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1.  Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication 
Nature biotechnology  2014;32(7):656-662.
The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement.
PMCID: PMC4113729  PMID: 24908277
2.  Paleo-evolutionary plasticity of plant disease resistance genes 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:187.
The recent access to a large set of genome sequences, combined with a robust evolutionary scenario of modern monocot (i.e. grasses) and eudicot (i.e. rosids) species from their founder ancestors, offered the opportunity to gain insights into disease resistance genes (R-genes) evolutionary plasticity.
We unravel in the current article (i) a R-genes repertoire consisting in 7883 for monocots and 15758 for eudicots, (ii) a contrasted R-genes conservation with 23.8% for monocots and 6.6% for dicots, (iii) a minimal ancestral founder pool of 384 R-genes for the monocots and 150 R-genes for the eudicots, (iv) a general pattern of organization in clusters accounting for more than 60% of mapped R-genes, (v) a biased deletion of ancestral duplicated R-genes between paralogous blocks possibly compensated by clusterization, (vi) a bias in R-genes clusterization where Leucine-Rich Repeats act as a ‘glue’ for domain association, (vii) a R-genes/miRNAs interome enriched toward duplicated R-genes.
Together, our data may suggest that R-genes family plasticity operated during plant evolution (i) at the structural level through massive duplicates loss counterbalanced by massive clusterization following polyploidization; as well as at (ii) the regulation level through microRNA/R-gene interactions acting as a possible source of functional diploidization of structurally retained R-genes duplicates. Such evolutionary shuffling events leaded to CNVs (i.e. Copy Number Variation) and PAVs (i.e. Presence Absence Variation) between related species operating in the decay of R-genes colinearity between plant species.
PMCID: PMC4234491  PMID: 24617999
R-genes; Duplication; Plasticity; Evolution
3.  Shared Subgenome Dominance Following Polyploidization Explains Grass Genome Evolutionary Plasticity from a Seven Protochromosome Ancestor with 16K Protogenes 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2013;6(1):12-33.
Modern plant genomes are diploidized paleopolyploids. We revisited grass genome paleohistory in response to the diploidization process through a detailed investigation of the evolutionary fate of duplicated blocks. Ancestrally duplicated genes can be conserved, deleted, and shuffled, defining dominant (bias toward duplicate retention) and sensitive (bias toward duplicate erosion) chromosomal fragments. We propose a new grass genome paleohistory deriving from an ancestral karyotype structured in seven protochromosomes containing 16,464 protogenes and following evolutionary rules where 1) ancestral shared polyploidizations shaped conserved dominant (D) and sensitive (S) subgenomes, 2) subgenome dominance is revealed by both gene deletion and shuffling from the S blocks, 3) duplicate deletion/movement may have been mediated by single-/double-stranded illegitimate recombination mechanisms, 4) modern genomes arose through centromeric fusion of protochromosomes, leading to functional monocentric neochromosomes, 5) the fusion of two dominant blocks leads to supradominant neochromosomes (D + D = D) with higher ancestral gene retention compared with D + S = D (i.e., fusion of blocks with opposite sensitivity) or even S + S = S (i.e., fusion of two sensitive ancestral blocks). A new user-friendly online tool named “PlantSyntenyViewer,” available at, presents the refined comparative genomics data.
PMCID: PMC3914691  PMID: 24317974
synteny; evolution; genome; dominance; duplication; ancestor
4.  Comparative mapping in the Fagaceae and beyond with EST-SSRs 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:153.
Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for comparative genetic analyses, QTL detection and map-based cloning. A large number of mapping populations have been developed for oak, but few gene-based markers are available for constructing integrated genetic linkage maps and comparing gene order and QTL location across related species.
We developed a set of 573 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and located 397 markers (EST-SSRs and genomic SSRs) on the 12 oak chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24) on the basis of Mendelian segregation patterns in 5 full-sib mapping pedigrees of two species: Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (sessile oak). Consensus maps for the two species were constructed and aligned. They showed a high degree of macrosynteny between these two sympatric European oaks. We assessed the transferability of EST-SSRs to other Fagaceae genera and a subset of these markers was mapped in Castanea sativa, the European chestnut. Reasonably high levels of macrosynteny were observed between oak and chestnut. We also obtained diversity statistics for a subset of EST-SSRs, to support further population genetic analyses with gene-based markers. Finally, based on the orthologous relationships between the oak, Arabidopsis, grape, poplar, Medicago, and soybean genomes and the paralogous relationships between the 12 oak chromosomes, we propose an evolutionary scenario of the 12 oak chromosomes from the eudicot ancestral karyotype.
This study provides map locations for a large set of EST-SSRs in two oak species of recognized biological importance in natural ecosystems. This first step toward the construction of a gene-based linkage map will facilitate the assignment of future genome scaffolds to pseudo-chromosomes. This study also provides an indication of the potential utility of new gene-based markers for population genetics and comparative mapping within and beyond the Fagaceae.
PMCID: PMC3493355  PMID: 22931513
5.  Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high-density 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism array 
Plant Biotechnology Journal  2014;12(6):787-796.
High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for studying genomic patterns of diversity, inferring ancestral relationships between individuals in populations and studying marker–trait associations in mapping experiments. We developed a genotyping array including about 90 000 gene-associated SNPs and used it to characterize genetic variation in allohexaploid and allotetraploid wheat populations. The array includes a significant fraction of common genome-wide distributed SNPs that are represented in populations of diverse geographical origin. We used density-based spatial clustering algorithms to enable high-throughput genotype calling in complex data sets obtained for polyploid wheat. We show that these model-free clustering algorithms provide accurate genotype calling in the presence of multiple clusters including clusters with low signal intensity resulting from significant sequence divergence at the target SNP site or gene deletions. Assays that detect low-intensity clusters can provide insight into the distribution of presence–absence variation (PAV) in wheat populations. A total of 46 977 SNPs from the wheat 90K array were genetically mapped using a combination of eight mapping populations. The developed array and cluster identification algorithms provide an opportunity to infer detailed haplotype structure in polyploid wheat and will serve as an invaluable resource for diversity studies and investigating the genetic basis of trait variation in wheat.
PMCID: PMC4265271  PMID: 24646323
single nucleotide polymorphism; polyploid wheat; wheat iSelect array; genotyping; high-density map; genetic diversity

Results 1-5 (5)