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2.  Body Mass and White Matter Integrity: The Influence of Vascular and Inflammatory Markers 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77741.
High adiposity is deleteriously associated with brain health, and may disproportionately affect white matter integrity; however, limited information exists regarding the mechanisms underlying the association between body mass (BMI) and white matter integrity. The present study evaluated whether vascular and inflammatory markers influence the relationship between BMI and white matter in healthy aging. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of white matter integrity, BMI, and vascular/inflammatory factors in a cohort of 138 healthy older adults (mean age: 71.3 years). Participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging, provided blood samples, and participated in a health evaluation. Vascular risk factors and vascular/inflammatory blood markers were assessed. The primary outcome measure was fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium (corpus callosum); exploratory measures included additional white matter regions, based on significant associations with BMI. Regression analyses indicated that higher BMI was associated with lower FA in the corpus callosum, cingulate, and fornix (p<.001). Vascular and inflammatory factors influenced the association between BMI and FA. Specifically, BMI was independently associated with the genu [β=-.21; B=-.0024; 95% CI, -.0048 to -.0000; p=.05] and cingulate fibers [β=-.39; B=-.0035; 95% CI,-.0056 to -.0015; p<.001], even after controlling for vascular/inflammatory risk factors and blood markers. In contrast, BMI was no longer significantly associated with the fornix and middle/posterior regions of the corpus callosum after controlling for these markers. Results partially support a vascular/inflammatory hypothesis, but also suggest a more complex relationship between BMI and white matter characterized by potentially different neuroanatomic vulnerability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077741
PMCID: PMC3797689  PMID: 24147070
3.  Hematological Disorders following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Emerging Concepts of the Interplay between Nutritional Deficiency and Inflammation 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:205467.
Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are among the most common and detrimental metabolic diseases of the modern era, affecting over 50% of the adult population in the United States. Surgeries designed to promote weight loss, known as bariatric surgery, typically involve a gastric bypass procedure and have shown high success rates for treating morbid obesity. However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamins B1, B12, folate, A, K, D, and E and copper have also been reported after surgery. Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. The evaluation of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery must take into account issues unique to the postsurgery setting that influence the development of anemia and other cytopenias. In this paper, the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the hematological disorders associated with gastric bypass surgery are reviewed, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2013/205467
PMCID: PMC3741944  PMID: 23984326
4.  C-Reactive Protein is Related to Memory and Medial Temporal Brain Volume in Older Adults 
Brain, behavior, and immunity  2011;26(1):103-108.
Recent research suggests a central role for inflammatory mechanisms in cognitive decline that may occur prior to evidence of neurodegeneration. Limited information exists, however, regarding the relationship between low-grade inflammation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. This study examined the relation between inflammation, verbal memory consolidation, and medial temporal lobe volumes in a cohort of older community-dwelling subjects. Subjects included 141 functionally intact, community dwelling older adults with detectable (n = 76) and undetectable (n= 65) levels of C-reactive protein. A verbal episodic memory measure was administered to all subjects, and measures of delayed recall and recognition memory were assessed. A semiautomated parcellation program was used to analyze structural MRI scans. On the episodic memory task, analysis of covariance revealed a significant CRP group by memory recall interaction, such that participants with detectable levels of CRP evidenced worse performance after a delay compared to those with undetectable levels of CRP. Individuals with detectable CRP also demonstrated lower performance on a measure of recognition memory. Imaging data demonstrated smaller left medial temporal lobe volumes in the detectable CRP group as compared with the undetectable CRP group. These findings underscore a potential role for inflammation in cognitive aging as a modifiable risk factor.
doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.07.240
PMCID: PMC3221922  PMID: 21843630
inflammation; memory; aging; cognition; temporal lobe; c-reactive protein; cytokines
5.  COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENTS 
American journal of hematology  2010;85(11):899-901.
The conjunctival microcirculation in 14 pediatric and 8 adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients was studied using computer-assisted intravital microscopy. The bulbar conjunctiva in SCA patients in both age groups exhibited a blanched/avascular appearance characterized by decreased vascularity. SCA patients from both age groups had many of the same abnormal morphometric {vessel diameter, vessel distribution, morphometry (shape), tortuosity, arteriole:venule (A:V) ratio, and hemosiderin deposits} and dynamic {vessel sludging/sludged flow, boxcar blood (trickled) flow and abnormal flow velocity} abnormalities. A severity index (SI) was computed to quantify the degree of vasculopathy for comparison between groups. The severity of vasculopathy differed significantly between the pediatric and adult patients (SI: 4.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.6 ± 2.4; p=0.028), indicative of a lesser degree of overall severity in the pediatric patients. Specific abnormalities that were less prominent in the pediatric patients included abnormal vessel morphometry and tortuosity. Sludged flow, abnormal vessel distribution, abnormal A:V ratio, and boxcar flow, appeared in high prevalence in both age groups. The results indicate that SCA microvascular abnormalities develop in childhood and the severity of vasculopathy likely progresses with age. Intervention and effective treatment/management modalities should target pediatric patients to ameliorate, slow down or prevent progressive microvascular deterioration.
doi:10.1002/ajh.21853
PMCID: PMC2964448  PMID: 20872552
6.  Biomarkers of folate status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of folate status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES has measured serum folate since 1974 and red blood cell (RBC) folate since 1978 with the use of several different measurement procedures. Data on serum 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and folic acid (FA) concentrations in persons aged ≥60 y are available in NHANES 1999–2002. The roundtable reviewed data that showed that folate concentrations from the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA; used in NHANES 1991–1994 and NHANES 1999–2006) were, on average, 29% lower for serum and 45% lower for RBC than were those from the microbiological assay (MA), which was used in NHANES 2007–2010. Roundtable experts agreed that these differences required a data adjustment for time-trend analyses. The roundtable reviewed the possible use of an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure for future NHANES and agreed that the close agreement between the MA and LC-MS/MS results for serum folate supported conversion to the LC-MS/MS procedure. However, for RBC folate, the MA gave 25% higher concentrations than did the LC-MS/MS procedure. The roundtable agreed that the use of the LC-MS/MS procedure to measure RBC folate is premature at this time. The roundtable reviewed the reference materials available or under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and recognized the challenges related to, and the scientific need for, these materials. They noted the need for a commutability study for the available reference materials for serum 5MTHF and FA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013011
PMCID: PMC3127517  PMID: 21593502
7.  Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013243
PMCID: PMC3127527  PMID: 21593512
8.  Transcobalamin C776G Genotype Modifies the Association between Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine in Older Hispanics 
Background
A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues.
Methods
TC genotype and its associations with indicators of B12 status, including total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine, were evaluated in a cohort of elderly Latinos (N=554, age 60–93y) from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA).
Results
The distribution of TC genotypes was 41.3% homozygous reference (776CC) and 11.6% homozygous variant (776GG). No differences between the homozygous genotypes were observed in total B12, holoTC, methylmalonic acid, or homocysteine. The holoTC/total B12 ratio was lower in the 776GG group compared with the 776CC group (p=0.04). Significant interactions of TC genotype with total B12 (p=0.04) and with holoTC (p≤0.03) were observed such that mean homocysteine concentrations and the odds ratios for hyperhomocysteinemia (>13 µmol/L) were higher in the 776CC subjects compared with all carriers of the G allele (776CG and 776GG combined) when total B12 (<156 pmol/L) or holoTC (<35 pmol/L) were low.
Conclusions
This population of older Latinos has a lower prevalence of the TC 776GG variant than reported for Caucasian populations. The association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentrations is modified by TC 776 genotype. It remains to be determined if the TC C776G polymorphism has a significant effect on the hematological and neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency or on vascular and other morbidities associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.
doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.20
PMCID: PMC2864787  PMID: 20216556
Transcobalamin; polymorphism; homocysteine; vitamin B12; Hispanic elderly
9.  Fraction of Total Plasma Vitamin B12 Bound to Transcobalamin Correlates with Cognitive Function in Elderly Latinos with Depressive Symptoms 
Clinical chemistry  2008;54(7):1210-1217.
BACKGROUND:
The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear.
METHODS:
We assessed associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio in a cohort of elderly Latinos (n = 1089, age 60–101 years). We assessed cognitive function using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) and a delayed recall test; we diagnosed clinical cognitive impairment by neuropsychological and clinical exam with expert adjudication; and we assessed depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We measured total B12 and holoTC using radioassays.
RESULTS:
HoloTC/B12 ratio was directly associated with 3MSE score (P = 0.026) but not delayed recall score. Interactions between holoTC/B12 and CES-D score were observed for 3MSE (P = 0.026) and delayed recall scores (P = 0.013) such that associations between the ratio and cognitive function scores were confined to individuals with CES-D ≥16. For individuals with CES-D ≥16, the odds ratio for clinical cognitive impairment for the lowest holoTC/B12 tertile was 3.6 (95% CI 1.2–11.2) compared with the highest tertile (P = 0.03). We observed no associations between cognitive function and total B12 or holoTC alone, except between holoTC and 3MSE score (P = 0.021), and no interactions between holoTC or total B12 and CES-D score on cognitive function.
CONCLUSIONS:
HoloTC/B12 ratio is associated with cognitive function in elderly Latinos with depressive symptoms and may better reflect the adequacy of B12 for nervous system function than either holoTC or total B12 alone.
doi:10.1373/clinchem.2007.102632
PMCID: PMC2752269  PMID: 18451312
10.  Plasma Homocysteine and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Background and Objective
There are conflicting data relating homocysteine levels to the risk of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). We sought to explore whether fasting plasma homocysteine is associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage to dementia.
Methods
Fasting levels of plasma homocysteine were obtained from 678 elderly subjects chosen at random from a cohort of Medicare recipients. There was longitudinal data in 516 subjects without MCI or dementia at baseline who were followed for 2,705 person-years. The relation of plasma homocysteine with prevalent and incident all-cause MCI, amnestic MCI and non-amnestic MCI was assessed using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.
Results
There were 162 cases of prevalent MCI and 132 cases of incident MCI in 5,2 years of follow-up. There was no association between plasma homocysteine and prevalence of MCI or amnestic or non-amnestic MCI in the cross-sectional analyses. There was no association between higher homocysteine levels and a lower risk of all-cause MCI. Consistent with the cross-sectional analyses, there was no specific association with the amnestic or non-amnestic subtype of MCI in crude or adjusted models.
Conclusion
Plasma homocysteine levels measured at baseline were not related to MCI or its subtypes in an elderly multiethnic cohort.
doi:10.1159/000182421
PMCID: PMC2698462  PMID: 19088473
homocysteine; dementia; mild cognitive impairment
11.  Plasma Homocysteine and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment 
Background and Objective
There are conflicting data relating homocysteine levels to the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to explore whether fasting plasma homocysteine is associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage to dementia.
Methods
Fasting levels of plasma homocysteine were obtained from 678 elderly subjects chosen at random from a cohort of Medicare recipients. There were longitudinal data in 516 subjects without MCI or dementia at baseline who were followed for 2,705 person-years. The relation of plasma homocysteine with prevalent and incident all-cause MCI, amnestic MCI and non-amnestic MCI was assessed using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.
Results
There were 162 cases of prevalent MCI and 132 cases of incident MCI in 5.2 years of follow-up. There was no association between plasma homocysteine and prevalence of MCI or amnestic or non-amnestic MCI in the cross-sectional analyses. There was no association between higher homocysteine levels and a lower risk of all-cause MCI. Consistent with the cross-sectional analyses, there was no specific association with the amnestic or non-amnestic subtype of MCI in crude or adjusted models.
Conclusion
Plasma homocysteine levels measured at baseline were not related to MCI or its subtypes in an elderly multiethnic cohort.
doi:10.1159/000182421
PMCID: PMC2698462  PMID: 19088473
Homocysteine; Dementia; Mild cognitive impairment
12.  Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging2 
Background
High concentrations of homocysteine have been linked to a greater risk of Alzheimer disease, dementia, and cognitive decline.
Objective
We evaluated the association between homocysteine and 4.5-y combined incidences of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in a cohort of 1779 Mexican Americans aged 60–101 y.
Design
Homocysteine, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma vitamin B-12 were measured at baseline. New cases of dementia or CIND were ascertained by neuropsychological and clinical examinations and expert adjudication. We used proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of homocysteine-associated dementia or CIND and the influence of RBC folate and plasma vitamin B-12 on that association.
Results
High homocysteine concentrations were associated with a greater risk of dementia or CIND: hazard ratio (HR): 2.39; 95% CI: 1.11, 5.16. Plasma vitamin B-12 modified the association between homocysteine and the outcome. The rates of dementia or CIND associated with homocysteine for those in the lowest and highest tertiles of vitamin B-12, respectively, were significantly higher (HR: 1.61, P = 0.04) and lower (HR: 0.94, P = 0.015) than the risk for those in the middle tertile.
Conclusions
Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for both dementia and CIND. Higher plasma vitamin B-12 may reduce the risk of homocysteine-associated dementia or CIND.
PMCID: PMC1892349  PMID: 17284751
Homocysteine; B vitamins; dementia; cognitive impairment without dementia; red blood cell folate
15.  Charges for Patients 
British Medical Journal  1964;2(5406):443.
PMCID: PMC1816033

Results 1-16 (16)