To investigate whether hospitalization influences serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values.
Materials and Methods
Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies were performed for detecting prostate cancer in 2,017 patients between February 2001 and April 2011 at Ajou University Hospital. Of those patients, 416 patients who were hospitalized for prostate biopsies, whose serum PSA values were measured at the outpatient department within 1 month of admission and also just after admission, and who had negative prostate biopsy results were included in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed the data of the 416 patients and compared the serum PSA values measured in the outpatient department with those measured during hospitalization.
Among all 416 patients, the interval between the two PSA measurements was 22.2 days (range, 3 to 30 days) and the prostate size measured by transrectal ultrasonography was 53.63 mL (range, 12.8 to 197.9 mL). Among all patients, mean serum PSA levels measured during hospitalization were significantly lower than those measured in the outpatient department (6.69 ng/mL vs. 8.01 ng/mL, p<0.001). When stratified according to age, the presence or absence of chronic prostatitis in the biopsy pathology, serum PSA levels, and prostate size, the serum PSA levels measured during hospitalization were significantly lower than those measured in the outpatient department in all subgroups, except in cases aged 20 to 39 years and those with PSA <4 ng/mL, in whom no significant differences were shown.
Hospitalization decreases serum PSA values compared with those measured on an outpatient basis in patients with benign prostatic diseases. Therefore, serum PSA values should be checked on an outpatient basis for serial monitoring.
Hospital outpatient clinics; Hospitalization; Prostate-specific antigen
To evaluate the influence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics following maximal androgen blockade (MAB) on disease progression and cancer-specific survival in patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
One hundred thirty-one patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with MAB at our institution were included in this study. Patients' characteristics, PSA at MAB initiation, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir (TTN), and PSA decline were analyzed by using univariate and multivariate analysis.
At a median follow-up of 30 months, 97 patients (74.0%) showed disease progression and 65 patients (49.6%) died. Fifty-nine patients (45.0%) died from prostate cancer. In the univariate analysis, PSA at MAB initiation, PSA nadir, TTN, and PSA decline were significant predictors of progression-free survival. Also, PSA nadir, TTN, and PSA decline were significant predictors of cancer-specific survival. In the multivariate analysis, higher PSA nadir (≥0.2 ng/ml) and shorter TTN (<8 months) were independent predictors of shorter progression-free and cancer-specific survival. In the combined analysis of PSA nadir and TTN, patients with higher PSA nadir and shorter TTN had the worst progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 14.098; p<0.001) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 14.050; p<0.001) compared with those with lower PSA nadir and longer TTN.
Our results suggest that higher PSA nadir level and shorter TTN following MAB are associated with higher risk of disease progression and poorer survival in patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Furthermore, these two variables have a synergistic effect on the outcome.
Prognosis; Prostate-specific antigen; Prostatic neoplasms
To evaluate the prognostic significance of the depth of lamina propria invasion in primary T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients with primary T1 TCC of the bladder who had undergone transurethral resection (TUR) at our institution. Substaging was defined according to the depth of lamina propria invasion as follows: T1a, superficial invasion of lamina propria; T1b, invasion into the muscularis mucosa (MM); T1c, invasion beyond the MM but not to the muscularis propria. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathological variables for recurrence and progression was analyzed.
Of the 183 patients, substaging was T1a in 119, T1b in 57, and T1c in 7 patients. The recurrence rate was 32.8% for T1a and 40.6% for T1b/c, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The progression rate was significantly different between the two groups: 5.8% in T1a and 21.9% in T1b/c (p=0.003). The cancer-specific mortality rate was also significantly different: 4.2% in T1a and 14.0% in T1b/c (p=0.036). In the univariate analysis, microscopic tumor architecture was the only significant prognostic factor for recurrence. In the univariate and multivariate analysis concerning progression, depth of lamina propria invasion and concomitant carcinoma in situ were significant prognostic factors.
Substaging according to the depth of lamina propria invasion in primary T1 TCC of the bladder was an independent prognostic factor for progression. This suggests that substaging would be helpful for guiding decisions about adjuvant therapies and follow-up strategies.
Lamina propria; Muscularis mucosae; Prognosis; Urinary bladder neoplasms
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors for survival in patients treated surgically for transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-TCC).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 87 patients (64 men and 23 women, mean age of 62.2 years) with UUT-TCC who had undergone radical nephroureterectomy at our institution between June 1994 and June 2009. The median follow-up period was 32 months. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathological variables for recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival was analyzed by using univariate and multivariate analysis.
Of the total 87 patients, 21 patients (24.1%) developed local recurrence or distant metastasis and 16 patients (18.4%) died of disease during the follow-up period. The 5-year recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 74.6% and 75.2%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, hydronephrosis, T stage, N stage, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival. In the multivariate analysis, T stage and LVI were independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival.
The T stage and LVI are independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival in patients with UUT-TCC treated by radical nephroureterectomy. These findings would be helpful for guiding decisions about adjuvant therapies and the surveillance interval.
Prognosis; Transitional cell carcinoma; Urologic neoplasms
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in United States and the fifth most common cancer in men in Korea. Although the majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy, almost all patients will eventually progress to develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Treatment options for CRPC remain limited. Prostate cancer was considered unresponsive to chemotherapy until the mid-1990s, when mitoxantrone combined with prednisone was shown to play a role in the palliative treatment of patients with CRPC. In 2004, two large randomized clinical trials demonstrated for the first time a small but significant survival advantage of docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared with mitoxantrone in patients with metastatic CRPC. Recently, cabazitaxel was shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic CRPC who progressed after docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T was also demonstrated to improve overall survival in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic CRPC. Along with mitoxantrone and docetaxel, cabazitaxel and sipuleucel-T are now approved for use in metastatic CRPC by the US Food and Drug Administration. There have been multiple early-phase clinical trials of various agents for the treatment of CRPC, and some are in phase III development. This review focuses on the key clinical trials of various treatment options of CRPC currently in use and under investigation.
Drug therapy; Immunotherapy; Molecular targeted therapy; Prostatic neoplasms; Survival
To investigate the incidence, clinical features, pathogenic bacteria, and risk factors associated with acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 923 transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of the prostate in 878 patients performed at our institution from June 2004 to May 2009. The indications for biopsy were generally serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) elevation, abnormal findings on a digital rectal examination, or both. All biopsies were performed with the patient hospitalized except for 10 patients who refused to be hospitalized, and ciprofloxacin was administered as an antibiotic prophylaxis. The incidence, clinical features, pathogenic bacteria, and potential risk factors associated with acute prostatitis after prostate biopsy were evaluated.
Acute prostatitis developed in 18 (2.0%) cases after prostate biopsy. Among them, 9 (1.0%) had bacteremia and 2 (0.2%) showed clinical features of sepsis. Of the total 50 urine or blood specimens sent for culture study, 27 (54.0%) specimens showed positive cultures, including E. coli in 25. Among the 27 culture-positive specimens, 26 (96.3%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Among the potential risk factors for acute prostatitis after prostate biopsy, biopsy performed as an outpatient procedure without a cleansing enema (p=0.001) and past history of cerebrovascular accident (p=0.048) were statistically significant.
Fluoroquinolone is effective as an antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy in most cases. The incidence of acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy was 2.0%, and almost all cases were caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. A cleansing enema is recommended before transrectal prostate biopsy.
Biopsy; Prostate; Prostatitis
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of caveolin-1 expression with prognosis in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (TCC-UUT). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of TCC-UUT from 98 patients, who had undergone radical nephroureterectomy, were stained immunohistochemically using antibodies against caveolin-1. The expression pattern of caveolin-1 was compared with the clinicopathological variables. The caveolin-1 expression was significantly correlated with T stage (p<0.001) and grade (p=0.036). The survival rate of patients with caveolin-1 positive tumors was significantly lower than that of patients with caveolin-1 negative tumors (p<0.0001). The univariate analyses identified T stage, grade, and caveolin-1 expression as significant prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, whereas the multivariate analyses indicated that T stage and caveolin-1 expression were independent prognostic factors. These results show that the increased expression of caveolin-1 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in TCC-UUT, suggesting that caveolin-1 may play an important role in the progression of TCC-UUT.
Caveolin 1; Prognosis; Carcinoma, Transitional Cell; Upper Urinary Tract
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and p53 expression with prognosis in patients with conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of conventional RCC from 92 patients, who had undergone radical nephrectomy, were examined for COX-2 and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry and compared with clinicopathological variables. The COX-2 expression significantly correlated only with tumor size (p=0.049), whereas the p53 expression profoundly correlated with the TNM stage (p=0.024), M stage (p=0.001), and metastasis (synchronous or metachronous; p=0.004). The COX-2 overexpression did not significantly associate with p53 positivity (p=0.821). The survival rate of patients correlated with the p53 expression (p<0.0001) but not with the COX-2 expression (p=0.7506). Multivariate analyses indicated that tumor size, M stage, and p53 expression were independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. The COX-2 expression was not an independent factor. These results show that the increased expression of p53 was associated with metastasis and a worse prognosis in conventional RCC, which suggests that p53 might have played an important role in the progression of conventional RCC. The increased expression of COX-2 was associated only with tumor size, but may not be an important prognostic factor in conventional RCC. No association was observed between COX-2 overexpression and p53 positivity in conventional RCC.
Cyclooxygenase-2; p53; prognosis; renal cell carcinoma
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. The prevalence of this disease has recently increased worldwide. However, pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is extremely rare. A 51-year-old heterosexual male patient presented with multiple pulmonary nodules with reactive serology from the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption testing. A hematogenous metastatic malignancy was suspected and an excisional lung biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination showed only central necrosis with abscess and plasma cell infiltration, but no malignant cells. The patient reported sexual contact with a prostitute 8 weeks previously and a penile lesion 6 weeks earlier. Physical examination revealed an erythematous papular rash on the trunk. Secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodules was suspected, and benzathine penicillin G, 2.4 million units, was administered. Subsequently, the clinical signs of syphilis improved and the pulmonary nodules resolved. The final diagnosis was secondary syphilis with pulmonary nodular involvement.
Syphilis; Treponema pallidum; Multiple pulmonary nodules
There are still debates on the benefit of mass screening for prostate cancer (PCA) by prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and on systemized surveillance protocols according to PSA level. Furthermore, there is a paucity of literature on current practice patterns according to PSA level in the Korean urologic field. Here, we report the results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective chart-review study.
Materials and Methods
Overall 2122 Korean men (>40 years old, PSA >2.5 ng/mL) were included in our study (from 122 centers, in 2008). The primary endpoint was to analyze the rate of prostate biopsy according to PSA level. Secondary aims were to analyze the detection rate of PCA, the clinical features of patients, and the status of surveillance for PCA according to PSA level.
The rate of prostate biopsy was 7.1%, 26.3%, 54.2%, and 64.3% according to PSA levels of 2.5-3.0, 3.0-4.0, 4.0-10.0, and >10.0 ng/mL, respectively, and the PCA detection rate was 16.0%, 22.2%, 20.2%, and 59.6%, respectively. At a PSA level >4.0 ng/mL, we found a lower incidence of prostate biopsy in local clinics than in general hospitals (21.6% vs. 66.2%, respectively). A significant proportion (16.6%) of patients exhibited high Gleason scores (≥8) even in the group with low PSA values (2.5-4.0 ng/mL).
We believe that the results from this nationwide study might provide an important database for the establishment of practical guidelines for the screening and management of PCA in Korean populations.
Mass screening; prostate biopsy; prostate specific antigen
To identify potential predictive factors of incidental prostate cancer (IPca) in patients considering tissue-ablation treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
From the 11 centers, 1,613 men who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy were included. Before surgery, prostate biopsy was performed in all patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml or with abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. The patients with prostate cancer preoperatively or with PSA >20 ng/ml were excluded. As predictive factors of IPca, age, body mass index, PSA, DRE, and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, including total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions, were reviewed. PSA density (PSAD) and PSAD in the transition zone (PSAD-TZV) were calculated.
IPca was diagnosed in 78 patients (4.8%). DRE findings, PSA, and TZV were independent predictive factors in the multivariate analysis. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of PSA, PSAD, and PSAD-TZV, the area under the curve (AUC) was the largest for PSAD-TZV (AUC, 0.685).
IPca was detected in 4.8% of the population studied. In addition to DRE findings, the combination of TZV and PSA can be useful predictive factors of IPca in patients considering tissue-ablation treatment as well as TURP.
Prostate neoplasms; Prostatic hyperplasia; Transurethral resection of prostate
Rhinomanometry is a widely accepted method for objective assessment of nasal patency. However, few studies have reported the values of otherwise healthy population for nasal resistance in East Asians. The purpose of this study was to measure normal total nasal resistance (TNR) values in a large sample of Korean adults and to reveal parameters contributing to TNR values.
Subjects were enrolled from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. They were evaluated by anthropometry, questionnaire, and active anterior rhinomanometry at transnasal pressures of 100 and 150 Pascal (Pa).
The study sample consisted of 2,538 healthy subjects (1,298 women and 1,240 men) aged 20 to 80 years. Normal reference TNR values were 0.19±0.08 Pa/cm3/second at 100 Pa and 0.22±0.09 Pa/cm3/second at 150 Pa. The TNR of women was significantly higher than that of men (P<0.0001). TNR decreased with increasing age in both genders (P<0.05). In women, lower body weight was related to increasing TNR. In men, current smokers had higher TNR than ex-smokers and never smokers.
The results of the present study provide information regarding the values of otherwise healthy population of TNR and parameters associated with TNR in Korean adults.
Adult; Body weight; Nasal obstruction; Reference values; Rhinomanometry; Smoking
We aimed to verify the current status of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in Korea.
Materials and Methods
The medical records of 1,341 men who underwent TURP in 9 Korean medical centers between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to time periods: 2004-2005 (group 1) and 2006-2008 (group 2). To verify differences in the two patient groups, age, prostate volume, indications for TURP, preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and resected tissue weight were evaluated.
The mean age of the patients was 71.2 years and the mean IPSS was 22.7. The patients' characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The annual cases of TURP increased over the study period. The proportion of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as an indication for TURP increased up to 58.3% in group 2 compared with 51.6% in group 1 (p=0.019). However, the proportion of patients who presented with acute urinary retention decreased from 35.5% to 30.3% with marginal statistical significance (p=0.051). Other indications such as hematuria, bladder stone, recurrent urinary tract infection, and hydronephrosis were not significantly different between the groups. The mean resected weights of the prostate were similar (17.5 g in group 1 and 18.3 g in group 2, respectively; p>0.05).
TURP has been steadily performed in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and it is expected to remain constant. LUTS was the most common indication for TURP in recent years.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Transurethral resection of prostate
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, multisystem disease that rarely involves the genitourinary tract. Here we present an unusual case of testicular sarcoidosis with extensive lymphadenopathy that mimicked a metastatic testicular tumor. A 27-year-old male presented with a palpable right testicular mass accompanied by multiple palpable inguinal lymph nodes. The scrotal ultrasound showed a hypoechoic lesion at the inferior portion of the right testis. Extensive enlarged lymph nodes were noted in multiple areas on the abdominal computed tomography. Preoperative testicular tumor markers were within the normal range. Exploration of the right testis with a frozen section analysis of the right testicular mass and of a palpable right inguinal lymph node showed granulomatous inflammation. The testis was salvaged and the final pathological diagnosis was sarcoidosis. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids resulted in complete resolution of the intratesticular mass and a significant decrease in the extent of the lymphadenopathy.
Lymphatic diseases; Sarcoidosis; Steroids; Testicular neoplasms; Testis
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation and thrombocytosis with the prognosis of patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 177 patients (130 men and 47 women) with non-metastatic RCC who underwent a radical nephrectomy between March 2000 and May 2008 and for whom preoperative CRP and platelet data were available for analysis. Preoperative CRP elevation and thrombocytosis were compared with clinical and pathological variables.
There were 38 patients with CRP elevation and 11 patients with thrombocytosis. The mean follow-up time was 48.3 months (median, 48.0; range, 13-111 months). Twenty-three patients (13.0%) developed metastases and six patients died during the follow-up period. CRP elevation was significantly correlated with anemia (p=0.001), T stage (p=0.004), grade (p=0.025), and metastasis (p<0.001). Thrombocytosis was significantly correlated with anemia (p=0.003), T stage (p=0.002), and metastasis (p=0.001). The univariate analysis identified anemia, CRP elevation, thrombocytosis, tumor histology subtype, tumor size, T stage, and grade as significant prognostic factors associated with recurrence-free survival, whereas the multivariate analyses showed that CRP elevation (p=0.033) and tumor size (p=0.007) were independent prognostic factors.
Preoperative CRP elevation and thrombocytosis were associated with a poorer prognosis and a higher recurrence rate in patients with non-metastatic RCC. Moreover, preoperative CRP elevation appeared to be an independent predictor of tumor recurrence and prognosis. Preoperative thrombocytosis, however, was not an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and prognosis.
C-reactive protein; Prognosis; Renal cell carcinoma; Thrombocytosis
The incidence of accidentally detected small renal tumors is increasing throughout the world. In this multi-institutional study performed in Korea, histopathological characteristics of contemporarily surgically removed renal tumors were reviewed with emphasis on tumor size.
Materials and Methods
Between January 1995 and May 2005, 1,702 patients with a mean age of 55 years underwent surgical treatment at 14 training hospitals in Korea for radiologically suspected malignant renal tumors. Clinicopathological factors and patient survival were analyzed.
Of the 1,702 tumors, 91.7% were malignant and 8.3% were benign. The percentage of benign tumors was significantly greater among those ≤ 4 cm (13.2%) than those > 4 cm (4.5%) (p < 0.001). Among renal cell carcinoma patients, the percentage of tumors ≤ classed as stage ≥ T3 was significantly less among tumors 4 cm (5.2%) than those > 4 cm (26.8%) (p < 0.001). The percentage of tumors classed as Fuhrman's nuclear grades ≥ 3 was also significantly less among tumors ≤ 4 cm (27.3%) than tumors > 4 cm (50.9%) (p < 0.001). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 82.7%, and T stage (p < 0.001), N stage (p < 0.001), M stage (p = 0.025), and Fuhrman's nuclear (p < 0.001) grade were the only independent predictors of cancer-specific survival.
In renal tumors, small tumor size is prognostic for favorable postsurgical histopathologies such as benign tumors, low T stages, and low Fuhrman's nuclear grades. Our observations are expected to facilitate urologists to adopt function-preserving approach in the planning of surgery for small renal tumors with favorable predicted outcomes.
Kidney neoplasms; renal cell carcinoma; nephrectomy; surgical pathology
To develop a reliable prognostic model for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on features readily available in common clinical settings.
Patients and Methods
A total of 197 patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomy and immunotherapy from 1995 to 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Their mean age was 55.1 ± 11.8 yrs (24 - 83 yrs) and mean survival time from metastasis was 22.6 ± 20.2 mos (3 - 120 mos). The impact of 24 clinicopathological features on disease specific survival was investigated.
On univariate analysis, constitutional symptoms, sarcomatoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, multiple primary lesions, liver metastasis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), thrombocytosis, alkaline phosphatase, hematocrit, T stage, N stage, and nuclear grade had significant influence on survival (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed the following features associated with survival: sarcomatoid differentiation [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.99, p < 0.001], liver metastasis (HR = 2.09, p = 0.002), ECOG-PS (HR = 1.95, p = 0.005), N stage (HR = 1.94, p = 0.002), and number of metastatic sites (HR = 1.76, p = 0.003). An individual prognostic score was defined as the sum of the weight of these features. According to prognostic scores, patients could be subdivided into 3 groups: low risk (score 0), intermediate risk (score 1 or 2), and high risk (score ≥ 3).
A comprehensive prognostic stratification model was developed to predict survival and stratify patients for prospective clinical trials.
Carcinoma; renal cell; neoplasm metastasis; nephrectomy; immunotherapy; prognosis
Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH) is an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance, clinically manifestating a relatively benign, lifelong, persistent hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria without hypercalcemic related complications. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism. Here we present a family with FBHH of an autosomal dominant inheritance. A heterozygous mutation of E297K (GAG→AAG, exon 4) of CaSR gene was found in 3 family members. To our knowledge, it is the first confirmed case of FBHH with CaSR gene mutation in Korea.
Autosomal dominant; familial; hypocalciuric hypercalcemia; calcium-sensing receptor mutation