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1.  Tae-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea 
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent and associated with several kinds of chronic diseases. There has been evidence that a specific type of Sasang constitution is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that can be found in patients with OSA, but there are no studies that address the association between the Sasang constitution type (SCT) and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SCT and OSA. A total of 652 participants were included. All participants were examined for demographic information, medical history, and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on life style and sleep-related variables. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine the glucose and lipid profiles. An objective recording of OSA was done with an unattended home PSG using an Embla portable device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly higher in the Tae-eum (TE) type as compared to the So-eum (SE) and the So-yang (SY) types. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the TE type still had a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.11–4.94; P = 0.0262) increased risk for OSA. This population-based cohort study found that the TE constitutional type is an independent risk factor for the development of OSA.
PMCID: PMC3608128  PMID: 23554836
2.  Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Glucose Metabolism in Subjects With or Without Obesity 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(12):3909-3915.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on glucose metabolism was different according to the presence or absence of obesity.
A total of 1,344 subjects >40 years old from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included. OSA was detected by home portable sleep monitoring. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistance were compared according to OSA and obesity status. The associations between OSA and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG + IGT, and diabetes were evaluated in subjects with and without obesity after adjusting for several confounding variables. The effect of visceral obesity on this association was evaluated in 820 subjects who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning.
In subjects without obesity, fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after 75-g glucose loading, and HbA1c were higher in those with OSA than in those without after controlling for age, sex, and BMI. In addition, the presence of OSA in nonobese subjects was associated with a higher prevalence of IFG + IGT and diabetes after adjusting for several confounding variables (odds ratio 3.15 [95% CI 1.44–6.90] and 2.24 [1.43–3.50] for IFG + IGT and diabetes, respectively). Further adjustment for visceral fat area did not modify this association. In contrast, in those with obesity, none of the abnormal glucose tolerance categories were associated with OSA.
The presence of OSA in nonobese individuals is significantly associated with impaired glucose metabolism, which can be responsible for future risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3836097  PMID: 24101695
3.  Predicting type 2 diabetes using Sasang constitutional medicine 
Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) has existed in traditional Korean medicine for more than 100 years. SCM consists of four different types: So‐Eum (SE), So‐Yang (SY), Tae‐Eum (TE) and Tae‐Yang (TY). It is of great importance that the Sasang constitution type (SCT) be evaluated accurately and recognized by medical communities.
Materials and Methods
From the Ansung–Ansan prospective cohort study, 10,038 participants were recruited from the years 2001–2002. Of 10,038 original participants, 2,460 participants underwent SCT evaluation. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict diabetes during the 10‐year follow‐up period.
During 10 years of follow up (22,007 person‐years), 472 incidence cases (215/10,000 Incidence Density) of type 2 diabetes mellitus were documented. We identified that the TE group was significantly older, more obese, and had higher blood pressure, glucose metabolic values and lipid profiles levels. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for type 2 diabetes were 1.696 (95% CI 1.204–2.39, P = 0.003) for TE when compared with the SE type. After controlling all potential confounders, the Cox proportional hazard model showed that RR was 1.635 (95% CI 1.111–2.406) in non‐obese (body mass index <25) TE, and RR was 1.725 (95% CI 1.213–2.452) in obese (body mass index ≥25) TE when compared with the SE type. We did not find any differences when comparing SE and SY types. The findings shows that TE is a higher risk factor for type 2 Diabetes, independent of obesity level.
The present study suggests that the TE type, independent of obesity level, is a strong risk factor of type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4188110  PMID: 25411620
Prospective study; Sasang constitutional medicine; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
4.  Total nasal resistance among Sasang constitutional types: a population-based study in Korea 
There have been many attempts to find an objective phenotype by Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) on an anatomical, physiological, and psychological basis, but there has been no research on total nasal resistance (TNR) among SCTs.
We assessed the value of the TNR in the SCTs classified by an integrated diagnostic model. Included in the study were 1,346 individuals (701 males, 645 females) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The TNR was measured by active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR) at transnasal pressures of 100 and 150 Pascal (Pa).
The average TNR was 0.186 ± 0.004 Pa/cm3/second at 100 Pa in the Tae-eum (TE), 0.193 ± 0.007 in the So-eum (SE), and 0.208 ± 0.005 in the So-yang (SY) types. Under condition of 150 Pa the TE type had a TNR value of 0.217 ± 0.004, the SE type was 0.230 ± 0.008, and the SY type was 0.243 ± 0.005. Higher values of TNR were more likely to be reported in the SY type at 100 Pa and 150 Pa. In the stratified analysis by sex, the SY type in males and females tended to have higher TNR value than the TE and SE types at transnasal pressure of both 100 Pa and 150 Pa.
These results provide new approaches to understand the functional characteristics among the SCTs in terms of nasal physiology. Further studies are required to clarify contributing factors for such a difference.
PMCID: PMC4228428  PMID: 24180585
Sasang constitutional types; Total nasal resistance; Active anterior rhinomanometry; Transnasal pressure; Tae-eum type; So-eum type; So-yang type
5.  Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e75197.
To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance.
Research Design and Methods
A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units.
In subjects with diabetes (n = 282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (≥2.5) group [n = 207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n = 592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)].
Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance.
PMCID: PMC3793981  PMID: 24130687
6.  A Prospective Population-based Study of Total Nasal Resistance in Korean Subjects 
Rhinomanometry is a widely accepted method for objective assessment of nasal patency. However, few studies have reported the values of otherwise healthy population for nasal resistance in East Asians. The purpose of this study was to measure normal total nasal resistance (TNR) values in a large sample of Korean adults and to reveal parameters contributing to TNR values.
Subjects were enrolled from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. They were evaluated by anthropometry, questionnaire, and active anterior rhinomanometry at transnasal pressures of 100 and 150 Pascal (Pa).
The study sample consisted of 2,538 healthy subjects (1,298 women and 1,240 men) aged 20 to 80 years. Normal reference TNR values were 0.19±0.08 Pa/cm3/second at 100 Pa and 0.22±0.09 Pa/cm3/second at 150 Pa. The TNR of women was significantly higher than that of men (P<0.0001). TNR decreased with increasing age in both genders (P<0.05). In women, lower body weight was related to increasing TNR. In men, current smokers had higher TNR than ex-smokers and never smokers.
The results of the present study provide information regarding the values of otherwise healthy population of TNR and parameters associated with TNR in Korean adults.
PMCID: PMC3314804  PMID: 22468201
Adult; Body weight; Nasal obstruction; Reference values; Rhinomanometry; Smoking
7.  Subsidence of Cylindrical Cage (AMSLU™ Cage) : Postoperative 1 Year Follow-up of the Cervical Anterior Interbody Fusion 
There are numerous reports on the primary stabilizing effects of the different cervical cages for cervical radiculopathy. But, little is known about the subsidence which may be clinical problem postoperatively. The goal of this study is to evaluate subsidence of cage and investigate the correlation between radiologic subsidence and clinical outcome.
To assess possible subsidence, the authors investigated clinical and radiological results of the one-hundred patients who underwent anterior cervical fusion by using AMSLU™ cage during the period between January 2003 and June 2005. Preoperative and postoperative lateral radiographs were measured for height of intervertebral disc space where cages were placed. Intervertebral disc space was measured by dividing the sum of anterior, posterior, and midpoint interbody distance by 3. Follow-up time was 6 to 12 months. Subsidence was defined as any change in at least one of our parameters of at least 3 mm.
Subsidence was found in 22 patients (22%). The mean value of subsidence was 2.21 mm, and mean subsidence rate was 22%. There were no cases of the clinical status deterioration during the follow-up period. No posterior or anterior migration was observed.
The phenomenon of subsidence is seen in substantial number of patients. Nevertheless, clinical and radiological results of the surgery were favorable. An excessive subsidence may result in hardware failure. Endplate preservation may enables us to control subsidence and reduce the number of complications.
PMCID: PMC2588192  PMID: 19096571
Subsidence; AMSLU™ cage; Anterior cervical fusion

Results 1-7 (7)