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1.  Isolation and Characterisation of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in Papaver rhoeas L. (Corn Poppy), a Major Annual Plant Species from Cultivated Areas 
Papaver rhoeas, an annual plant species in the Papaveraceae family, is part of the biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems and also a noxious agronomic weed. We developed microsatellite markers to study the genetic diversity of P. rhoeas, using an enriched microsatellite library coupled with 454 next-generation sequencing. A total of 13,825 sequences were obtained that yielded 1795 microsatellite loci. After discarding loci with less than six repeats of the microsatellite motif, automated primer design was successful for 598 loci. We tested 74 of these loci for amplification with a total of 97 primer pairs. Thirty loci passed our tests and were subsequently tested for polymorphism using 384 P. rhoeas plants originating from 12 populations from France. Of the 30 loci, 11 showed reliable polymorphism not affected by the presence of null alleles. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 3 to 7.4 and from 0.27 to 0.73, respectively. A low but significant genetic differentiation among populations was observed (FST = 0.04; p < 0.001). The 11 validated polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this work will be useful in studies of genetic diversity and population structure of P. rhoeas, assisting in designing management strategies for the control or the conservation of this species.
PMCID: PMC3565275  PMID: 23263674
Papaver rhoeas; Papaveraceae; microsatellite markers; next-generation sequencing; genetic diversity
2.  Deciphering the genomic structure, function and evolution of carotenogenesis related phytoene synthases in grasses 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:221.
Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments, essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plants. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) plays an essential role in mediating condensation of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate molecules, the first committed step in carotenogenesis. PSY are nuclear enzymes encoded by a small gene family consisting of three paralogous genes (PSY1-3) that have been widely characterized in rice, maize and sorghum.
In wheat, for which yellow pigment content is extremely important for flour colour, only PSY1 has been extensively studied because of its association with QTLs reported for yellow pigment whereas PSY2 has been partially characterized. Here, we report the isolation of bread wheat PSY3 genes from a Renan BAC library using Brachypodium as a model genome for the Triticeae to develop Conserved Orthologous Set markers prior to gene cloning and sequencing. Wheat PSY3 homoeologous genes were sequenced and annotated, unravelling their novel structure associated with intron-loss events and consequent exonic fusions. A wheat PSY3 promoter region was also investigated for the presence of cis-acting elements involved in the response to abscisic acid (ABA), since carotenoids also play an important role as precursors of signalling molecules devoted to plant development and biotic/abiotic stress responses. Expression of wheat PSYs in leaves and roots was investigated during ABA treatment to confirm the up-regulation of PSY3 during abiotic stress.
We investigated the structural and functional determinisms of PSY genes in wheat. More generally, among eudicots and monocots, the PSY gene family was found to be associated with differences in gene copy numbers, allowing us to propose an evolutionary model for the entire PSY gene family in Grasses.
PMCID: PMC3413518  PMID: 22672222
Carotenoids; Phytoene synthase; Wheat; Intron loss; Abiotic stress; Evolution

Results 1-2 (2)