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1.  Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:91.
Background
The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT).
Methods
This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months.
Results
There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children.
Conclusion
Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-91
PMCID: PMC3482602  PMID: 22974002
2.  Effects of rituximab in two patients with dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy 
Background
The administration of rituximab (RTX) in vivo results in B-cell depletion, but evidence for multiple mechanisms of action have been reported. Surprisingly, B cell depletion produced a response in patients with polymyositis, which is characterized as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disorder with biopsy findings similar to Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Indeed, in dysferlinopathies, there is evidence of immune system involvement including the presence of muscle inflammation and a down regulation of the complement inhibitory factor, CD55.
Methods
Two patients were treated with four weekly infusions of RTX 375 mg/m2. To measure the improvement in muscle strength after treatment, the isometric hand grip maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured by load cell four times during treatment, and again after one year. In order to assess the reproducibility of our grip assessment, we determined the hand MVC analysis in 16 healthy subjects. Moreover, we measured the number of B cells present in patients by flow cytometric analysis during the course of treatment.
Results
The analysis of B cell number during the course of treatment showed that CD20- and CD19-positive cells were depleted to 0-0.01%. The decrease in B cells was followed by an improvement in the mobility of the pelvic and shoulder girdles as shown by the MRC%. The MVC values of both patients began at values lower than normal whereas during treatment patients had improved percentage of muscle strength. The strength peak in both patients coincided with the minimum B cell values. There were no severe adverse events associated with an infusion of RTX.
Conclusion
We consider the increase in muscle strength observed in both treated patients to be a consequence of their treatment with RTX. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of increased muscle strength in patients with MM. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that B cell depletion with RTX may be useful in the treatment of patients affected by MM, suggesting a possible role for B cells in the pathophysiology of this muscle disorder.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-157
PMCID: PMC2912795  PMID: 20618995

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