Muscular dystrophies are severe genetic diseases for which no efficacious therapies exist. Experimental clinical treatments include intra-arterial administration of vessel-associated stem cells, called mesoangioblasts (MABs). However, one of the limitations of this approach is the relatively low number of cells that engraft the diseased tissue, due, at least in part, to the sub-optimal efficiency of extravasation, whose mechanisms for MAB are unknown. Leukocytes emigrate into the inflamed tissues by crossing endothelial cell-to-cell junctions and junctional proteins direct and control leukocyte diapedesis. Here, we identify the endothelial junctional protein JAM-A as a key regulator of MAB extravasation. We show that JAM-A gene inactivation and JAM-A blocking antibodies strongly enhance MAB engraftment in dystrophic muscle. In the absence of JAM-A, the exchange factors EPAC-1 and 2 are down-regulated, which prevents the activation of the small GTPase Rap-1. As a consequence, junction tightening is reduced, allowing MAB diapedesis. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Rap-1 increases MAB engraftment in dystrophic muscle, which results into a significant improvement of muscle function offering a novel strategy for stem cell-based therapies.
endothelial cells; junctional adhesion molecule-A; muscular dystrophy; stem cell therapies
Adult muscle stem cells, or satellite cells play essential roles in homeostasis and regeneration of skeletal muscles. Satellite cells are located within a niche that includes myofibers and extracellular matrix. The function of specific extracellular matrix molecules in regulating SCs is poorly understood. Here we show that the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI is a key component of the satellite cell niche. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1−/− mice causes impaired muscle regeneration and reduced satellite cell self-renewal capability after injury. Collagen VI null muscles display significant decrease of stiffness, which is able to compromise the in vitro and in vivo activity of wild-type satellite cells. When collagen VI is reinstated in vivo by grafting wild-type fibroblasts, the biomechanical properties of Col6a1−/− muscles are ameliorated and satellite cell defects rescued. Our findings establish a critical role for an extracellular matrix molecule in satellite cell self-renewal and open new venues for therapies of collagen VI-related muscle diseases.
Adult muscle stem cells, or satellite cells play essential roles in homeostasis and regeneration of skeletal muscles. Satellite cells are located within a niche that includes myofibers and extracellular matrix. The function of specific extracellular matrix molecules in regulating SCs is poorly understood. Here we show that the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI is a key component of the satellite cell niche. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1–/– mice causes impaired muscle regeneration and reduced satellite cell self-renewal capability after injury. Collagen VI null muscles display significant decrease of stiffness, which is able to compromise the in vitro and in vivo activity of wild-type satellite cells. When collagen VI is reinstated in vivo by grafting wild-type fibroblasts, the biomechanical properties of Col6a1–/– muscles are ameliorated and satellite cell defects rescued. Our findings establish a critical role for an extracellular matrix molecule in satellite cell self-renewal and open new venues for therapies of collagen VI-related muscle diseases.
Cachexia, a condition that kills about one-fifth of cancer patients, may be linked to Rb—a protein that is already linked to various cancers—moving from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Rb; CDK; phosphorylation; sarcomeric organization; retinoblastoma protein; Human
Human mesoangioblasts are currently in a phase I/II clinical trial for the treatment of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, limitations associated with the finite life span of these cells combined with the significant numbers of mesoangioblasts required to treat all of the skeletal muscles in these patients restricts their therapeutic potential. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesoangioblasts may provide the solution to this problem. Although, the idea of using iPSC-derived cell therapies has been proposed for quite some time, our understanding of how the immune system interacts with these cells is inadequate. Herein, we show that iPSC-derived mesoangioblasts (HIDEMs) from healthy donors and, importantly, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2D patients exert immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play crucial roles in the initial activation of HIDEMs and importantly indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) were identified as key mechanisms involved in HIDEM suppression of T cell proliferation. Together with recent studies confirming the myogenic function and regenerative potential of these cells, we suggest that HIDEMs could provide an unlimited alternative source for mesoangioblast-based therapies.
Cell-transplantation therapies have attracted attention as treatments for skeletal-muscle disorders; however, such research has been severely limited by poor cell survival. Tissue engineering offers a potential solution to this problem by providing biomaterial adjuvants that improve survival and engraftment of donor cells.
In this study, we investigated the use of intra-muscular transplantation of mesoangioblasts (vessel-associated progenitor cells), delivered with an injectable hydrogel biomaterial directly into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of acutely injured or dystrophic mice. The hydrogel cell carrier, made from a polyethylene glycol-fibrinogen (PF) matrix, is polymerized in situ together with mesoangioblasts to form a resorbable cellularized implant.
Mice treated with PF and mesoangioblasts showed enhanced cell engraftment as a result of increased survival and differentiation compared with the same cell population injected in aqueous saline solution.
Both PF and mesoangioblasts are currently undergoing separate clinical trials: their combined use may increase chances of efficacy for localized disorders of skeletal muscle.
Stem cells; Mesoangioblasts; Hydrogel; Muscular dystrophy; Muscle regeneration; Cell therapy; Tissue engineering
The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT).
This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months.
There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children.
Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength.
Human mesoangioblasts are vessel-associated stem cells that are currently in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To date, little is known about the effect of mesoangioblasts on human immune cells and vice versa. We hypothesized that mesoangioblasts could modulate the function of immune cells in a similar manner to mesenchymal stromal cells. Human mesoangioblasts did not evoke, but rather potently suppressed human T-cell proliferation and effector function in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, mesoangioblasts exert these inhibitory effects uniformly on human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in a reversible manner without inducing a state of anergy. Interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α play crucial roles in the initial activation of mesoangioblasts. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE) were identified as key mechanisms of action involved in the mesoangioblast suppression of T-cell proliferation. Together, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized capacity of mesoangioblasts to modulate immune responses.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently involved in most of human diseases as targets for potential strategies to rescue the pathological phenotype. Since the skeletal muscle is a spread-wide highly differentiated and organized tissue, rescue of severely compromised muscle still remains distant from nowadays. For this reason, we aimed to identify a subset of miRNAs major involved in muscle remodelling and regeneration by analysing the miRNA-profile of single fibres isolated from dystrophic muscle, which was here considered as a model of chronic damage.
The miRNA-signature associated to regenerating (newly formed) and remodelling (resting) fibres was investigated in animal models of muscular dystrophies and acute damage, in order to distinguish which miRNAs are primary related to muscle regeneration. In this study we identify fourteen miRNAs associated to dystrophic fibres responsible for muscle regeneration and remodelling, and confirm over-expression of the previously identified regeneration-associated myomiR-206. In particular, a functional binding site for myomiR-206 was identified and validated in the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of an X-linked member of a family of sequence independent chromatin-binding proteins (Hmgb3) that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells. During regeneration of single muscle fibres, Hmgb3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was gradually reduced, concurrent with the up-regulation of miR-206.
Our results elucidate a negative feedback circuit in which myomiR-206 represses Hmgb3 expression to modulate the regeneration of single muscle fibres after acute and chronic muscle damage. These findings suggest that myomiR-206 may be a potential therapeutic target in muscle diseases.
Embryonic mesoangioblasts are the in vitro counterpart of vessel-associated progenitors, able to differentiate into different mesoderm cell types. To investigate signals recruiting these progenitors to a skeletal myogenic fate, we developed an in vitro assay, based upon co-culture of E11.5 dorsal aorta (from MLC3 F-nLacZ transgenic embryos, expressing nuclear beta galactosidase only in striated muscle) with differentiating C2C12 or primary myoblasts. Under these conditions muscle differentiation from cells originating from the vessel can be quantified by counting the number of beta gal + nuclei. Results indicated that Noggin (but not Follistatin, Chordin or Gremlin) stimulates while BMP2/4 inhibits myogenesis from dorsal aorta progenitors; neutralizing antibodies and shRNA greatly reduce these effects. In contrast, TGF-β1, VEGF, Wnt7A, Wnt3A, bFGF, PDGF-BB and IGF1 have no effect. Sorting experiments indicated that the majority of these myogenic progenitors express the pericyte marker NG2. Moreover they are abundant in the thoracic segment at E10.5 and in the iliac bifurcation at E11.5 suggesting the occurrence of a cranio-caudal wave of competent cells along the aorta. BMP2 is expressed in the dorsal aorta and Noggin in newly formed muscle fibers suggesting that these two tissues compete to recruit mesoderm cells to a myogenic or to a perithelial fate in the developing fetal muscle.
► Cells of the embryonic aorta undergo skeletal myogenesis when co-cultured with myoblasts ► Neutralization of endothelium-derived BMP2/4 enhance myogenesis of aorta-associated progenitors ► Noggin, produced by developing myofibers enhance myogenesis of aorta-associated progenitors ► Aorta-associated cells endowed with myogenic potency express the pericyte marker NG2 ► Aorta derived myogenesis follows a cranio-caudal wave between E10 and E12 of embryo development
Dorsal aorta; mesoderm progenitors; skeletal myogenesis BMP2/4; Noggin; NG2 proteoglycan
More than a decade ago, ‘plasticity’ suddenly became a ‘fashionable’ topic with overemphasized implications for regenerative medicine. The concept of ‘plasticity’ is supported by old transplantation work, at least for embryonic cells, and metaplasia is a classic example of plasticity observed in patients. Nevertheless, the publication of a series of papers showing rare conversion of a given cell type into another unrelated cell raised the possibility of using any unaffected tissue to create at will new cells to replace a different failing tissue or organ. This resulted in disingenuous interpretations and a reason not to fund anymore research on embryonic stem cells (ESc). Moreover, many papers on plasticity were difficult to reproduce and thus questioned; raising issues about plasticity as a technical artefact or a consequence of rare spontaneous cells fusion. More recently, reprogramming adult differentiated cells to a pluripotent state (iPS) became possible, and later, one type of differentiated cell could be directly reprogrammed into another (e.g. fibroblasts into neurons) without reverting to pluripotency. Although the latter results from different and more robust experimental protocols, these phenomena also exemplify ‘plasticity’. In this review, we want to place ‘plasticity’ in a historical perspective still taking into account ethical and political implications.
cell fusion; ES and iPS cells; multipotency; nuclear reprogramming; plasticity and trans-differentiation; stem/progenitor cells
miR669a and miR669q inhibit postnatal cardiac progenitor differentiation by directly targeting the 3′UTR of MyoD.
Postnatal heart stem and progenitor cells are a potential therapeutic tool for cardiomyopathies, but little is known about the mechanisms that control cardiac differentiation. Recent work has highlighted an important role for microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) as regulators of cardiac and skeletal myogenesis. In this paper, we isolated cardiac progenitors from neonatal β-sarcoglycan (Sgcb)–null mouse hearts affected by dilated cardiomyopathy. Unexpectedly, Sgcb-null cardiac progenitors spontaneously differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers both in vitro and when transplanted into regenerating muscles or infarcted hearts. Differentiation potential correlated with the absence of expression of a novel miRNA, miR669q, and with down-regulation of miR669a. Other miRNAs are known to promote myogenesis, but only miR669a and miR669q act upstream of myogenic regulatory factors to prevent myogenesis by directly targeting the MyoD 3′ untranslated region. This finding reveals an added level of complexity in the mechanism of the fate choice of mesoderm progenitors and suggests that using endogenous cardiac stem cells therapeutically will require specially tailored procedures for certain genetic diseases.
Different cells can contribute to repair following vascular injury by differentiating into smooth muscle (SM) cells; however the extracellular signals involved are presently poorly characterized. Mesoangioblasts are progenitor cells capable of differentiating into various mesoderm cell types including SM cells. In this study the biological action exerted by the pleiotropic sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in human mesoangioblasts has been initially investigated by cDNA microarray analysis. Obtained data confirmed the anti-apoptotic action of this sphingolipid and identified for the first time a strong differentiating action toward SM cells. Quantitative mRNA and protein analysis corroborated the microarray results demonstrating enhanced expression of myogenic marker proteins and regulation of the expression of transcription factor GATA6 and its co-regulator, LMCD1. Importantly, GATA6 up-regulation induced by S1P was responsible for the enhanced expression of SM-specific contractile proteins. Moreover, by specific gene silencing experiments GATA6 was critical in the pro-differentiating activity of the cytokine TGFβ. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of endogenous S1P formation in response to TGFβ abrogated GATA6 up-regulation, supporting the view that the S1P pathway plays a physiological role in mediating the pro-myogenic effect of TGFβ. This study individuates GATA6 as novel player in the complex transcriptional regulation of mesoangioblast differentiation into SM cells and highlights a role for S1P to favour vascular regeneration.
Skeletal muscle damaged by injury or by degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophy is able to regenerate new muscle fibers. Regeneration mainly depends upon satellite cells, myogenic progenitors localized between the basal lamina and the muscle fiber membrane. However, other cell types outside the basal lamina, such as pericytes, also have myogenic potency. Here, we discuss the main properties of satellite cells and other myogenic progenitors as well as recent efforts to obtain myogenic cells from pluripotent stem cells for patient-tailored cell therapy. Clinical trials utilizing these cells to treat muscular dystrophies, heart failure, and stress urinary incontinence are also briefly outlined.
This article shows that globular adiponectin regulates vital cues of mesoangioblast, such as proliferation, survival, and migration toward myotubes and the myogenic properties. In vivo experiments confirm that globular adiponectin increases the survival, engraftment, and localization to muscle of mesoangioblasts in α-sarcoglycan-null mice.
Mesoangioblasts are progenitor endowed with multipotent mesoderm differentiation ability. Despite the promising results obtained with mesoangioblast transplantation in muscle dystrophy, an improvement of their efficient engrafting and survival within damaged muscles, as well as their ex vivo activation/expansion and commitment toward myogenic lineage, is highly needed and should greatly increase their therapeutic potential. We show that globular adiponectin, an adipokine endowed with metabolic and differentiating functions for muscles, regulates vital cues of mesoangioblast cell biology. The adipokine drives mesoangioblasts to entry cell cycle and strongly counteracts the apoptotic process triggered by growth factor withdrawal, thereby serving as an activating and prosurvival stem cell factor. In addition, adiponectin provides a specific protection against anoikis, the apoptotic death due to lack of anchorage to extracellular matrix, suggesting a key protective role for these nonresident stem cells after systemic injection. Finally, adiponectin behaves as a chemoattractive factor toward mature myotubes and stimulates their differentiation toward the skeletal muscle lineage, serving as a positive regulator in mesoangioblast homing to injured or diseased muscles. We conclude that adiponectin exerts several advantageous effects on mesoangioblasts, potentially valuable to improve their efficacy in cell based therapies of diseased muscles.
Regeneration of muscle fibers, lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries, is mediated by the production of new myofibres. This process, sustained by the resident stem cells of the muscle, the satellite cells, is finely regulated by local cues, in particular by cytokines and growth factors. Evidence in the literature suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in muscle fiber regeneration; however, its role and mechanism of action were unclear. We have investigated this issue in in vivo mouse models of muscle regeneration and in primary myogenic cells. Our results demonstrate that NGF acts through its low-affinity receptor p75NTR in a developmentally regulated signaling pathway necessary to myogenic differentiation and muscle repair in vivo. We also demonstrate that this action of NGF is mediated by the down-regulation of RhoA-GTP signaling in myogenic cells.
Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine of mesenchymal origin that mediates a characteristic array of biological activities including cell proliferation, survival, motility and morphogenesis. Its high affinity receptor, the tyrosine kinase Met, is expressed by a wide range of tissues and can be activated by either paracrine or autocrine stimulation. Adult myogenic precursor cells, the so called satellite cells, express both HGF and Met. Following muscle injury, autocrine HGF-Met stimulation plays a key role in promoting activation and early division of satellite cells, but is shut off in a second phase to allow myogenic differentiation. In culture, HGF stimulation promotes proliferation of muscle precursors thereby inhibiting their differentiation.
Magic-Factor 1 (Met-Activating Genetically Improved Chimeric Factor-1 or Magic-F1) is an HGF-derived, engineered protein that contains two Met-binding domains repeated in tandem. It has a reduced affinity for Met and, in contrast to HGF it elicits activation of the AKT but not the ERK signaling pathway. As a result, Magic-F1 is not mitogenic but conserves the ability to promote cell survival. Here we show that Magic-F1 protects myogenic precursors against apoptosis, thus increasing their fusion ability and enhancing muscular differentiation. Electrotransfer of Magic-F1 gene into adult mice promoted muscular hypertrophy and decreased myocyte apoptosis. Magic-F1 transgenic mice displayed constitutive muscular hypertrophy, improved running performance and accelerated muscle regeneration following injury. Crossing of Magic-F1 transgenic mice with α-sarcoglycan knock-out mice –a mouse model of muscular dystrophy– or adenovirus-mediated Magic-F1 gene delivery resulted in amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype as measured by both anatomical/histological analysis and functional tests.
Because of these features Magic-F1 represents a novel molecular tool to counteract muscle wasting in major muscular diseases such as cachexia or muscular dystrophy.
sFRP-3 is a soluble antagonist of Wnts, widely expressed in developing embryos. The Wnt gene family comprises cysteine-rich secreted ligands that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, organogenesis and oncogenesis of different organisms ranging from worms to mammals. In the canonical signal transduction pathway Wnt proteins bind to the extracellular domain of Frizzled receptors and consequently recruit Dishevelled (Dsh) to the cell membrane. In addition to Wnt membrane receptors belonging to the Frizzled family, several other molecules have been described which share homology in the CRD domain and lack the putative trans-membrane domain, such as sFRP molecules (soluble Frizzled Related Protein). Among them, sFRP-3 was originally isolated from bovine articular cartilage and also as a component of the Spemann organizer. sFRP-3 blocks Wnt-8 induced axis duplication in Xenopus embryos and binds to the surface of cells expressing a membrane-anchored form of Wnt-1. Injection of sFRP-3 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks.
Here we report that sFRP-3 specifically blocks EGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and foci formation. Over-expression of sFRP-3 reverts EGF-mediated inhibition of hair follicle development in the mouse ectoderm while its ablation in Xenopus maintains EGF-mediated inhibition of ectoderm differentiation. Conversely, over-expression of EGF reverts the inhibition of somitic myogenesis and axis truncation in Xenopus and mouse embryos caused by sFRP-3. In vitro experiments demonstrated a direct binding of EGF to sFRP-3 both on heparin and on the surface of CHO cells where the molecule had been membrane anchored.
sFRP-3 and EGF reciprocally inhibit their effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis and indeed are expressed in contiguous domains of the embryo, suggesting that in addition to their canonical ligands (Wnt and EGF receptor, respectively) these molecules bind to each other and regulate their activities during embryogenesis.
Various prognostic serum and cellular markers have been identified for many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and tumor pathologies. Here we assessed whether the levels of certain stem cells may predict the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).
Methods and Findings
The levels of several subpopulations of circulating stem cells expressing the CD133 antigen were determined by flow cytometry in 70 DMD patients. The correlation between the levels and clinical status was assessed by statistical analysis. The median (±SD) age of the population was 10.66±3.81 (range 3 to 20 years). The levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- stem cells were significantly higher in DMD patients compared to healthy controls (mean±standard deviation: 17.38±1.38 vs. 11.0±1.70; P = 0.03) with a tendency towards decreased levels in older patients. Moreover, the levels of this subpopulation of cells correlated with the clinical condition. In a subgroup of 19 DMD patients after 24 months of follow-up, increased levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- cells was shown to be associated with a phenotype characterised by slower disease progression. The circulating CD133+CXCR4+CD34- cells in patients from different ages did not exhibit significant differences in their myogenic and endothelial in vitro differentiation capacity.
Our results suggest that levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- could function as a new prognostic clinical marker for the progression of DMD.
Regeneration of muscle fibers that are lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries is sustained by the production of new myofibers. An important cell type involved in muscle regeneration is the satellite cell. Necdin is a protein expressed in satellite cell–derived myogenic precursors during perinatal growth. However, its function in myogenesis is not known. We compare transgenic mice that overexpress necdin in skeletal muscle with both wild-type and necdin null mice. After muscle injury the necdin null mice show a considerable defect in muscle healing, whereas mice that overexpress necdin show a substantial increase in myofiber regeneration. We also find that in muscle, necdin increases myogenin expression, accelerates differentiation, and counteracts myoblast apoptosis. Collectively, these data clarify the function and mechanism of necdin in skeletal muscle and show the importance of necdin in muscle regeneration.
Tissue damage is usually followed by healing, as both differentiated and stem cells migrate to replace dead or damaged cells. Mesoangioblasts (vessel-associated stem cells that can repair muscles) and fibroblasts migrate toward soluble factors released by damaged tissue. Two such factors are high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that is released by cells undergoing unscheduled death (necrosis) but not by apoptotic cells, and stromal derived factor (SDF)–1/CXCL12. We find that HMGB1 activates the canonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. NF-κB signaling is necessary for chemotaxis toward HMGB1 and SDF-1/CXCL12, but not toward growth factor platelet-derived growth factor, formyl-met-leu-phe (a peptide that mimics bacterial invasion), or the archetypal NF-κB–activating signal tumor necrosis factor α. In dystrophic mice, mesoangioblasts injected into the general circulation ingress inefficiently into muscles if their NF-κB signaling pathway is disabled. These findings suggest that NF-κB signaling controls tissue regeneration in addition to early events in inflammation.