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1.  Genetics can contribute to the prognosis of Brugada syndrome: a pilot model for risk stratification 
Brugada syndrome is an inherited arrhythmogenic disorder leading to sudden death predominantly in the 3–4 decade. To date the only reliable treatment is the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator; however, better criteria for risk stratification are needed, especially for asymptomatic subjects. Brugada syndrome genetic bases have been only partially understood, accounting for <30% of patients, and have been poorly correlated with prognosis, preventing inclusion of genetic data in current guidelines. We designed an observational study to identify genetic markers for risk stratification of Brugada patients by exploratory statistical analysis. The presence of genetic variants, identified by SCN5A gene analysis and genotyping of 73 candidate polymorphisms, was correlated with the occurrence of major arrhythmic events in a cohort of 92 Brugada patients by allelic association and survival analysis. In all, 18 mutations were identified in the SCN5A gene, including 5 novel, and statistical analysis indicated that mutation carriers had a significantly increased risk of major arrhythmic events (P=0.024). In addition, we established association of five polymorphisms with major arrhythmic events occurrence and consequently elaborated a pilot risk stratification algorithm by calculating a weighted genetic risk score, including the associated polymorphisms and the presence of SCN5A mutation as function of their odds ratio. This study correlates for the first time the presence of genetic variants with increased arrhythmic risk in Brugada patients, representing a first step towards the design of a new risk stratification model.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.289
PMCID: PMC3746265  PMID: 23321620
arrhythmia; Brugada syndrome; sudden death; genetic variation; risk stratification
2.  Targeting endothelial junctional adhesion molecule-A/ EPAC/ Rap-1 axis as a novel strategy to increase stem cell engraftment in dystrophic muscles 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2013;6(2):239-258.
Muscular dystrophies are severe genetic diseases for which no efficacious therapies exist. Experimental clinical treatments include intra-arterial administration of vessel-associated stem cells, called mesoangioblasts (MABs). However, one of the limitations of this approach is the relatively low number of cells that engraft the diseased tissue, due, at least in part, to the sub-optimal efficiency of extravasation, whose mechanisms for MAB are unknown. Leukocytes emigrate into the inflamed tissues by crossing endothelial cell-to-cell junctions and junctional proteins direct and control leukocyte diapedesis. Here, we identify the endothelial junctional protein JAM-A as a key regulator of MAB extravasation. We show that JAM-A gene inactivation and JAM-A blocking antibodies strongly enhance MAB engraftment in dystrophic muscle. In the absence of JAM-A, the exchange factors EPAC-1 and 2 are down-regulated, which prevents the activation of the small GTPase Rap-1. As a consequence, junction tightening is reduced, allowing MAB diapedesis. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Rap-1 increases MAB engraftment in dystrophic muscle, which results into a significant improvement of muscle function offering a novel strategy for stem cell-based therapies.
doi:10.1002/emmm.201302520
PMCID: PMC3927958  PMID: 24378569
endothelial cells; junctional adhesion molecule-A; muscular dystrophy; stem cell therapies
3.  Cognitive Impairment Affects Physical Recovery of Patients with Heart Failure Undergoing Intensive Cardiac Rehabilitation 
Purpose. To determine whether the presence of cognitive impairment (CI) affects physical recovery of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) undergoing a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP). Methods. We enrolled 80 CHF patients (M/F = 53/27). CI was evaluated by means of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), exercise tolerance was evaluated by six-minute walking test (6 mwt). All patients underwent a 6-week CRP program at 50–70% of maximal VO2. Patients were divided into two groups according to their MMSE (group 1: 16–23; group 2: 24–30). Results. MMSE resulted directly related to ejection fraction (r = 0.42; P = 0.03), and it was inversely related to creatinine (r = −0.36; P = 0.04). At 6 week group 1 had a lower increase in distance walked at 6 MWT than group 2 (P = 0.008). At multivariate logistic regression MMSE 16–23 predicted a reduced exercise recovery in the overall population (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.50–2.18) and in women (OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.22–1.75), while it was not predicted in males. Conclusions. CI is a marker of advanced CHF and is an independent predictor of lower exercise recovery after CRP.
doi:10.1155/2012/218928
PMCID: PMC3544314  PMID: 23326665
4.  The empowerment of translational research: lessons from laminopathies 
The need for a collaborative approach to complex inherited diseases collectively referred to as laminopathies, encouraged Italian researchers, geneticists, physicians and patients to join in the Italian Network for Laminopathies, in 2009. Here, we highlight the advantages and added value of such a multidisciplinary effort to understand pathogenesis, clinical aspects and try to find a cure for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Mandibuloacral dysplasia, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and forms of lamin-linked cardiomyopathy, neuropathy and lipodystrophy.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-37
PMCID: PMC3458975  PMID: 22691392
Laminopathies; Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy; Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Conduction Defects; Mandibuloacral Dysplasia; Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Type 2; Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome; Rare Diseases; Networking activity; interdisciplinary approach to diseases
5.  Evaluation of human gene variant detection in amplicon pools by the GS-FLX parallel Pyrosequencer 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:464.
Background
A new priority in genome research is large-scale resequencing of genes to understand the molecular basis of hereditary disease and cancer. We assessed the ability of massively parallel pyrosequencing to identify sequence variants in pools. From a large collection of human PCR samples we selected 343 PCR products belonging to 16 disease genes and including a large spectrum of sequence variations previously identified by Sanger sequencing. The sequence variants included SNPs and small deletions and insertions (up to 44 bp), in homozygous or heterozygous state.
Results
The DNA was combined in 4 pools containing from 27 to 164 amplicons and from 8,9 to 50,8 Kb to sequence for a total of 110 Kb. Pyrosequencing generated over 80 million base pairs of data. Blind searching for sequence variations with a specifically designed bioinformatics procedure identified 465 putative sequence variants, including 412 true variants, 53 false positives (in or adjacent to homopolymeric tracts), no false negatives. All known variants in positions covered with at least 30× depth were correctly recognized.
Conclusion
Massively parallel pyrosequencing may be used to simplify and speed the search for DNA variations in PCR products. Our results encourage further studies to evaluate molecular diagnostics applications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-464
PMCID: PMC2569949  PMID: 18842124

Results 1-5 (5)