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1.  Mast Cells: A Pivotal Role in Pulmonary Fibrosis 
DNA and Cell Biology  2013;32(4):206-218.
Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an inflammatory response that includes macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mast cells play a role in initiating pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in mast-cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv (MCD) mice and their congenic controls (WBB6F1-+/+). Mast cell deficiency protected against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but protection was reversed with the re-introduction of mast cells to the lungs of MCD mice. Two mast cell mediators were identified as fibrogenic: histamine and renin, via angiotensin (ANG II). Both human and rat lung fibroblasts express the histamine H1 and ANG II AT1 receptor subtypes and when activated, they promote proliferation, transforming growth factor β1 secretion, and collagen synthesis. Mast cells appear to be critical to pulmonary fibrosis. Therapeutic blockade of mast cell degranulation and/or histamine and ANG II receptors should attenuate pulmonary fibrosis.
Mast cells, which are central players in type I hypersensitivities, are also critical participants in the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. This article reviews compelling evidence that blockade of mast cell degranulation or of receptors for their mediators (histamine and angiotensin) are therapeutic targets that may attenuate this pathology.
doi:10.1089/dna.2013.2005
PMCID: PMC3624698  PMID: 23570576
2.  Targeting Cardiac Mast Cells: Pharmacological Modulation of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System 
Current Pharmaceutical Design  2011;17(34):3744-3752.
Enhanced production of angiotensin II and excessive release of norepinephrine in the ischemic heart are major causes of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Mast cell-dependent mechanisms are pivotal in the local formation of angiotensin II and modulation of norepinephrine release in cardiac pathophysiology. Cardiac mast cells increase in number in myocardial ischemia and are located in close proximity to sympathetic neurons expressing angiotensin AT1- and histamine H3-receptors. Once activated, cardiac mast cells release a host of potent pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, chemokines, preformed mediators (e.g., histamine) and proteases (e.g., renin). In myocardial ischemia, angiotensin II (formed locally from mast cell-derived renin) and histamine (also released from local mast cells) respectively activate AT1- and H3-receptors on sympathetic nerve endings. Stimulation of angiotensin AT1-receptors is arrhythmogenic whereas H3-receptor activation is cardioprotective. It is likely that in ischemia/reperfusion the balance may be tipped toward the deleterious effects of mast cell renin, as demonstrated in mast cell-deficient mice, lacking mast cell renin and histamine in the heart. In these mice, no ventricular fibrillation occurs at reperfusion following ischemia, as opposed to wild-type hearts which all fibrillate. Preventing mast cell degranulation in the heart and inhibiting the activation of a local reninangiotensin system, hence abolishing its detrimental effects on cardiac rhythmicity, appears to be more significant than the loss of histamine-induced cardioprotection. This suggests that therapeutic targets in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, and potentially congestive heart failure and hypertension, should include prevention of mast cell degranulation, mast cell renin inhibition, local ACE inhibition, ANG II antagonism and H3-receptor activation.
PMCID: PMC3298860  PMID: 22103845
arrhythmias; cardiac renin-angiotensin system; histamine H3-receptors; mast-cell renin; myocardial ischemia-reperfusion; norepinephrine; sensory and sympathetic nerve endings; sodium-proton exchanger
3.  Aldehyde dehydrogenase activation prevents reperfusion arrhythmias by inhibiting local renin release from cardiac mast cells 
Circulation  2010;122(8):771-781.
Background
Renin released by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) from cardiac mast cells activates a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This exacerbates norepinephrine release and reperfusion arrhythmias (VT/VF), making RAS a new therapeutic target in myocardial ischemia.
Methods and Results
We investigated whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) prevents cardiac RAS activation in guinea-pig hearts ex-vivo. When I/R (20-min ischemia/30-min reperfusion) was preceded by IPC (2×5-min I/R cycles), renin and norepinephrine release and VT/VF duration were markedly decreased, a cardioprotective anti-RAS effect. Activation and blockade of adenosine A2b/A3-receptors, and activation and inhibition of PKCε, mimicked and prevented, respectively, the anti-RAS effects of IPC. Moreover, activation of A2b/A3-receptors, or activation of PKCε, prevented degranulation and renin release elicited by peroxide in cultured mast cells (HMC-1). Activation and inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase type-2 (ALDH2) also mimicked and prevented, respectively, the cardioprotective anti-RAS effects of IPC. Furthermore, ALDH2 activation inhibited degranulation and renin release by reactive aldehydes in HMC-1. Notably, PKCε and ALDH2 were both activated by A2b/A3-receptor stimulation in HMC-1, and PKCε inhibition prevented ALDH2 activation.
Conclusions
The results uncover a signaling cascade initiated by A2b/A3-receptors, which triggers PKCε-mediated ALDH2 activation in cardiac mast cells, contributing to IPC-induced cardioprotection by preventing mast-cell renin release and the dysfunctional consequences of local RAS activation. Thus, unlike classical IPC where cardiac myocytes are the main target, cardiac mast cells are the critical site at which the cardioprotective anti-RAS effects of IPC develop.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.952481
PMCID: PMC2927811  PMID: 20697027
Renin; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Norepinephrine; Arrhythmia
4.  IL-10 Suppresses Calcium-mediated Costimulation of RANK Signaling During Human Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting TREM-2 Expression 
Induction of effective osteoclastogenesis by RANK requires costimulation by ITAM-coupled receptors. In humans, the TREM-2 ITAM-coupled receptor plays a key role in bone remodeling, as patients with TREM-2 mutations exhibit defective osteoclastogenesis and bone lesions. We have identified a new rapidly induced costimulatory pathway for RANK signaling that is dependent on TREM-2 and mediated by calcium signaling. TREM-2-dependent calcium signals are required for RANK-mediated activation of CaMKII and downstream MEK and ERK MAPKs that are important for osteoclastogenesis. IL-10 inhibited RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis and selectively inhibited calcium signaling downstream of RANK by inhibiting transcription of TREM-2. Downregulation of TREM-2 expression resulted in diminished RANKL-induced activation of the CaMK-MEK-ERK pathway and decreased expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1. These findings provide a new mechanism of inhibition of human osteoclast differentiation. The results also yield insights into crosstalk between ITAM-coupled receptors and heterologous receptors such as RANK, and identify a mechanism by which IL-10 can suppress cellular responses to TNFR family members.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0804165
PMCID: PMC2742169  PMID: 19625651
5.  Histamine H3-Receptor Signaling in Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves: Identification of a Novel MAPK-PLA2-COX-PGE2-EP3R Pathway 
Biochemical pharmacology  2007;73(8):1146-1156.
We tested the hypothesis that the histamine H3-receptor (H3R)-mediated attenuation of norepinephrine (NE) exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerves results not only from a Gαi-mediated inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, but also from a Gβγi-mediated activation of the MAPK-PLA2 cascade, culminating in formation of an arachidonate metabolite with anti-exocytotic characteristics (e.g., PGE2). We report in Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts and isolated sympathetic nerve endings (cardiac synaptosomes), H3R-mediated attenuation of K+-induced NE exocytosis was prevented by MAPK and PLA2 inhibitors, and by cyclooxygenase and EP3-receptor (EP3R) antagonists. Moreover, H3R activation resulted in MAPK phosphorylation in H3R-transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and in PLA2 activation and PGE2 production in cardiac synaptosomes; H3R-induced MAPK phosphorylation was prevented by an anti-βγ peptide. Synergism between H3R and EP3R agonists (i.e., imetit and sulprostone, respectively) suggested PGE2 may be a downstream effector of the anti-exocytotic effect of H3R activation. Furthermore, the anti-exocytotic effect of imetit and sulprostone was potentiated by the N-type Ca2+-channel antagonist ω-conotoxin GVIA, and prevented by an anti-Gβγ peptide. Our findings suggest an EP3R Gβγi-induced decrease in Ca2+ influx through N-type Ca2+-channels is involved in PGE2/EP3R-mediated attenuation of NE exocytosis elicited by H3R activation. Conceivably, activation of the Gβγi subunit of H3R and EP3R may also inhibit Ca2+ entry directly, independent of MAPK intervention. As heart failure, myocardial ischemia and arrhythmic dysfunction are associated with excessive local NE release, attenuation of NE release by H3R activation is cardioprotective. Thus, the uncovering of a novel H3R signaling pathway may ultimately bear therapeutic significance in hyper-adrenergic states.
doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.01.001
PMCID: PMC1893009  PMID: 17266940
6.  Cardiac mast cell–derived renin promotes local angiotensin formation, norepinephrine release, and arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2006;116(4):1063-1070.
Having identified renin in cardiac mast cells, we assessed whether its release leads to cardiac dysfunction. In Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80 released Ang I–forming activity. This activity was blocked by the selective renin inhibitor BILA2157, indicating that renin was responsible for Ang I formation. Local generation of cardiac Ang II from mast cell–derived renin also elicited norepinephrine release from isolated sympathetic nerve terminals. This action was mediated by Ang II-type 1 (AT1) receptors. In 2 models of ischemia/reperfusion using Langendorff-perfused guinea pig and mouse hearts, a significant coronary spillover of renin and norepinephrine was observed. In both models, this was accompanied by ventricular fibrillation. Mast cell stabilization with cromolyn or lodoxamide markedly reduced active renin overflow and attenuated both norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Similar cardioprotection was observed in guinea pig hearts treated with BILA2157 or the AT1 receptor antagonist EXP3174. Renin overflow and arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion were much less prominent in hearts of mast cell–deficient mice than in control hearts. Thus, mast cell–derived renin is pivotal for activating a cardiac renin-angiotensin system leading to excessive norepinephrine release in ischemia/reperfusion. Mast cell–derived renin may be a useful therapeutic target for hyperadrenergic dysfunctions, such as arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, myocardial ischemia, and congestive heart failure.
doi:10.1172/JCI25713
PMCID: PMC1421347  PMID: 16585966

Results 1-6 (6)