PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Severity of the TGN1412 trial disaster cytokine storm correlated with IL-2 release 
Aim
To determine if cytokine release with a solid phase assay is predictive of adverse responses for a range of therapeutic mAbs.
Methods
Cytokine ELISAs and a multi-array system were used to compare responses generated by different therapeutic mAbs using a solid phase assay. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the cellular source of those cytokines.
Results
Only TGN1412 and muromonab-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T-cell mediated cytokine release characterized by significant (all P < 0.0001) IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-22 release, comparable with T-cell mitogen. Significantly greater (P < 0.0001) IL-2 release with TGN1412 (2894–6051 pg ml−1) compared with muromonab-CD3 (62–262 pg ml−1) differentiated otherwise comparable cytokine responses. Likewise, TGN1412 stimulated significantly more (P = 0.0001) IL-2 producing CD4+ T-cells than muromonab-CD3 and induced Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22 subsets that co-release this cytokine. Significant TNFα release was observed with bevacizumab (P = 0.0001), trastuzumab (P = 0.0031) and alemtuzumab (P = 0.0177), but no significant IL-2 release. TGN1412 and muromonab-CD3 caused pro-inflammatory cytokine release despite significantly (both P < 0.0001) increasing numbers of T-cells with a regulatory phenotype.
Conclusions
The severity of the adverse response to TGN1412 compared with muromonab-CD3 and other therapeutic mAbs correlates with the level of IL-2 release.
doi:10.1111/bcp.12165
PMCID: PMC3731604  PMID: 23701319
cytokine release assays; preclinical safety testing; TGN1412; therapeutic monoclonal antibodies
2.  Severity of the TGN1412 trial disaster cytokine storm correlated with IL-2 release 
Aim To determine if cytokine release with a solid phase assay is predictive of adverse responses for a range of therapeutic mAbs.
Methods Cytokine ELISAs and a multi-array system were used to compare responses generated by different therapeutic mAbs using a solid phase assay. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the cellular source of those cytokines.
Results Only TGN1412 and muromonab-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T-cell mediated cytokine release characterized by significant (all P < 0.0001) IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-22 release, comparable with T-cell mitogen. Significantly greater (P < 0.0001) IL-2 release with TGN1412 (2894–6051 pg ml−1) compared with muromonab-CD3 (62–262 pg ml−1) differentiated otherwise comparable cytokine responses. Likewise, TGN1412 stimulated significantly more (P = 0.0001) IL-2 producing CD4+ T-cells than muromonab-CD3 and induced Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22 subsets that co-release this cytokine. Significant TNFα release was observed with bevacizumab (P = 0.0001), trastuzumab (P = 0.0031) and alemtuzumab (P = 0.0177), but no significant IL-2 release. TGN1412 and muromonab-CD3 caused pro-inflammatory cytokine release despite significantly (both P < 0.0001) increasing numbers of T-cells with a regulatory phenotype.
Conclusions The severity of the adverse response to TGN1412 compared with muromonab-CD3 and other therapeutic mAbs correlates with the level of IL-2 release.
doi:10.1111/bcp.12165
PMCID: PMC3731604  PMID: 23701319
cytokine release assays; preclinical safety testing; TGN1412; therapeutic monoclonal antibodies
3.  Biomarkers of folate status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of folate status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES has measured serum folate since 1974 and red blood cell (RBC) folate since 1978 with the use of several different measurement procedures. Data on serum 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and folic acid (FA) concentrations in persons aged ≥60 y are available in NHANES 1999–2002. The roundtable reviewed data that showed that folate concentrations from the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA; used in NHANES 1991–1994 and NHANES 1999–2006) were, on average, 29% lower for serum and 45% lower for RBC than were those from the microbiological assay (MA), which was used in NHANES 2007–2010. Roundtable experts agreed that these differences required a data adjustment for time-trend analyses. The roundtable reviewed the possible use of an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure for future NHANES and agreed that the close agreement between the MA and LC-MS/MS results for serum folate supported conversion to the LC-MS/MS procedure. However, for RBC folate, the MA gave 25% higher concentrations than did the LC-MS/MS procedure. The roundtable agreed that the use of the LC-MS/MS procedure to measure RBC folate is premature at this time. The roundtable reviewed the reference materials available or under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and recognized the challenges related to, and the scientific need for, these materials. They noted the need for a commutability study for the available reference materials for serum 5MTHF and FA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013011
PMCID: PMC3127517  PMID: 21593502
4.  Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013243
PMCID: PMC3127527  PMID: 21593512

Results 1-4 (4)