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1.  Patient blood management in Europe 
Summary
Preoperative anaemia is common in patients undergoing orthopaedic and other major surgery. Anaemia is associated with increased risks of postoperative mortality and morbidity, infectious complications, prolonged hospitalization, and a greater likelihood of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Evidence of the clinical and economic disadvantages of RBC transfusion in treating perioperative anaemia has prompted recommendations for its restriction and a growing interest in approaches that rely on patients' own (rather than donor) blood. These approaches are collectively termed ‘patient blood management’ (PBM). PBM involves the use of multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualized strategies to minimize RBC transfusion with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes. PBM relies on approaches (pillars) that detect and treat perioperative anaemia and reduce surgical blood loss and perioperative coagulopathy to harness and optimize physiological tolerance of anaemia. After the recent resolution 63.12 of the World Health Assembly, the implementation of PBM is encouraged in all WHO member states. This new standard of care is now established in some centres in the USA and Austria, in Western Australia, and nationally in the Netherlands. However, there is a pressing need for European healthcare providers to integrate PBM strategies into routine care for patients undergoing orthopaedic and other types of surgery in order to reduce the use of unnecessary transfusions and improve the quality of care. After reviewing current PBM practices in Europe, this article offers recommendations supporting its wider implementation, focusing on anaemia management, the first of the three pillars of PBM.
doi:10.1093/bja/aes139
PMCID: PMC3374574  PMID: 22628393
anaemia; outcome; patient blood management; transfusion
2.  Detection, evaluation, and management of preoperative anaemia in the elective orthopaedic surgical patient: NATA guidelines 
Previously undiagnosed anaemia is common in elective orthopaedic surgical patients and is associated with increased likelihood of blood transfusion and increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. A standardized approach for the detection, evaluation, and management of anaemia in this setting has been identified as an unmet medical need. A multidisciplinary panel of physicians was convened by the Network for Advancement of Transfusion Alternatives (NATA) with the aim of developing practice guidelines for the detection, evaluation, and management of preoperative anaemia in elective orthopaedic surgery. A systematic literature review and critical evaluation of the evidence was performed, and recommendations were formulated according to the method proposed by the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. We recommend that elective orthopaedic surgical patients have a haemoglobin (Hb) level determination 28 days before the scheduled surgical procedure if possible (Grade 1C). We suggest that the patient's target Hb before elective surgery be within the normal range, according to the World Health Organization criteria (Grade 2C). We recommend further laboratory testing to evaluate anaemia for nutritional deficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, and/or chronic inflammatory disease (Grade 1C). We recommend that nutritional deficiencies be treated (Grade 1C). We suggest that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents be used for anaemic patients in whom nutritional deficiencies have been ruled out, corrected, or both (Grade 2A). Anaemia should be viewed as a serious and treatable medical condition, rather than simply an abnormal laboratory value. Implementation of anaemia management in the elective orthopaedic surgery setting will improve patient outcomes.
doi:10.1093/bja/aeq361
PMCID: PMC3000629  PMID: 21148637
anaemia; blood transfusion; orthopaedic surgery; preoperative assessment; preoperative preparation
3.  Application of a direct agglutination test for detection of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies in the canine reservoir. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(10):2252-2257.
A direct agglutination test (DAT) for detection of visceral leishmaniasis in humans has been developed. In this study, it was evaluated for applicability to detection of infections in dogs, a reservoir species. The reliability of the test was improved by treating the test sera with 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and incubating them at 37 degrees C. Sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 98.9% when the test was used on serum samples from 220 dogs, including 26 with parasitologically confirmed canine leishmaniasis, 12 with suspected but unconfirmed leishmaniasis, and 182 with other conditions. The DAT detected specific antibodies in 10 dogs with canine leishmaniasis diagnosed by case history, clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and seropositivity in an immunofluorescence test using either promastigotes or amastigotes, as well as in 2 dogs suspected of having leishmaniasis. The performance of an antigen prepared from a homologous isolate of Leishmania infantum in the DAT was compared with that of an antigen from a laboratory-adapted strain of L. donovani (sensu lato). The homologous antigen compared favorably with the standard antigen, and the results provided further evidence of the potential of the DAT for detection of Leishmania infection in the canine reservoir host. The results of this study, together with those of our previous studies in human visceral leishmaniasis, demonstrate that the DAT is highly suitable for wide-scale epidemiological and ecological field work. This technique could also facilitate diagnosis of leishmaniasis in dogs in veterinary health services.
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PMCID: PMC267005  PMID: 2685025

Results 1-3 (3)