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1.  Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae) 
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m2, and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and 8.0 m2/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at p<0.05. Although total feed intake was not significantly altered, it numerically increased in animals of low stocking density (G1) compared to those subjected to high stocking density treatment (i.e. G4). Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in G3 compared to G1 and G2. Animals in G1 (low stocking density) grew faster (p<0.05) than those of high stocking density (G3 and G4). Back fat thickness, meat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (p<0.01) compared to G3 and G4, and animals in G3 produced smaller carcasses (p<0.05). Carcass quality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both. Nonetheless, these results confirm previous studies reporting a negative effect of increased stocking density on animal productivity. Further, animal welfare under an intensive farming system in relation to economical return is discussed.
PMCID: PMC4093035  PMID: 25049516
Stocking Density; Hanwoo; Growth; Meat Quality; Animal Welfare
2.  Palatal Implants for Persistent Snoring and Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Laser-Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty 
Laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP) was widely performed in 1990s as a surgical therapeutic procedure to improve snoring or mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, LAUP is not currently recommended as a treatment for OSA because the evidence for its efficacy is insufficient. Little is known about alternative minimally invasive surgery in patients who refuse continuous positive airway pressure or oral appliance after failed LAUP. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of persistent snoring and mild OSA with palatal implants after LAUP. This case suggests that palatal implants may be offered as an alternative surgical procedure for selective patients with persistent or recurrent snoring or mild OSA after LAUP.
PMCID: PMC3932353  PMID: 24587885
Obstructive sleep apnea; Snoring; Palate; Implants
3.  Tumor bed volumetric changes during breast irradiation for the patients with breast cancer 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(4):228-233.
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in breast tumor bed volume during whole breast irradiation (WBI).
Materials and Methods
From September 2011 to November 2012, thirty patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by WBI using computed tomography (CT) simulation were enrolled. Simulation CT scans were performed before WBI (CT1) and five weeks after the breast irradiation (CT2). The tumor bed was contoured based on surgical clips, seroma, and postoperative change. We retrospectively analyzed the factors associated with tumor bed volumetric change.
The median tumor bed volume on CT1 and CT2 was 29.72 and 28.6 mL, respectively. The tumor bed volume increased in 9 of 30 patients (30%) and decreased in 21 of 30 patients (70%). The median percent change in tumor bed volume between initial and boost CT was -5%. Seroma status (p = 0.010) was a significant factor in tumor bed volume reduction of 5% or greater. However, patient age, body mass index, palpability, T stage, axillary lymph node dissection, and tumor location were not significant factors for tumor bed volumetric change.
In this study, volumetric change of tumor bed cavity was frequent. Patients with seroma after BCS had a significant volume reduction of 5% or greater in tumor bed during breast irradiation. Thus, resimulation using CT is indicated for exquisite boost treatment in breast cancer patients with seroma after surgery.
PMCID: PMC3912237  PMID: 24501711
Breast neoplasms; Radiation; Lumpectomy cavity
4.  A Prospective Population-based Study of Total Nasal Resistance in Korean Subjects 
Rhinomanometry is a widely accepted method for objective assessment of nasal patency. However, few studies have reported the values of otherwise healthy population for nasal resistance in East Asians. The purpose of this study was to measure normal total nasal resistance (TNR) values in a large sample of Korean adults and to reveal parameters contributing to TNR values.
Subjects were enrolled from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. They were evaluated by anthropometry, questionnaire, and active anterior rhinomanometry at transnasal pressures of 100 and 150 Pascal (Pa).
The study sample consisted of 2,538 healthy subjects (1,298 women and 1,240 men) aged 20 to 80 years. Normal reference TNR values were 0.19±0.08 Pa/cm3/second at 100 Pa and 0.22±0.09 Pa/cm3/second at 150 Pa. The TNR of women was significantly higher than that of men (P<0.0001). TNR decreased with increasing age in both genders (P<0.05). In women, lower body weight was related to increasing TNR. In men, current smokers had higher TNR than ex-smokers and never smokers.
The results of the present study provide information regarding the values of otherwise healthy population of TNR and parameters associated with TNR in Korean adults.
PMCID: PMC3314804  PMID: 22468201
Adult; Body weight; Nasal obstruction; Reference values; Rhinomanometry; Smoking
5.  Evaluation of Urine Cytology in Urothelial Carcinoma Patients: A Comparison of CellprepPlus® Liquid-Based Cytology and Conventional Smear 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(1):68-74.
Urine cytology is an important test in the screening of urothlelial neoplasms. The conventional smear (CS) method of testing urine samples has a low sensitivity, approximately 50% result accuracy for detecting urothelial carcinomas, while liquid-based cytology (LBC) has much improved diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The aim of this study was to compare the morphologic features and diagnostic efficacy of CellprepPlus® LBC with those of CS for urine cytology.
A total of 713 cases of urine specimens collected from November 2009 to September 2010 were included. All specimens were divided equally for the preparation of CellprepPlus® LBC and CS for each case.
CellprepPlus® revealed more cellularity, a cleaner background and better cytomorphologic features, but it showed a less intact architectural pattern compared to that of CS. Of the 88 histologically confirmed cases, the diagnostic sensitivity for CellprepPlus® was 50% and higher than the 37.5% for CS. The specificity of both preparations was 100%.
The CellprepPlus® showed an improved quality of slides and provided better diagnostic accuracy, thus CellprepPlus® could be a first-line screening tool in urinary tract cytology.
PMCID: PMC3479697  PMID: 23109981
Carcinoma, urothelial; Urine, cytology; Urinary bladder neoplasms
6.  Clinical Implications of Mandible and Neck Measurements in Non-Obese Asian Snorers: Ansan City General Population-Based Study 
Anthropometric abnormalities of the mandible and neck may contribute to snoring in non-obese Asians. The study evaluated the clinical implications of mandible and neck measurements in non-obese Asian snorers.
The external mandible and neck measurements (neck circumference, two lengths of neck, mandibular body angle, and lengths of mandibular ramus and body) were compared between snorers and non-snorers in a sample of 2,778 non-obese Koreans (1,389 males, 1,389 females) aged 40 to 69 years (mean, 48.47±7.72 years).
The overall prevalence of snoring was 64.7% (899/1,389) and 48.3% (671/1,389) in non-obese male and female subjects, respectively. In non-obese males, snorers had significantly a greater neck circumference (P<0.0001) and shorter mandibular body length (P=0.0126) than non-snorers. In non-obese females, snorers had significantly greater neck circumferences (P=0.0165), compared with non-snorers. However, there were no statistically significant differences in other variables between non-snorers and snorers.
Anthropometric abnormalities of the mandible and neck, including thick neck circumference in both genders and small mandible size in males, may be relevant contributing factors to snoring in non-obese Asian snorers.
PMCID: PMC3062226  PMID: 21461062
Asian; Population; Snoring; Mandible; Neck
7.  Optimal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Level in Korean Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 
The aim of this study was to investigate optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level, to examine the factors affecting optimal CPAP level, and to develop a predictive equation for optimal CPAP level in Korean patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
A total of 202 patients with OSAS who underwent successful manual titration for CPAP treatment were included in this study. Correlations between the optimal CPAP level and baseline data including anthropometric and polysomnographic variables were analyzed. A predictive equation for optimal CPAP level was developed based on anthropometric and polysomonographic data.
The mean optimal CPAP level in 202 patients with OSAS was 7.8±2.3 cm H2O. The mean optimal CPAP level in the mild, moderate, and severe OSAS groups was 6.0±1.3, 7.4±1.9, and 9.1±2.1 cm H2O, respectively. The apneahypopnea index (AHI) (r=0.595, P<0.001), arousal index (r=0.542, P<0.001), minimal SaO2 (r=-0.502, P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.494, P<0.001), neck circumference (r=0.265, P<0.001), and age (r=-0.164, P=0.019) were significantly correlated with optimal CPAP level. The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: Optimal CPAP level (cm H2O)=0.681+(0.205×BMI)+(0.040×AHI). Forty-two percent of the variance in the optimal CPAP level was explained by this equation (R2=0.42, P<0.001).
A predictive equation for optimal CPAP level in Korean patients with OSAS was developed using AHI and BMI, which can be easily measured during the diagnostic process.
PMCID: PMC3010540  PMID: 21217962
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Continuous positive airway pressure; Polysomnography; Body mass index

Results 1-7 (7)