PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-8 (8)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  A diagnostic PCR assay for the detection of an Australian epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Background
Chronic lung infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with worsening lung function, increased hospitalisation and reduced life expectancy. A virulent clonal strain of P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain I; AES-I) has been found to be widespread in CF patients in eastern Australia.
Methods
Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify genetic sequences that are present in the AES-I strain but absent from the sequenced reference strain PAO1. We used PCR to evaluate the distribution of several of the AES-I loci amongst a collection of 188 P. aeruginosa isolates which was comprised of 35 AES-I isolates (as determined by PFGE), 78 non-AES-I CF isolates including other epidemic CF strains as well as 69 P. aeruginosa isolates from other clinical and environmental sources.
Results
We have identified a unique AES-I genetic locus that is present in all 35 AES-I isolates tested and not present in any of the other 153 P. aeruginosa strains examined. We have used this unique AES-I locus to develop a diagnostic PCR and a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa and AES-I in patient sputum samples.
Conclusions
We have developed diagnostic PCR assays that are 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the P. aeruginosa strain AES-I. We have also shown that Whatman FTA® Elute cards may be used with PCR-based assays to rapidly detect the presence of P. aeruginosa strains in CF sputum.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-9-18
PMCID: PMC2912777  PMID: 20637114
2.  Lack of Insertional-Deletional Polymorphism in a Collection of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates from Ghanaian Buruli Ulcer Patients▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(11):3640-3646.
Mycobacterium ulcerans causes the devastating infectious skin disease Buruli ulcer and has a monomorphic population structure. The resolution of conventional genetic fingerprinting methods is therefore not sufficient for microepidemiological studies aiming to characterize transmission pathways. In a previous comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a microarray covering part of the M. ulcerans genome, we have found extensive insertional-deletional sequence polymorphisms among M. ulcerans isolates of diverse geographic origins that allowed us to distinguish between strains coming from different continents. Since large numbers of insertion sequences are spread over the genome of African M. ulcerans strains, we reasoned that these may drive large sequence polymorphisms in otherwise clonal local mycobacterial populations. In this study, we used a printed DNA microarray covering the whole genome of the Ghanaian M. ulcerans reference strain Agy99 for comparative genomic hybridization. The assay identified multiple regions of difference when DNA of a Japanese M. ulcerans strain was analyzed. In contrast, not a single insertional-deletional genomic variation was found within a panel of disease isolates coming from an area of Ghana where Buruli ulcer is endemic. These results indicate that, despite the expectations deduced from other mycobacterial pathogens, only analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms will have the potential to differentiate local populations of M. ulcerans.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00760-09
PMCID: PMC2772640  PMID: 19726605
3.  Mycolactones: immunosuppressive and cytotoxic polyketides produced by aquatic mycobacteria 
Natural product reports  2008;25(3):447-454.
Mycolactones are a family of highly related macrocyclic polyketides that exhibit immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties. First discovered in 1999, they are the primary virulence factors produced by the environmental human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, and by some closely-related aquatic mycobacteria that cause disease in fish and frogs. Mycolactones are characterized by a common 12-membered lactone core to which is appended an unsaturated fatty acyl side-chain of variable length and oxidation state. This Highlight summarizes recent progress in understanding the structural diversity of the mycolactones, their biological activity and mode of action in mammalian cells, and the genetics, evolution, and enzymology of their biosynthesis.
doi:10.1039/b803101k
PMCID: PMC2730631  PMID: 18497894
4.  A Novel Mycolactone Toxin Obtained by Biosynthetic Engineering 
Chembiochem  2007;8(17):2043-2047.
doi:10.1002/cbic.200700411
PMCID: PMC2699038  PMID: 17907121
Buruli ulcer; cytochromes; genetic engineering; Mycobacterium ulcerans; mycolactones
5.  Mycolactones: immunosuppressive and cytotoxic polyketides produced by aquatic mycobacteria 
Natural Product Reports  2008;25(3):447-454.
Mycolactone structural variants, produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans and related mycobacteria, are caused by rearrangements among the highly homologous domains and modules within the MlsB polyketide megasynthase, that in turn alter the immunosuppressive and cytotoxic potency of these natural products.
Covering: up to January 2008
Mycolactones are a family of highly related macrocyclic polyketides that exhibit immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties. First discovered in 1999, they are the primary virulence factors produced by the environmental human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, and by some closely-related aquatic mycobacteria that cause disease in fish and frogs. Mycolactones are characterized by a common 12-membered lactone core to which is appended an unsaturated fatty acyl side-chain of variable length and oxidation state. This Highlight summarizes recent progress in understanding the structural diversity of the mycolactones, their biological activity and mode of action in mammalian cells, and the genetics, evolution, and enzymology of their biosynthesis.
doi:10.1039/b803101k
PMCID: PMC2730631  PMID: 18497894
7.  Evolution of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of the emerging human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans 
Background
Comparative genomics has greatly improved our understanding of the evolution of pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we have used data from a genome microarray analysis to explore insertion-deletion (InDel) polymorphism among a diverse strain collection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the devastating skin disease, Buruli ulcer. Detailed analysis of large sequence polymorphisms in twelve regions of difference (RDs), comprising irreversible genetic markers, enabled us to refine the phylogenetic succession within M. ulcerans, to define features of a hypothetical M. ulcerans most recent common ancestor and to confirm its origin from Mycobacterium marinum.
Results
M. ulcerans has evolved into five InDel haplotypes that separate into two distinct lineages: (i) the "classical" lineage including the most pathogenic genotypes – those that come from Africa, Australia and South East Asia; and (ii) an "ancestral" M. ulcerans lineage comprising strains from Asia (China/Japan), South America and Mexico. The ancestral lineage is genetically closer to the progenitor M. marinum in both RD composition and DNA sequence identity, whereas the classical lineage has undergone major genomic rearrangements.
Conclusion
Results of the InDel analysis are in complete accord with recent multi-locus sequence analysis and indicate that M. ulcerans has passed through at least two major evolutionary bottlenecks since divergence from M. marinum. The classical lineage shows more pronounced reductive evolution than the ancestral lineage, suggesting that there may be differences in the ecology between the two lineages. These findings improve the understanding of the adaptive evolution and virulence of M. ulcerans and pathogenic mycobacteria in general and will facilitate the development of new tools for improved diagnostics and molecular epidemiology.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-177
PMCID: PMC2098775  PMID: 17900363
8.  Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Other Mycolactone-Producing Mycobacteria from a Common Mycobacterium marinum Progenitor▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;189(5):2021-2029.
It had been assumed that production of the cytotoxic polyketide mycolactone was strictly associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. However, a recent study has uncovered a broader distribution of mycolactone-producing mycobacteria (MPM) that includes mycobacteria cultured from diseased fish and frogs in the United States and from diseased fish in the Red and Mediterranean Seas. All of these mycobacteria contain versions of the M. ulcerans pMUM plasmid, produce mycolactones, and show a high degree of genetic relatedness to both M. ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum. Here, we show by multiple genetic methods, including multilocus sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, that all MPM have evolved from a common M. marinum progenitor to form a genetically cohesive group among a more diverse assemblage of M. marinum strains. Like M. ulcerans, the fish and frog MPM show multiple copies of the insertion sequence IS2404. Comparisons of pMUM and chromosomal gene sequences demonstrate that plasmid acquisition and the subsequent ability to produce mycolactone were probably the key drivers of speciation. Ongoing evolution among MPM has since produced at least two genetically distinct ecotypes that can be broadly divided into those typically causing disease in ectotherms (but also having a high zoonotic potential) and those causing disease in endotherms, such as humans.
doi:10.1128/JB.01442-06
PMCID: PMC1855710  PMID: 17172337

Results 1-8 (8)