α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), a key regulatory enzyme within the Krebs cycle, is sensitive to mitochondrial redox status. Treatment of mitochondria with H2O2 results in reversible inhibition of KGDH due to glutathionylation of the cofactor, lipoic acid. Upon consumption of H2O2, glutathione is removed by glutaredoxin restoring KGDH activity. Glutathionylation appears to be enzymatically catalysed or require a unique microenvironment. This may represent an antioxidant response, diminishing the flow of electrons to the respiratory chain and protecting sulphydryl residues from oxidative damage. KGDH is, however, also susceptible to oxidative damage. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product, reacts with lipoic acid resulting in enzyme inactivation. Evidence indicates that HNE modified lipoic acid is cleaved from KGDH, potentially the first step of a repair process. KGDH is therefore a likely redox sensor, reversibly altering metabolism to reduce oxidative damage and, under severe oxidative stress, acting as a sentinel of mitochondrial viability.
α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; glutathionylation; redox signalling; mitochondria; free radicals
Clinical and experimental evidence supports that chronic oxidative stress is a primary contributing factor to numerous retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes obtained postmortem from AMD patients have extensive free radical damage to the proteins, lipids, DNA, and mitochondria of their retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In addition, several mouse models of chronic oxidative stress develop many of the pathological hallmarks of AMD. However, the extent to which oxidative stress is an etiologic component versus its involvement in disease progression remains a major unanswered question. Further, whether the primary target of oxidative stress and damage is photoreceptors or RPE cells, or both, is still unclear. In this review, we discuss the major functions of RPE cells with an emphasis on the oxidative challenges these cells encounter and the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms employed to neutralize the deleterious effects that such stresses can elicit if left unchecked.
Retinal pigment epithelium; Age-related macular degeneration; Oxidative stress; Mitochondria; Nrf2; Ubiquitin proteolytic system
Lipid peroxidation generates reactive aldehydes, most notably hydroxynonenal (HNE), which covalently bind amino acid residue side chains leading to protein inactivation and insolubility. Specific adducts of lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated in intimate association with the pathological lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), suggesting that oxidative stress is a major component of AD pathogenesis. Some HNE-protein products result in protein crosslinking through a fluorescent compound similar to lipofuscin, linking lipid peroxidation and the lipofuscin accumulation that commonly occurs in post-mitotic cells such as neurons. In this study, brain tissue from AD and control patients was examined by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy for evidence of HNE-crosslinking modifications of the type that should accumulate in the lipofuscin pathway. Strong labeling of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) and Hirano bodies was noted but lipofuscin did not contain this specific HNE-fluorophore. These findings directly implicate lipid crosslinking peroxidation products as accumulating not in the lesions or the lipofuscin pathways, but instead in a distinct pathway, GVD, that accumulates cytosolic proteins.
fluorophore; granulovacuolar degeneration; Hirano body; hydroxynonenal; lipid peroxidation; lipofuscin; oxidative stress; protein cross-linking
Intracellular proteins are degraded by a number of proteases including the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). Impairments in the UPP occur during the aging of a variety of tissues, although little is known in regards to age-related alterations to the UPP during the aging of adipose tissue. The UPP is known to be involved in regulating the differentiation of a variety of cell types, although the potential changes in UPP during adipose differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Simultaneously elucidating how the UPP is altered in aging adipose tissue and adipocyte differentiation, and determining the effects of proteasome inhibition on adipocyte homeostasis and differentiation, are critical issues to elucidate experimentally. Adipogenesis continues throughout the life of adipose tissue, with continual differentiation of pre-adipocytes essential to maintaining tissue function during aging, while UPP alterations in mature adipocytes is likely to directly modulate adipose function during aging. In the current study we demonstrate that aging induces alterations in the activity and expression of principal components of the UPP. Additionally, we show that multiple changes in the UPP occur during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In vitro data link observed UPP alterations to increased levels of oxidative stress and altered adipose biology relevant to both aging and differentiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that changes in the UPP occur in response to adipose aging and adipogenesis, and strongly suggest that proteasome inhibition is sufficient to decrease adipose differentiation, as well as increase oxidative stress in mature adipocytes, both of which likely promote deleterious effects on adipose aging.
adipocyte; aging; insulin resistance; obesity; proteolysis; ubiquitin; pathology
Excessive production of free radicals by mitochondria is associated with, and likely contributes to, the progression of numerous pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the production of free radicals by the mitochondria may have important biological functions under normal or stressed conditions by activating or modulating redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. This raises the intriguing possibility that regulated mitochondrial free radical production occurs via mechanisms that are distinct from pathologies associated with oxidative damage. Indeed, the capacity of mitochondria to produce free radicals in a limited manner may play a role in ischemic preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby short bouts of ischemia protect from subsequent prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning can thus serve as an important model system for defining regulatory mechanisms that allow for transient, signal-inducing, production of free radicals by mitochondria. Defining how these mechanism(s) occur will provide insight into therapeutic approaches that minimize oxidative damage without altering normal cellular redox biology. The aim of this review is to present and discuss evidence for the regulated production of superoxide by the electron transport chain within the ischemic preconditioning paradigm of redox regulation.
Cardiac ischemia; preconditioning; mitochondria; electron transport chain; free radicals; oxidation and reduction
Long bouts of ischemia are associated with electron transport chain deficits and increases in free radical production. In contrast, little is known regarding the effect of brief ischemia on mitochondrial function and free radical production. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the duration of ischemia, effects upon electron transport chain activities, and the mitochondrial production of free radicals. Rat hearts were subjected to increasing ischemic durations, mitochondria were isolated, and superoxide production and electron transport chain activities were measured. Results indicate that even brief ischemic durations induced a significant increase in superoxide production. This rate was maintained with ischemic durations less than 15 min, and then increased further with longer ischemic times. Mechanistically, brief ischemia was accompanied by an increase in NADH oxidase activity, reflected by a specific increase in complex IV activity. In contrast, longer ischemic durations were accompanied by a decrease in NADH oxidase activity, reflected by deficits in complexes I and IV activities.
cardiac ischemia; ischemic preconditioning; mitochondria; electron transport chain; free radicals; superoxide
The response of the myocardium to an ischaemic insult is regulated by two highly homologous protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, δ and εPKC. Here, we determined the spatial and temporal relationships between these two isozymes in the context of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) to better understand their roles in cardioprotection.
Methods and results
Using an ex vivo rat model of myocardial infarction, we found that short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion prior to the prolonged ischaemic event (IPC) diminished δPKC translocation by 3.8-fold and increased εPKC accumulation at mitochondria by 16-fold during reperfusion. In addition, total cellular levels of δPKC decreased by 60 ± 2.7% in response to IPC, whereas the levels of εPKC did not significantly change. Prolonged ischaemia induced a 48 ± 11% decline in the ATP-dependent proteasomal activity and increased the accumulation of misfolded proteins during reperfusion by 192 ± 32%; both of these events were completely prevented by IPC. Pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome or selective inhibition of εPKC during IPC restored δPKC levels at the mitochondria while decreasing εPKC levels, resulting in a loss of IPC-induced protection from I/R. Importantly, increased myocardial injury was the result, in part, of restoring a δPKC-mediated I/R pro-apoptotic phenotype by decreasing pro-survival signalling and increasing cytochrome c release into the cytosol.
Taken together, our findings indicate that IPC prevents I/R injury at reperfusion by protecting ATP-dependent 26S proteasomal function. This decreases the accumulation of the pro-apoptotic kinase, δPKC, at cardiac mitochondria, resulting in the accumulation of the pro-survival kinase, εPKC.
Cardioprotection; Ischaemia/reperfusion; Apoptosis; Proteasome; PKC; Ischaemic preconditioning
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a highly reactive lipid peroxidation product, may adversely modify proteins. Accumulation of HNE-modified proteins may be responsible for pathological lesions associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this work was to determine how HNE-modified proteins are removed from cells. The data showed that αB-crystallin modified by HNE was ubiquitinated at a faster rate than that of native αB-crystallin in a cell-free system. However, its susceptibility to proteasome-dependent degradation in the cell-free system did not increase. When delivered into cultured lens epithelial cells, HNE-modified αB-crystallin was degraded at a faster rate than that of unmodified αB-crystallin. Inhibition of the lysosomal activity stabilized HNE-modified αB-crystallin, but inhibition of the proteasome activity alone had little effect. To determine if other HNE-modified proteins are also degraded in a ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal pathway, lens epithelial cells were treated with HNE and the removal of HNE-modified proteins in the cells was monitored. The levels of HNE-modified proteins in the cell decreased rapidly upon removal of HNE from the medium. Depletion of ATP or the presence of MG132, a proteasome/lysosome inhibitor, resulted in stabilization of HNE-modified proteins. However, proteasome-specific inhibitors, lactacystin-β-lactone and epoxomicin, could not stabilize HNE-modified proteins in the cells. In contrast, chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, stabilized HNE-modified proteins. The enrichment of HNE-modified proteins in the fraction of ubiquitin conjugates suggests that HNE-modified proteins are preferentially ubiquitinated. Taken together, these findings show that HNE-modified proteins are degraded via a novel ubiquitin and lysosomal-dependent but proteasome-independent pathway.
lipid peroxidation; hydroxynonenal; proteasome; protein quality control
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting large and medium-sized arteries. Inflammatory infiltrates in the arterial wall induce luminal occlusion with subsequent ischemia and degradation of the elastic membranes, allowing aneurysm formation. To identify pathways relevant to the disease process, differential display–PCR was used. The enzyme aldose reductase (AR), which is implicated in the regulation of tissue osmolarity, was found to be upregulated in the arteritic lesions. Upregulated AR expression was limited to areas of tissue destruction in inflamed arteries, where it was detected in T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The production of AR was highly correlated with the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde and downstream product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro exposure of mononuclear cells to HNE was sufficient to induce AR production. The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery–severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat. Inhibition of AR increased HNE adducts twofold and the number of apoptotic cells in the arterial wall threefold. These data demonstrate that AR has a tissue-protective function by preventing damage from lipid peroxidation. We propose that AR is an oxidative defense mechanism able to neutralize the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation and has a role in limiting the arterial wall injury mediated by reactive oxygen species.
The loading of macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key part of the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL contains a wide ranging set of toxic species, yet the molecular events that allow macrophages to withstand loading with these toxic species are not completely characterized. The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of the cellular stress response. However, the specific parts of the Nrf2-dependent stress response are diverse, with both tissue- and treatment-dependent components. The goal of these experiments was to develop and use a quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the Nrf2-dependent response in macrophages to oxidized LDL. Cultured mouse macrophages, the J774 macrophage-like cell line, were treated with a combination of oxidized LDL, the Nrf2-stabilizing reagent tert- butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), and/or Nrf2 siRNA. Protein expression was determined using a quantitative proteomics assay based on selected reaction monitoring. The assay was multiplexed to monitor a set of 28 antioxidant and stress response proteins, 6 housekeeping proteins, and 1 non-endogenous standard protein. The results have two components. The first component is the validation of the multiplexed, quantitative proteomics assay. The assay is shown to be fundamentally quantitative, precise, and accurate. The second component is the characterization of the Nrf2-mediated stress response. Treatment with tBHQ and/or Nrf2 siRNA gave statistically significant changes in the expression of a subset of 11 proteins. Treatment with oxidized LDL gave statistically significant increases in the expression of 7 of those 11 proteins plus one additional protein. All of the oxLDL-mediated increases were attenuated by Nrf2 siRNA. These results reveal a specific, multifaceted response of the foam cells to the incoming toxic oxidized LDL.
Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks) in diabetic mice and age-matched controls.
After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction.
Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy.