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1.  Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements 
Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects.
doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2007.07.010
PMCID: PMC4208495  PMID: 25346570
Dietary supplements; Analytical substantiation; Dietary supplement composition; Dietary supplement ingredient database; NHANES; DSID; NHANES-DSLD; DSLD-USA; Dietary supplement labels; Standard reference materials®; Certified reference materials
2.  Progress in development of an integrated dietary supplement ingredient database at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements 
Several activities of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health involve enhancement of dietary supplement databases. These include an initiative with US Department of Agriculture to develop an analytically substantiated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) and collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the dietary supplement label database in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The many challenges that must be dealt with in developing an analytically supported DSID include categorizing product types in the database, identifying nutrients, and other components of public health interest in these products and prioritizing which will be entered in the database first. Additional tasks include developing methods and reference materials for quantifying the constituents, finding qualified laboratories to measure the constituents, developing appropriate sample handling procedures, and finally developing representative sampling plans. Developing the NHANES dietary supplement label database has other challenges such as collecting information on dietary supplement use from NHANES respondents, constant updating and refining of information obtained, developing default values that can be used if the respondent cannot supply the exact supplement or strength that was consumed, and developing a publicly available label database. Federal partners and the research community are assisting in making an analytically supported dietary supplement database a reality.
doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2005.09.001
PMCID: PMC4191662  PMID: 25309034
Dietary supplements; Analytical substantiation; Dietary supplement composition; Dietary supplement ingredient database; NHANES; DSID; Dietary supplement labels; Certified reference materials; Standard reference materials
3.  Development and Certification of a Standard Reference Material for Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Seruma 
Analytical Chemistry  2011;84(2):956-962.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum. SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum consists of four serum pools with different levels of vitamin D metabolites and has certified and reference values for 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Value assignment of this SRM was accomplished using a combination of three isotope-dilution mass spectrometry approaches, with measurements performed at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chromatographic resolution of the 3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 proved to be essential for accurate determination of the metabolites.
doi:10.1021/ac202047n
PMCID: PMC3287345  PMID: 22141317
4.  Biomarkers of folate status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of folate status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES has measured serum folate since 1974 and red blood cell (RBC) folate since 1978 with the use of several different measurement procedures. Data on serum 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and folic acid (FA) concentrations in persons aged ≥60 y are available in NHANES 1999–2002. The roundtable reviewed data that showed that folate concentrations from the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA; used in NHANES 1991–1994 and NHANES 1999–2006) were, on average, 29% lower for serum and 45% lower for RBC than were those from the microbiological assay (MA), which was used in NHANES 2007–2010. Roundtable experts agreed that these differences required a data adjustment for time-trend analyses. The roundtable reviewed the possible use of an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure for future NHANES and agreed that the close agreement between the MA and LC-MS/MS results for serum folate supported conversion to the LC-MS/MS procedure. However, for RBC folate, the MA gave 25% higher concentrations than did the LC-MS/MS procedure. The roundtable agreed that the use of the LC-MS/MS procedure to measure RBC folate is premature at this time. The roundtable reviewed the reference materials available or under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and recognized the challenges related to, and the scientific need for, these materials. They noted the need for a commutability study for the available reference materials for serum 5MTHF and FA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013011
PMCID: PMC3127517  PMID: 21593502
5.  Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013243
PMCID: PMC3127527  PMID: 21593512
6.  Dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on the composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements☆ 
The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and other government agencies to design and populate a dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database will provide reliable estimates of vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplement (DS) products. The DSID will initially be populated with multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products because they are the most commonly consumed supplements. Challenges associated with the analysis of MVMs were identified and investigated. A pilot study addressing the identification of appropriate analytical methods, sample preparation protocols, and experienced laboratories for the analysis of 12 vitamins and 11 minerals in adult MVM supplement products was completed. Preliminary studies support the development of additional analytical studies with results that can be applied to the DSID. Total intakes from foods and supplements are needed to evaluate the associations between dietary components and health. The DSID will provide better estimates of actual nutrient intake from supplements than databases that rely on label values alone.
PMCID: PMC3846171  PMID: 24307755
Dietary supplements; Analytical database; DSID; Multivitamin; Pilot study; Nutrients
8.  Online Dietary Supplement Resources 
doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.08.013
PMCID: PMC2956064  PMID: 20869478
online resources; government; dietary supplements; databases
9.  Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988–1994 versus 2000–20041 
Background
Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in the US population have not been described.
Objective
Use data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) to compare serum 25OHD concentrations in the US population in 2000–2004 versus 1988–1994, and to identify contributing factors.
Design
Serum 25OHD was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 20,289 participants in NHANES 2000–2004 and 18,158 participants in NHANES III (1988–1994). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight. Milk intake and sun protection were assessed by questionnaire. Assay differences were assessed by re-analyzing 150 stored sera specimens from NHANES III with the current assay.
Results
Age-adjusted mean serum 25OHD concentrations were significantly lower by 5–20 nmol/L in NHANES 2000–2004 than in NHANES III. After accounting for assay shifts, age-adjusted means in NHANES 2000–2004 remained significantly lower (by 5–9 nmol/L) in most males, but not in most females. In a study subsample, accounting for the confounding effects of assay differences changed mean serum 25OHD by ~10 nmol/L, while accounting for changes in the factors likely related to real changes in vitamin D status (BMI, milk intake, and sun protection) changed means by 1–1.6 nmol/L.
Conclusions
Overall, mean serum 25OHD was lower in 2000–2004 than 1988–1994. Assay changes unrelated to changes in vitamin D status accounted for much of the difference in most population groups. In an adult subgroup, combined changes in BMI, milk intake and sun protection appeared to contribute to a real decline in vitamin D status.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26182
PMCID: PMC2745830  PMID: 19064511
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D status; NHANES
10.  Breast-feeding through the first year predicts maternal control in feeding and subsequent toddler energy intakes 
Objective
Current recommendations for infant feeding encourage breast-feeding through the first year. This research was conducted to evaluate associations among breast-feeding, maternal control of child feeding, and the dietary intake of toddlers during the second year of life. In particular, we sought to determine whether breast-feeding through the first year and subsequent toddler intake was mediated via maternal control of child feeding.
Design/subjects
Fifty-five white infants and their mothers were monitored longitudinally from age 12 or 13 months to age 18 months.
Main outcome measures
Breast-feeding through the first year and maternal control in infant feeding were evaluated as predictors of energy intake at age 18 months.
Statistical analyses performed
Regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of toddler energy intake at age 18 months. A mediation model tested if the relationship between breast-feeding and infant intake was mediated by maternal control in feeding.
Results
Breast-feeding through the first year was associated with higher toddler energy intakes at age 18 months through its influence on maternal control in feeding. Mothers who breast-fed their infants for at least 12 months used lower levels of control in feeding. Lower levels of maternal control in feeding were associated with higher toddler energy intakes. The highest energy intakes among children aged 18 months were observed among taller and leaner toddlers.
Applications/conclusions
Our findings suggest that breast-feeding through the first year may have an effect on children’s energy intake by shaping mothers’ child-feeding practices. These findings may be used by clinicians to assist parents in making informed decisions about choice of infant-feeding method and to provide anticipatory guidance regarding infant-feeding style when initiating dietary diversity.
doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(00)00190-5
PMCID: PMC2531149  PMID: 10863566
11.  Vitamin D Status and Health 
doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.526858
PMCID: PMC3024835

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