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author:("moennig, Mina")
1.  Malnutrition is associated with depression in rural elderly population 
Background:
Aging induces physiological changes and affects all of organs. Nutritional status and mental health deteriorate with aging. As malnutrition and depression are main problem in elderly this study was performed to assess the association between malnutrition and depression among rural elderly.
Materials and Methods:
Three hundred and seventy rural elderly aged over 60 years were examined in a cross-sectional study by systematic sampling method and using mini nutritional assessment (MNA), which is a standard questionnaire for evaluating nutrition status. Depression was evaluated by a validated questionnaire in the elderly. Correlation between Socio-demographic characteristic, diseases, and nutrition status was obtained by t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression in elderly population.
Results:
Mean ± SD age was 70.6 ± 7.3 years. Frequency of malnutrition was similar in both genders. According to MNA, 3.8% of subjects suffered from malnutrition, 32.7% were at risk of malnutrition and 63.5% were well-nourished. Nutrition status correlated with body mass index (P = 0.028) and depression (P = 0.001). The risk of severe depression in patients with malnutrition was 15.5 times higher than non-depressed persons (odd ratio: 15.5; 95% CI: 2.9-82.5).
Conclusion:
Depression could act as a powerful risk for malnutrition in elderly population that it should be controlled by physicians.
PMCID: PMC3743311  PMID: 23961277
Depression; elderly; malnutrition; mini nutritional assessment
2.  The prevalence of hypertension among the elderly in patients in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):1-4.
BACKGROUND
In this study, we discussed aging and common diseases associated with it which can lead to hospitalization. Hypertension was also evaluated as one of the factors affecting morbidity and mortality in elderly people.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, data was collected using checklists and extracting information from medical records in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). Data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics according to the research questions in SPSS.
RESULTS
A total number of 11,018 people aged 60-99 years were studied. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of hospitalization [2063 patients (18.7%)]. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, 84 were suffering from hypertension, 76 had primary hypertension, 7 had hypertensive heart disease with or without congestive heart failure, and 1 had secondary hypertension. Among all hypertensive patients, there were 37 males (44.05%) and 47 females (55.95%). Moreover, 34 people aged 60-69, 30 aged 70-79, 18 aged 80-89 and 2 aged 90-99 years. Duration of hospitalization was less than 1 day for 12 people, 1-2 days for 27, 3-5 days for 25, 6-10 days for 14, 15-11 days for 6, and more than 15 days for 1 person.
CONCLUSION
Prevention and treatment of hypertension is important in order to control this disease. Untreated or poorly/untimely controlled hypertension would thus leave permanent side effects. It may thus leave sustained side effects if remain untreated or poorly/untimely controlled. However, people with hypertension were in minority in our study. Therefore, more research in this field with larger sample size is necessary for further identification of factors affecting quality of life in elderly people.
PMCID: PMC3448392  PMID: 23056091
Elderly; Hypertension; Cardiovascular Disease; Hospitalized
3.  Metabolic syndrome in ischemic stroke: A case control study 
Introduction:
The metabolic syndrome has known as an independent risk factor of stroke. The occurrence of this syndrome is due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This study was performed on the frequency of metabolic syndrome prevalence in ischemic stroke patients compare to control.
Materials and Methods:
one hundred ischemic stroke patients and 100 controls (with the same age and sex) were evaluated for this study.
Result:
62% of patient and 34% of controls had metabolic syndrome criteria according to National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) {OR: 3.2; 95% CI (1.9–9.7), P=0.001} Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was more than men (52% vs. 44%) {OR: 0.72; 95% CI (0.4, 1.3)}. Beside of metabolic syndrome, prevalence of metabolic syndrome components was significantly higher in stroke patients compare to controls.
Conclusion:
metabolic syndrome prevalence are more common in stroke patients compare to controls, but it should be noticed that the controls are in a risk of future stroke so they need special treatment to prevent it.
PMCID: PMC3525036  PMID: 23264792
Metabolic syndrome; prevalence; stroke
4.  Association of Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(3):287-293.
Objective
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), defined by a gender-specific cutoff value, among normal weight and overweight children; and to assess the relationship of increasing ALT levels with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted among school students, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. Based on the body mass index (BMI) percentiles, a group of normal-weight was compared with a group of overweight and obese students. Gender differences were considered for increased levels of ALT, i.e. 19U/L and 30U/L for girls and boys respectively.
Findings
The study participants consisted of 1172 students (56.2% girls), with a mean (SD) age of 12.57 (3.3) years. Among overweight/obese students the mean triglycerides (TG) and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those with increased ALT than in those with normal ALT levels. The logistic regression analysis showed that among overweight/obese boys, for each 1 unit increase in ALT, the odds ratio (OR) of TG, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased significantly. After adjusting for age, these associations remained significant, and the OR of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) decreased significantly. In the model adjusting for age and BMI, the ORs of TG and HDL-c remained significant. After adjusting for age and waist circumference, HDL-c was the only parameter with significant OR. Among overweight/obese girls, in all models applied, the OR was significant for TG and total cholesterol. A significant independent association was documented for waist circumference and increase in ALT after adjustment for BMI.
Conclusion
This study documented significant relationship of increased ALT levels, defined by a gender-specific cutoff point, with cardiometabolic risk factors and hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype in Iranian children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3446178  PMID: 23056803
Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Fatty Liver; Children; Prevention

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