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1.  High-density linkage mapping in a pine tree reveals a genomic region associated with inbreeding depression and provides clues to the extent and distribution of meiotic recombination 
BMC Biology  2013;11:50.
Background
The availability of a large expressed sequence tags (EST) resource and recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have made it possible to develop highly multiplexed SNP arrays for multi-objective genetic applications, including the construction of meiotic maps. Such approaches are particularly useful in species with a large genome size, precluding the use of whole-genome shotgun assembly with current technologies.
Results
In this study, a 12 k-SNP genotyping array was developed for maritime pine from an extensive EST resource assembled into a unigene set. The offspring of three-generation outbred and inbred mapping pedigrees were then genotyped. The inbred pedigree consisted of a classical F2 population resulting from the selfing of a single inter-provenance (Landes x Corsica) hybrid tree, whereas the outbred pedigree (G2) resulted from a controlled cross of two intra-provenance (Landes x Landes) hybrid trees. This resulted in the generation of three linkage maps based on SNP markers: one from the parental genotype of the F2 population (1,131 markers in 1,708 centimorgan (cM)), and one for each parent of the G2 population (1,015 and 1,110 markers in 1,447 and 1,425 cM for the female and male parents, respectively). A comparison of segregation patterns in the progeny obtained from the two types of mating (inbreeding and outbreeding) led to the identification of a chromosomal region carrying an embryo viability locus with a semi-lethal allele. Following selfing and segregation, zygote mortality resulted in a deficit of Corsican homozygous genotypes in the F2 population. This dataset was also used to study the extent and distribution of meiotic recombination along the length of the chromosomes and the effect of sex and/or genetic background on recombination. The genetic background of trees in which meiotic recombination occurred was found to have a significant effect on the frequency of recombination. Furthermore, only a small proportion of the recombination hot- and cold-spots were common to all three genotypes, suggesting that the spatial pattern of recombination was genetically variable.
Conclusion
This study led to the development of classical genomic tools for this ecologically and economically important species. It also identified a chromosomal region bearing a semi-lethal recessive allele and demonstrated the genetic variability of recombination rate over the genome.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-50
PMCID: PMC3660193  PMID: 23597128
Unigene; SNP array; Linkage mapping; Segregation distortion; Recombination; Maritime pine; Pinus pinaster
3.  Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:650.
Background
The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated for these species. Here, we describe the development of an EST catalogue that will support ecosystem genomics studies, where geneticists, ecophysiologists, molecular biologists and ecologists join their efforts for understanding, monitoring and predicting functional genetic diversity.
Results
We generated 145,827 sequence reads from 20 cDNA libraries using the Sanger method. Unexploitable chromatograms and quality checking lead us to eliminate 19,941 sequences. Finally a total of 125,925 ESTs were retained from 111,361 cDNA clones. Pyrosequencing was also conducted for 14 libraries, generating 1,948,579 reads, from which 370,566 sequences (19.0%) were eliminated, resulting in 1,578,192 sequences. Following clustering and assembly using TGICL pipeline, 1,704,117 EST sequences collapsed into 69,154 tentative contigs and 153,517 singletons, providing 222,671 non-redundant sequences (including alternative transcripts). We also assembled the sequences using MIRA and PartiGene software and compared the three unigene sets. Gene ontology annotation was then assigned to 29,303 unigene elements. Blast search against the SWISS-PROT database revealed putative homologs for 32,810 (14.7%) unigene elements, but more extensive search with Pfam, Refseq_protein, Refseq_RNA and eight gene indices revealed homology for 67.4% of them. The EST catalogue was examined for putative homologs of candidate genes involved in bud phenology, cuticle formation, phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and cell wall formation. Our results suggest a good coverage of genes involved in these traits. Comparative orthologous sequences (COS) with other plant gene models were identified and allow to unravel the oak paleo-history. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 52,834 SSRs and 36,411 SNPs. All of these are available through the Oak Contig Browser http://genotoul-contigbrowser.toulouse.inra.fr:9092/Quercus_robur/index.html.
Conclusions
This genomic resource provides a unique tool to discover genes of interest, study the oak transcriptome, and develop new markers to investigate functional diversity in natural populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-650
PMCID: PMC3017864  PMID: 21092232

Results 1-3 (3)