeruginosa isolates which was comprised of 35 AES-I isolates (as determined by PFGE), 78 non-AES-I CF isolates including other epidemic CF strains as well as 69 P. aeruginosa isolates from other clinical and environmental sources.
We have identified a unique AES-I genetic locus that is present in all 35 AES-I isolates tested and not present in any of the other 153 P. aeruginosa strains examined. We have used this unique AES-I locus to develop a diagnostic PCR and a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa and AES-I in patient sputum samples.
We have developed diagnostic PCR assays that are 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the P. aeruginosa strain AES-I. We have also shown that Whatman FTA® Elute cards may be used with PCR-based assays to rapidly detect the presence of P. aeruginosa strains in CF sputum.
Type IV fimbriae are essential virulence factors of Dichelobacter nodosus, the principal causative agent of ovine foot rot. The fimA fimbrial subunit gene is required for virulence, but fimA mutants exhibit several phenotypic changes and it is not certain if the effects on virulence result from the loss of type IV fimbria-mediated twitching motility, cell adherence, or reduced protease secretion. We showed that mutation of either the pilT or pilU gene eliminated the ability to carry out twitching motility. However, the pilT mutants displayed decreased adhesion to epithelial cells and reduced protease secretion, whereas the pilU mutants had wild-type levels of extracellular protease secretion and adherence. These data provided evidence that PilT is required for the type IV fimbria-dependent protease secretion pathway in D. nodosus. It was postulated that sufficient fimbrial retraction must occur in the pilU mutants to allow protease secretion, but not twitching motility, to take place. Although no cell movement was detected in a pilU mutant of D. nodosus, aberrant motion was detected in an equivalent mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These observations explain how in D. nodosus protease secretion can occur in a pilU mutant but not in a pilT mutant. In addition, virulence studies with sheep showed that both the pilT and pilU mutants were avirulent, providing evidence that mutation of the type IV fimbrial system affects virulence by eliminating twitching motility, not by altering cell adherence or protease secretion.
An α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonist increased heart failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), but it is unknown whether this adverse result was due to α1-AR inhibition or a nonspecific drug effect. We studied cardiac pressure overload in mice with double KO of the 2 main α1-AR subtypes in the heart, α1A (Adra1a) and α1B (Adra1b). At 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC), KO mouse survival was only 60% of WT, and surviving KO mice had lower ejection fractions and larger end-diastolic volumes than WT mice. Mechanistically, final heart weight and myocyte cross-sectional area were the same after TAC in KO and WT mice. However, KO hearts after TAC had increased interstitial fibrosis, increased apoptosis, and failed induction of the fetal hypertrophic genes. Before TAC, isolated KO myocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis after oxidative and β-AR stimulation, and β-ARs were desensitized. Thus, α1-AR deletion worsens dilated cardiomyopathy after pressure overload, by multiple mechanisms, indicating that α1-signaling is required for cardiac adaptation. These results suggest that the adverse cardiac effects of α1-antagonists in clinical trials are due to loss of α1-signaling in myocytes, emphasizing concern about clinical use of α1-antagonists, and point to a revised perspective on sympathetic activation in heart failure.
Export of proteins into the infected erythrocyte is critical for malaria parasite survival. The majority of effector proteins are thought to export via a proteinaceous translocon, resident in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding the parasite. Identification of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins and its biochemical association with exported proteins suggests it performs this role. Direct evidence for this, however, is lacking. Here using viable purified Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy, we investigate remodelling events immediately following parasite invasion. We show that multiple complexes of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins localize together in foci that dynamically change in clustering behaviour. Furthermore, we provide conclusive evidence of spatial association between exported proteins and exported protein 2, a core component of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins, during native conditions and upon generation of translocation intermediates. These data provide the most direct cellular evidence to date that protein export occurs at regions of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane housing the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins complex.
During red blood cell infection, malaria parasites export hundreds of proteins that remodel the host cell surface. Cowman and colleagues identify a putative protein translocator complex spatially associated with exported proteins, revealing the cellular domains involved in protein export.