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1.  Folate and vitamin B12 in idiopathic male infertility 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(6):856-861.
Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case–control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malmö and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l−1; P = 0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.96
PMCID: PMC3372894  PMID: 21857689
folate; idiopathic male infertility; semen quality; vitamin B12
2.  Folate and vitamin B12 in idiopathic male infertility 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(6):856-861.
Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case–control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malmö and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P=0.01 and P=0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l−1; P=0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.96
PMCID: PMC3372894  PMID: 21857689
folate; idiopathic male infertility; semen quality; vitamin B12
3.  Maternal Serum Preconception Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations and Infant Birth Weight 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2009;118(2):297-302.
Background
Prenatal and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) exposure has been associated with decrements in fetal and infant growth and development, although exposures during the preconception window have not been examined despite recent evidence suggesting that this window may correspond with the highest serum concentrations.
Objectives
We assessed maternal serum PCB concentrations at two sensitive developmental windows in relation to birth weight.
Methods
Serum samples were collected from 99 women as they began trying to become pregnant (preconception) and after a positive pregnancy test (prenatal); 52 (53%) women gave birth and represent the study cohort. Using daily diaries, women recorded sexual intercourse, menstruation, and home pregnancy test results until pregnant or up to 12 menstrual cycles with intercourse during the estimated fertile window. With gas chromatography with electron capture, 76 PCB congeners were quantified (nanograms per gram serum) and subsequently categorized by purported biologic activity. Serum PCBs were log-transformed and entered both as continuous and categorized exposures along with birth weight (grams) and covariates [smoking (yes/no), height (inches), and infant sex (male/female)] into linear regression.
Results
A substantial reduction in birth weight (grams) was observed for women in the highest versus the lowest tertile of preconception antiestrogenic PCB concentration (β = −429.3 g, p = 0.038) even after adjusting for covariates (β = −470.8, p = 0.04).
Conclusions
These data reflect the potential developmental toxicity of antiestrogenic PCBs, particularly during the sensitive preconception critical window among women with environmentally relevant chemical exposures, and underscore the importance of PCB congener–specific investigation.
doi:10.1289/ehp.0901150
PMCID: PMC2831933  PMID: 20123616
birth weight; developmental toxicant; early origins of disease; endocrine disruptors; polychlorinated biphenyls; preconception

Results 1-3 (3)