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1.  A Dose-Escalation Study of Recombinant Human Interleukin-18 in Combination with Rituximab in Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an immunostimulatory cytokine with antitumor activity in preclinical models. Rituximab is a CD20 monoclonal antibody with activity against human B cell lymphomas. A phase I study of recombinant human (rh) IL-18 given with rituximab was performed in patients with CD20+ lymphoma. Cohorts of 3–4 patients were given infusions of rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly for 4 weeks with escalating doses of rhIL-18 as a 2-hour intravenous infusion weekly for 12 consecutive weeks. Toxicities were graded using standard criteria. Blood samples were obtained for safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies. Nineteen patients with CD20+ B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were given rituximab in combination with rhIL-18 at doses of 1, 3, 10, 20, 30, and 100 μg/kg. Common side effects included chills, fever, headache, and nausea. Common laboratory abnormalities included transient, asymptomatic lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and bilirubin and liver enzyme elevations. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Biologic effects of rhIL-18 included transient lymphopenia and increased expression of activation antigens on lymphocytes. Increases in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and chemokines were observed following dosing. Objective tumor responses were seen in 5 patients, including 2 complete and 3 partial responses. rhIL-18 can be given in biologically active doses by weekly infusions in combination with rituximab to patients with lymphoma. A maximum tolerated dose of rhIL-18 plus rituximab was not determined. Further studies of rhIL-18 and CD20 monoclonal antibodies in B cell malignancies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3770482  PMID: 23799412
Rituximab; IL-18; IFN-γ; lymphoma
2.  Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Brecanavir, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor, following Repeat Administration with and without Ritonavir in Healthy Adult Subjects▿  
Brecanavir (BCV) is a novel, potent protease inhibitor in development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection with low nM in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) against many multiprotease inhibitor resistant viruses. This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled repeat-dose escalation to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of BCV, with or without ritonavir (RTV), in 68 healthy subjects. Seven sequential cohorts (n = 10) received BCV (50 to 600 mg) in combination with 100 mg RTV (every 12 h [q12h] or q24h) or alone at 800 mg q12h for 15 days. BCV alone or in combination with RTV was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. The most common drug-related adverse event was headache. BCV was readily absorbed with median time to maximum concentration of drug in serum values ranging from 2.5 to 5.0 h postdose following single- and repeat-dose administration of BCV alone and BCV with RTV 100 mg. Geometric mean BCV accumulation ratios ranged from 1.4 to 1.56 following BCV-RTV q24h regimens and from 1.84 to 4.93 following BCV q12h regimens. BCV steady state was generally achieved by day 13 in all groups. All day 15 BCV-RTV trough concentration values in q12h regimens reached or surpassed the estimated protein-binding corrected in vitro IC50 target BCV concentration of 28 ng/ml for highly resistant isolates. The pharmacokinetic and safety profile of BCV-RTV supports continued investigation in HIV-1-infected subjects.
PMCID: PMC1855506  PMID: 17261626
3.  Single-Dose Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Brecanavir, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitor 
Brecanavir (BCV, 640385) is a novel, potent protease inhibitor (PI) with low nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentrations against PI-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. This phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-part single-dose study (first time with humans) was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of BCV administered at 10 mg/ml in a tocopherol-polyethylene glycol succinate-polyethylene glycol 400-ethanol 50:40:10 solution. In part 1 of the study, single oral doses of BCV ranged from 25 mg to 800 mg. In part 2, single oral doses of BCV ranged from 10 mg to 300 mg and were coadministered with 100-mg oral ritonavir (RTV) soft gel capsules. Single doses of BCV and BCV/RTV were generally well tolerated. There were no severe adverse events (SAEs), and no subject was withdrawn due to BCV. The most commonly reported drug-related AEs during both parts of the study combined were gastrointestinal disturbances (similar to placebo) and headache. BCV was readily absorbed following oral administration with mean times to maximum concentration from >1 h to 2.5 h in part 1 and from 1.5 h to 3 h in part 2. Administration of BCV without RTV resulted in BCV exposures predicted to be insufficient to inhibit PI-resistant virus based on in vitro data. Coadministration of 300 mg BCV with 100 mg RTV, however, significantly increased the plasma BCV area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration 26-fold and 11-fold, respectively, achieving BCV concentrations predicted to inhibit PI-resistant HIV.
PMCID: PMC1479152  PMID: 16723584

Results 1-4 (4)