Immunoassays for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1α,25(OH)2D] lack specificity. We aimed to characterize the cross-reactivity of an anti-1α,25(OH)2D antibody using purified vitamin D metabolites and to use these data to map the chemical features of 1α,25(OH)2D that are important for antibody binding. Additionally, we hypothesized that when combined with isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), antibody cross-reactivity could be used to semi-selectively enrich for structurally similar metabolites of vitamin D in a multiplexed assay.
Sample preparation consisted of immunoaffinity enrichment with a solid-phase anti-1α,25(OH)2D antibody and derivatization. Analytes were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Spike-recovery studies were performed using eleven vitamin D metabolites. A novel method for quantifying 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, 1α,25(OH)2D2 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 simultaneously was developed and evaluated, which included deuterated internal standards for each analyte.
The important chemical features of vitamin D metabolites for binding to the antibody were (1) native orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon C3 in the A-ring, (2) the lack of substitution at carbon C4 in the A-ring, and (3) the overall polarity of the vitamin D metabolite. The new multiplexed method had lower limits of quantification (20% CV) of 0.2 ng/mL, 1.0 ng/mL, 0.06 ng/mL, 3.4 pg/mL and 2.8 pg/mL for 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, 1α,25(OH)2D2 and 1α,25(OH)2D3, respectively. Method comparisons to three other LC-MS/MS methods were acceptable (r2>0.9, intercept
LC-MS/MS can be used to characterize antibody cross-reactivity. We developed and evaluated a multiplexed assay for five vitamin D metabolites using immunoenrichment in a targeted metabolomic assay.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; immunoaffinity enrichment; multiplexed assay; specificity; hapten mapping; vitamin D metabolism
1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is the active metabolite of vitamin D. Antibody-based detection methods lack specificity, but when combined with isotope dilution-UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, immunoextraction provides an attractive method for 1,25(OH)2D. We developed a method for simultaneous quantification of 1,25(OH)2D2 and 1,25(OH)2D3 with a 4.6 min instrument cycle time. Results are available 36 h after sample preparation begins.
Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation, immunoextraction with solid-phase anti-1,25(OH)2D antibody, and derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione. Analytes were resolved using reversed-phase UPLC and quantified using positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Hexadeuterated 1,25(OH)2D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2 were used as internal standards. Method comparisons were performed against the DiaSorin RIA and an LC-MS/MS method available at a reference laboratory.
1,25(OH)2D3 intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision was 5.6% and 8.0% (120 pmol/L) and 8.7% and 13% (48 pmol/L). Limits of detection and quantification were 1.5 pmol/L and 3.0 pmol/L, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D2 intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision was 8.7% and 11% (186 pmol/L) and 11% and 13% (58 pmol/L). Limits of detection and quantification were 1.5 pmol/L. Comparison with RIA had a proportional bias of 0.75, constant bias of −4.1 and Pearson correlation (r2) of 0.31. Comparison with a reference LC-MS/MS assay had a porportional bias of 0.89, constant bias of 3.7 and Pearson correlation (r2) of 0.88.
Protein precipitation with antibody-based extraction is effective for sample preparation prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of derivatized 1,25(OH)2D. This method appears to have improved specificity over a clinically-used RIA with low imprecision and limits of detection.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; vitamin D; dihydroxy vitamin D; immunoaffinity; PTAD; protein precipitation
Patients with chronic kidney disease are often insulin resistant and glucose intolerant; abnormalities that promote cardiovascular disease. Administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) has improved glucose metabolism in patients with end stage renal disease. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to test whether paricalcitol, a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D analogue, changes glucose tolerance in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. In a cross-over design, 22 non-diabetic patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates of stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease and fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL were given daily oral paricalcitol for 8 weeks and matching placebo for 8 weeks, separated by an 8-week washout period. The order of interventions was random and blinded to both participants and investigators. Paricalcitol significantly reduced serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D while significantly increasing serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Paricalcitol, however, had no significant effect on glucose tolerance (the primary outcome measure), insulin sensitivity, beta-cell insulin response, plasma free fatty acid suppression, or urinary F2-isoprostane excretion. Thus, despite substantial effects on vitamin D metabolism, paricalcitol did not improve glucose metabolism in non-diabetic patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.
Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice.
We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles.
Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function.
These data show that S1P is beneficial for muscle regeneration and functional gain in dystrophic mice, and that THI, or other pharmacological agents that raise S1P levels systemically, may be developed into an effective treatment for improving muscle function and reducing the pathology of DMD.
An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing.
For decades, immunoassays have provided the framework for protein biomarker studies in clinical medicine and in therapeutic monitoring for drug development. At the same time, investigators have uncovered many issues that make immunoassays unreliable in many human serum and plasma samples. LC-MS/MS after tryptic digestion of proteins is potentially an attractive solution, but the sensitivity of the method is not sufficient to measure many important low-abundance proteins directly. The use of antipeptide antibodies to immunoenrich peptides of interest can improve the sensitivity of the approach, greatly simplify the matrix enabling shortened chromatographic runs, and facilitate the multiplexed quantification of analytes, which could reduce the costs of quantitative protein measurements in complex specimens. We provide an overview of the method and the steps needed to develop an assay. In addition, we review the efforts to make this method generally more applicable.
Mass spectrometric assays have the potential to replace protein immunoassays in basic science, clinical research, and clinical care. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of assays using multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for the quantification of proteins in biological samples and many examples of the accuracy of these approaches to quantify spiked analytes have been reported. However, a direct comparison of multiplexed assays using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with established immunoassays to measure endogenous proteins has not been reported.
We purified the HDL from the plasma of 30 human subjects enrolled in a clinical nutrition research study and used label-free shotgun proteomics approaches to analyze each sample. We then developed two different 6-plex assays that used isotope dilution MRM-MS: one assay used stable isotope labeled peptides and the other used stable isotope labeled apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the most abundant protein in HDL, as internal standards to control for matrix effects and mass spectrometer performance. The shotgun and MRM-MS assays were then compared with commercially available immunoassays for each of the six analytes.
Quantification by shotgun proteomics approaches correlated poorly with the six protein immunoassays. However, the MRM-MS approaches that used internal standard peptide or a single internal standard protein correlated well. In addition, MRM-MS approaches had good repeatability (<10% CV) and linearity.
Multiplexed MRM-MS assays correlate well with immunochemical measurements and have acceptable operating characteristics in complex samples. Our results support the proposal that MRM-MS could be used to replace immunoassays in a variety of settings.
Mass spectrometry; multiple reaction monitoring; endogenous; proteins; high density lipoprotein; targeted proteomics
The unmitigated rise in demand for the assessment of vitamin D status has taxed the ability of clinical mass spectrometry laboratories to preserve turn-around times. We aimed to improve the throughput of liquid-liquid extraction of plasma/serum for the assay of 25-hydroxy vitamin D.
We designed and fabricated a flexible rubber gasket that seals two 96-well plates together to quantitatively transfer the contents of one plate to another. Using the transfer gasket and a dry-ice acetone bath to freeze the aqueous infranatant, we developed a novel liquid-liquid extraction workflow in a 96-well plate format. We applied the technology to the mass spectrometric quantification of 25-hydroxy vitamin D.
Cross-contamination between wells was ≤0.13%. The interassay imprecision over 132 days of clinical implementation was less than 10%. The method compared favorably to a standard liquid-liquid extraction in glass tubes (Deming slope=1.018, Sx|y=0.022). The accuracy of the assay was 102-105% as assessed with the recently released control materials from NIST.
The development of a plate-sealing gasket permits the liquid-liquid extraction of clinical specimens in a moderate-throughput workflow and the reliable assay of vitamin D status. In the future, the gasket may also prove useful in other sample preparation techniques for HPLC or mass spectrometry.
Vitamin D; Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; assay; 96-well plate; liquid-liquid extraction
Exogenous androgens can lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, yet men with low serum testosterone have elevated rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). HDL function may better predict CVD risk than absolute HDL-C quantity. We evaluated the acute effects of medical castration in men on HDL-C, cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL protein composition. Twenty-one healthy men, ages 18–55, received the GnRH antagonist acyline and one of the following for 28 days: Group 1: placebo, Group 2: transdermal testosterone gel and placebo, Group 3: transdermal testosterone gel and an aromatase inhibitor. Sex steroids, fasting lipids, and cholesterol efflux to apoB-depleted serum were measured in all subjects. The HDL proteome was assessed in Group 1 subjects only. In Group 1, serum testosterone concentrations were reduced by >95%, and HDL-C and cholesterol efflux capacity increased (p=0.02 and p=0.04 vs. baseline, respectively). HDL-associated clusterin increased significantly with sex steroid withdrawal (p=0.007 vs. baseline). Testosterone withdrawal in young, healthy men increases HDL-C and cholesterol efflux capacity. Moreover, sex steroid deprivation changes HDL protein composition. Further investigation of the effects of sex steroids on HDL composition and function may help resolve the apparently conflicting data regarding testosterone, HDL-C, and CVD risk.
testosterone; estradiol; HDL cholesterol; cardiovascular disease; apolipoproteins; atherosclerosis
Immunoassays have made it possible to measure dozens of individual proteins and other analytes in human samples for help in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. In too many cases the results of those measurements are misleading and can lead to unnecessary treatment or missed opportunities for therapeutic interventions. These cases stem from problems inherent to immunoassays performed with human samples, which include a lack of concordance across platforms, autoantibodies, anti-reagent antibodies, and the high-dose hook effect. Tandem mass spectrometry may represent a detection method capable of alleviating many of the flaws inherent to immunoassays. We review our understanding of the problems associated with immunoassays on human specimens and describe methodologies using tandem mass spectrometry that could solve some of those problems. We also provide a critical discussion of the potential pitfalls of novel mass spectrometric approaches in the clinical laboratory.
Immunoassays; tandem mass spectrometry; autoantibody interference; hook effect; heterophile anti-reagent antibodies; standardization
Chronic kidney disease is characterized, in part, as a state of decreased production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D); however, this paradigm overlooks the role of vitamin D catabolism. We developed a mass spectrometric assay to quantify serum concentration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), the first metabolic product of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by CYP24A1, and determined its clinical correlates and associated outcomes among 278 participants with chronic kidney disease in the Seattle Kidney Study. For eGFRs of 60 or more, 45–59, 30–44, 15–29, and under 15 ml/min/1.73m2, the mean serum 24,25(OH)2D concentrations significantly trended lower from 3.6, 3.2, 2.6, 2.6, to 1.7 ng/ml, respectively. Non-Hispanic Black race, diabetes, albuminuria, and lower serum bicarbonate were also independently and significantly associated with lower 24,25(OH)2D concentrations. The 24,25(OH)2D concentration was more strongly correlated with that of parathyroid hormone than was 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D. A 24,25(OH)2D concentration below the median was associated with increased risk of mortality in unadjusted analysis, but this was attenuated with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Thus, chronic kidney disease is a state of stagnant vitamin D metabolism characterized by decreases in both 1,25(OH)2D production and vitamin D catabolism.
The implementation of mass spectrometry to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations has led to concerns regarding the measurement and reporting of the C3-epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3], for which there is a near-total lack of data regarding its clinical significance.
We developed a chromatographic method to resolve (>90%) 3-epi-25(OH)D3 from 25(OH)D3 using a pentafluorophenyl propyl chromatographic column. Using LC-MS/MS, we determined the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in 626 patients aged 3 days to 94 y undergoing routine vitamin D testing.
Comparison between DiaSorin RIA and the new LC-MS/MS method for total 25(OH)D had acceptable agreement. Our data indicate an increase in 25(OH)D3 rather than a reduction in epimer concentration. An average of 3.3 ng/ml of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was detected in adolescents and adults. Inclusion of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in the total 25(OH)D3 concentration resulted in 9% (< 1 y) and 3% (1 to 94 y) potential misclassification of patients as vitamin D sufficient.
The new LC-MS/MS method is capable of chromatographically separating 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. It was used to confirm that the contribution of 3-epi-25OHD3 to total 25OHD3 concentrations decreases with age in infants and is detectable in adults.
Vitamin D; epimer; Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; 25-hydroxy vitamin D
Low circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are associated with adverse health outcomes in diverse populations. However, 25(OH)D concentrations vary seasonally with varying exposure to sunlight, so single measurements may poorly reflect long-term 25(OH)D exposure. The authors investigated cyclical trends in average serum 25(OH)D concentrations among 2,298 individuals enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study of community-based older adults (1992–1993). A sinusoidal model closely approximated observed 25(OH)D concentrations and fit the data significantly better than did a mean model (P < 0.0001). The mean annual 25(OH)D concentration was 25.1 ng/mL (95% confidence interval: 24.7, 25.5), and the mean peak-trough difference was 9.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval: 8.5, 10.7). Male sex, higher latitude of study site, and greater physical activity levels were associated with larger peak-trough difference in 25(OH)D concentration (each P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase also varied in a sinusoidal fashion (P < 0.0001), inversely to 25(OH)D. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D varies in a sinusoidal manner, with large seasonal differences relative to mean concentration and laboratory evidence of biologic sequelae. Single 25(OH)D measurements might not capture overall vitamin D status, and the extent of misclassification could vary by demographic and behavioral factors. Accounting for collection time may reduce bias in research studies and improve decision-making in clinical care.
alkaline phosphatase; parathyroid hormone; seasons; vitamin D
The structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (Smc1) protein is a member of the highly conserved cohesin complex and is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In response to ionizing radiation, Smc1 is phosphorylated at two sites, Ser-957 and Ser-966, and these phosphorylation events are dependent on the ATM protein kinase. In this study, we describe the generation of two novel ELISAs for quantifying phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966. Using these novel assays, we quantify the kinetic and biodosimetric responses of human cells of hematological origin, including immortalized cells, as well as both quiescent and cycling primary human PBMC. Additionally, we demonstrate a robust in vivo response for phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966 in lymphocytes of human patients after therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation, including total-body irradiation, partial-body irradiation, and internal exposure to 131I. These assays are useful for quantifying the DNA damage response in experimental systems and potentially for the identification of individuals exposed to radiation after a radiological incident.
Macrophages and related cells are important cellular mediators of the innate system and play an important role in wound healing and fibrosis. Flux through different L-arginine metabolic pathways partially defines the functional behavior of macrophages. Methods to measure metabolites within the nitric oxide synthase/arginase pathways could potentially reveal insights into local and systemic inflammatory processes.
A targeted metabolomics approach was developed using HILIC chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to simultaneously measure L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and L-proline in plasma from humans and mice.
All analytes were quantifiable in human plasma and mouse plasma and serum with a small volume (25µl), minimal sample preparation, and no derivatization. Patients with high plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and mice with acute inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide had significant reductions of arginine metabolites in plasma compared with normal controls.
This new assay uses plasma metabolomic measurements to help provide new insights into metabolic changes coupled to the innate immune response. We identified significant changes in arginine metabolism in both humans and mice following an inflammatory stimulus. These changes were associated with decreased plasma arginine metabolite concentrations and increased methylated arginine concentrations.
arginine; citrulline; ornithine; proline; ADMA; SDMA; metabolomics; HILIC; LC-MS/MS; hsCRP; plasma; serum
Low-serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with insulin resistance in adults. Less data are available in pediatric populations. Serum 25(OH)D serum concentrations were assessed in 125 obese and 31 nonobese children (age 11.9 ± 2.7 y, range 6–16 y, 49% male) living in Bonn, Germany. The relationship between 25(OH)D, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and measures of insulin sensitivity and adipokines adiponectin and resistin were analyzed. Seventy-six % of subjects were 25(OH)D deficient (<20 ng/mL). Higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR r = −0.269, P = 0.023), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as well as lower quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI r = 0.264, P = 0.030) values were found in obese children with lower 25(OH)D concentrations even after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. Furthermore, 25(OH)D correlated significantly with adiponectin, but not with resistin. Our results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance independent of adiposity.
Insulin resistance and obesity are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, which confer an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that the protein cargo of high density lipoprotein (HDL) makes important contributions to the lipoprotein’s cardioprotective effects. We used targeted proteomics to determine if obesity and insulin resistance associate with changes in HDL’s protein content in two different groups of men.
Methods and Results
In a discovery study, we used isotope dilution mass spectrometry to quantify the relative concentrations of five proteins previously implicated in HDL’s cardioprotective effects in three groups of healthy subjects: lean insulin-sensitive, lean insulin-resistant, and obese insulin-resistant. We validated our findings in a different group of subjects. Clusterin concentration in HDL strongly and negatively associated with insulin resistance and body mass index in both populations. HDL clusterin levels were lower in subjects with low HDL and high triglycerides, key components of the metabolic syndrome. There was an inverse correlation between clusterin levels in HDL and VLDL/LDL.
Clusterin levels in HDL are lower in men with reduced insulin sensitivity, higher body mass index, and an unfavorable lipid profile. Our observations raise the possibility that clusterin depletion contributes to the loss of HDL’s cardioprotective properties.
High density lipoprotein; atherosclerosis; apolipoprotein J; inflammation; intra-abdominal fat
If liquid-chromatography–multiple-reaction–monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM/MS) could be used in the large-scale preclinical verification of putative biomarkers, it would obviate the need for the development of expensive immunoassays. In addition, the translation of novel biomarkers to clinical use would be accelerated if the assays used in preclinical studies were the same as those used in the clinical laboratory. To validate this approach, we developed a multiplexed assay for the quantification of 2 clinically well-known biomarkers in human plasma, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B (apoA-I and apoB).
We used PeptideAtlas to identify candidate peptides. Human samples were denatured with urea or trifluoroethanol, reduced and alkylated, and digested with trypsin. We compared reversed-phase chromatographic separation of peptides with normal flow and microflow, and we normalized endogenous peptide peak areas to internal standard peptides. We evaluated different methods of calibration and compared the final method with a nephelometric immunoassay.
We developed a final method using trifluoroethanol denaturation, 21-h digestion, normal flow chromatography-electrospray ionization, and calibration with a single normal human plasma sample. For samples injected in duplicate, the method had intraassay CVs <6% and interassay CVs <12% for both proteins, and compared well with immunoassay (n = 47; Deming regression, LC-MRM/MS = 1.17 × immunoassay – 36.6; Sx|y = 10.3 for apoA-I and LC-MRM/MS = 1.21 × immunoassay + 7.0; Sx|y = 7.9 for apoB).
Multiplexed quantification of proteins in human plasma/serum by LC-MRM/MS is possible and compares well with clinically useful immunoassays. The potential application of single-point calibration to large clinical studies could simplify efforts to reduce day-to-day digestion variability.
High density lipoprotein (HDL) protects the artery wall by removing cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages. However, recent evidence suggests that HDL might also inhibit atherogenesis by combating inflammation.
Methods and Results
To identify potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms, we challenged macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory microbial ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). HDL inhibited the expression of 30% (277 of 911) of the genes normally induced by LPS, microarray analysis revealed. One of its major targets was the type I interferon response pathway, a family of potent viral immunoregulators controlled by TLR4 and the TRAM/TRIF signaling pathway. Unexpectedly, HDL’s ability to inhibit gene expression was independent of macrophage cholesterol stores. Immunofluorescent studies suggested that HDL promoted TRAM translocation to intracellular compartments, which impaired subsequent signaling by TLR4 and TRIF. To examine the potential in vivo relevance of the pathway, we used mice deficient in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, HDL’s major protein. After infection with Salmonella typhimurium, a Gram-negative bacterium that expresses LPS, apoA-I–deficient mice had 6-fold higher plasma levels of interferon-β –a key regulator of the type I interferon response– than did wild-type mice.
HDL inhibits a subset of LPS-stimulated macrophage genes that regulate the type I interferon response, and its action is independent of sterol metabolism. These findings raise the possibility that regulation of macrophage genes by HDL might link innate immunity and cardioprotection.
Lipid-raft; MyD88; chemokine; cytokine; interferon regulatory factor 7
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of folate status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES has measured serum folate since 1974 and red blood cell (RBC) folate since 1978 with the use of several different measurement procedures. Data on serum 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and folic acid (FA) concentrations in persons aged ≥60 y are available in NHANES 1999–2002. The roundtable reviewed data that showed that folate concentrations from the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA; used in NHANES 1991–1994 and NHANES 1999–2006) were, on average, 29% lower for serum and 45% lower for RBC than were those from the microbiological assay (MA), which was used in NHANES 2007–2010. Roundtable experts agreed that these differences required a data adjustment for time-trend analyses. The roundtable reviewed the possible use of an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure for future NHANES and agreed that the close agreement between the MA and LC-MS/MS results for serum folate supported conversion to the LC-MS/MS procedure. However, for RBC folate, the MA gave 25% higher concentrations than did the LC-MS/MS procedure. The roundtable agreed that the use of the LC-MS/MS procedure to measure RBC folate is premature at this time. The roundtable reviewed the reference materials available or under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and recognized the challenges related to, and the scientific need for, these materials. They noted the need for a commutability study for the available reference materials for serum 5MTHF and FA.
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA.
The application of “omics” technologies to biological samples generates hundreds to thousands of biomarker candidates; however, a discouragingly small number make it through the pipeline to clinical use. This is in large part due to the incredible mismatch between the large numbers of biomarker candidates and the paucity of reliable assays and methods for validation studies. We desperately need a pipeline that relieves this bottleneck between biomarker discovery and validation. This paper reviews the requirements for technologies to adequately credential biomarker candidates for costly clinical validation and proposes methods and systems to verify biomarker candidates. Models involving pooling of clinical samples, where appropriate, are discussed. We conclude that current proteomic technologies are on the cusp of significantly affecting translation of molecular diagnostics into the clinic.
Biomarker verification; Multiple reaction monitoring; Targeted proteomics
Hydrogen–deuterium exchange measurements represent a powerful approach to investigating changes in conformation and conformational mobility in proteins. Here, we examine p38α MAP kinase (MAPK) by hydrogen-exchange (HX) mass spectrometry to determine whether changes in conformational mobility may be induced by kinase phosphorylation and activation. Factors influencing sequence coverage in the HX mass spectrometry experiment, which show that varying sampling depths, instruments, and peptide search strategies yield the highest coverage of exchangeable amides, are examined. Patterns of regional deuteration in p38α are consistent with tertiary structure and similar to deuteration patterns previously determined for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2, indicating that MAPKs are conserved with respect to the extent of local amide HX. Activation of p38α alters HX in five regions, which are interpreted by comparing X-ray structures of unphosphorylated p38α and X-ray structures of phosphorylated p38γ. Conformational differences account for altered HX within the activation lip, the P + 1 site, and the active site. In contrast, HX alterations are ascribed to activation-induced effects on conformational mobility, within substrate-docking sites (αF–αG, β7–β8), the C-terminal core (αE), and the N-terminal core region (β4–β5, αL16, αC). Activation also decreases HX in a 3–10 helix at the C-terminal extension of p38α. Although this helix in ERK2 forms a dimerization interface that becomes protected from HX upon activation, analytical ultracentrifugation shows that this does not occur in p38α because both unphosphorylated and diphosphorylated forms are monomeric. Finally, HX patterns in monophosphorylated p38α are similar to those in unphosphorylated kinase, indicating that the major activation lip remodeling events occur only after diphosphorylation. Importantly, patterns of activation-induced HX show differences between p38α and ERK2 despite their similarities in overall deuteration, suggesting that although MAPKs are closely related with respect to primary sequence and tertiary structure, they have distinct mechanisms for dynamic control of enzyme function.
MAP kinase; p38; hydrogen exchange; mass spectrometry; conformational mobility
Quantification of serum tumor markers plays an important role in determining whether patients treated for cancer require further therapy. Whereas large-scale proteomic efforts aim to identify novel tumor markers to facilitate early detection, optimization of methods for quantifying known tumor markers offers another approach to improving management of malignancies. For example, immunoassays used in clinical practice to measure established tumor markers suffer from potential interference from endogenous immunoglobulins and imperfect concordance across platforms – problems that also plague many other immunoassays. To address these important limitations, this study used peptide immunoaffinity enrichment in concert with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify thyroglobulin, a well-characterized tumor marker.
First, we identified three peptides in tryptic digests of thyroglobulin that were detected at low concentrations by tandem mass spectrometry. We then raised polyclonal antibodies to those peptides. The antibodies were used to extract the three corresponding peptides from tryptic digests of human serum. Each endogenous peptide was then quantified with LC-MS/MS and multiple reaction monitoring, using external calibrators.
The detection limit for endogenous thyroglobulin in serum was 2.6 μg/L (4 pmol/L). Direct comparison with immunoassay revealed good correlation (r2 = 0.81).
Immunoaffinity peptide enrichment-tandem mass spectrometry can detect tryptic peptides of thyroglobulin at picomolar concentrations, while also digesting the endogenous immunoglobulins that can potentially interfere with traditional immunoassays. Our observations suggest a general analytical strategy for using immunoaffinity isolation together with tandem mass spectrometry to quantify tumor antigens and other low-abundance proteins in human serum.
HDL lowers the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. However, other antiatherosclerotic properties of HDL are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that the lipoprotein carries proteins that might have novel cardioprotective activities, we used shotgun proteomics to investigate the composition of HDL isolated from healthy subjects and subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Unexpectedly, our analytical strategy identified multiple complement-regulatory proteins and a diverse array of distinct serpins with serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. Many acute-phase response proteins were also detected, supporting the proposal that HDL is of central importance in inflammation. Mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses demonstrated that HDL3 from subjects with CAD was selectively enriched in apoE, raising the possibility that HDL carries a unique cargo of proteins in humans with clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Collectively, our observations suggest that HDL plays previously unsuspected roles in regulating the complement system and protecting tissue from proteolysis and that the protein cargo of HDL contributes to its antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties.