Genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 have been associated with increased serum levels of their encoded proteins human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and with prostate cancer in older men. Catalytic PSA, possibly activated by hK2, cleaves semenogelin I and II in semen to release motile sperm; low PSA levels in seminal plasma are associated with low sperm motility. To evaluate whether common genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 affect physiological prostatic secretion, we studied the association of SNPs with hK2 and PSA levels in seminal plasma and serum of young healthy men.
Leukocyte DNA was extracted from 303 male military conscripts (median age 18.1 years). Nine SNPs across KLK2-KLK3 were genotyped. PSA and hK2 were measured in seminal plasma and serum with immunofluorometric assays. The association of genotype frequencies with hK2 and PSA levels was tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Four KLK2 SNPs (rs198972, rs198977, rs198978, and rs80050017) were strongly associated with hK2 levels in seminal plasma and serum, with individuals homozygous for the major alleles having 3- to 7-fold higher levels than the other homozygote and heterozygotes having intermediate levels (all P<0.001). Three of these SNPs were significantly associated with %fPSA in serum (all P<0.007). Three KLK3 SNPs showed associations with PSA in seminal plasma and the rs1058205 SNP was associated with total PSA in serum (P=0.001), and with lower %free PSA (P=0.015).
In young men without prostate disease, both the seminal plasma and serum levels of hK2 and PSA are associated with several genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 that could be used to refine models of PSA cut-off values in prostate cancer testing.
prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; tumor markers; seminal fluid
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are suggested to affect human fecundity through longer time to pregnancy (TTP). We studied the relationship between four abundant PFAS and TTP in pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine representing varying PFAS exposures and pregnancy planning behaviors.
We measured serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 938 women from Greenland (448 women), Poland (203 women) and Ukraine (287 women). PFAS exposure was assessed on a continuous logarithm transformed scale and in country-specific tertiles. We used Cox discrete-time models and logistic regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and infertility (TTP >13 months) odds ratios (ORs), respectively, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to PFAS levels. Adjusted analyses of the association between PFAS and TTP were done for each study population and in a pooled sample.
Higher PFNA levels were associated with longer TTP in the pooled sample (log-scale FR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.94) and specifically in women from Greenland (log-scale FR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89). ORs for infertility were also increased in the pooled sample (log-scale OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.08-2.15) and in women from Greenland (log-scale OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.22-3.19). However, in a sensitivity analysis of primiparous women these associations could not be replicated. Associations with PFNA were weaker for women from Poland and Ukraine. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were not consistently associated with TTP.
Findings do not provide consistent evidence that environmental exposure to PFAS is impairing female fecundity by delaying time taken to conceive.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-069X-13-116) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Fecundity; Perfluorinated compounds; Infertility; Persistent environmental pollutants
We examined the distribution of quantitative heel ultrasound (QUS) parameters in population samples of European men, and looked at the influence of lifestyle factors on the occurrence of these parameters.
Men aged between 40 and 79 years were recruited from eight European centres and invited to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, assessment of physical performance and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus (Hologic - SAHARA). The relationships between QUS parameters and lifestyle variables were assessed using linear regression with adjustments for age, centre and weight.
3,258 men, mean age 60.0 years were included in the analysis. A higher PASE score (upper vs lower tertile) was associated with higher BUA (β coefficient = 2.44 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coefficient = 6.83 m/s) and QUI (β coefficient = 3.87). Compared to those who were inactive, those who walked or cycled more than an hour per day had a higher BUA (β coeff =3.71 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coeff = 6.97 m/s) and QUI (β coeff = 4.50). A longer time to walk 50 feet was linked with lower BUA (β coeff = −0.62 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coeff = −1.06 m/s) and QUI (β coeff = −0.69). Smoking was associated with a reduction in BUA, SOS and QUI. There was a U shaped association with frequency of alcohol consumption.
Modification of lifestyle, including increasing physical activity and stopping smoking may help optimise bone strength and reduce the risk of fracture in middle aged and elderly European men.
Epidemiology; Ultrasound; Bone mineral density; Risk factors; Exercise
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3, and IGF-1 on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men.
Men aged 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, oestradiol (E2) and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters, speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects.
3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation [SD]=11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, centre and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E2 and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD.
IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were independent determinants of bone health in middle aged and elderly European men.
insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; calcaneus quantitative ultrasound; population-based; men
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
endocrine disruption; male reproduction; persistent organic compounds; reproductive hormones; semen quality
To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women. By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated.
Eight normal-weighted young, anovulatory PCOS-women as study group and ten normal menstruating and ovulating women as controls.
Observational prospective study of the circadian variation in AMH, gonadotropins, sex steroids and androgens in a study and a control group. A circadian profile was performed in each study and control subject during a 24-h period by blood sampling every second hour, starting at 8:00 a.m. and continuing until 8:00 a.m. the following day.
Significant differences in hormonal levels were found between the groups, with higher concentrations of AMH, LH and androgens in the PCOS group and lower amounts of FSH and progesterone. A distinct difference in the circadian variation pattern of AMH and LH between PCOS patients and normal controls was seen, with PCOS patients presenting a uniform pattern in serum levels of AMH and LH throughout the study period, without significant nadir late-night values as was seen in the control group. In PCOS women, a significant positive association between LH/ FSH and testosterone was found opposite to controls.
Main outcome measures
Circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian Hormone, gonadotropins and ovarian steroids and the covariation between them.
A significant difference in the circadian secretion of LH and AMH in PCOS women compared to normally ovulating women indicate an increased GnRH pulse, creating high and constant LH serum concentrations. A significant co-variation between LH and AMH may suggest LH as a factor involved in the control of AMH secretion.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.
We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.
Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008–2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.
In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.
Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.
Immunoassay-based techniques, routinely used to measure serum estradiol (E2), are known to have reduced specificity, especially at lower concentrations, when compared with the gold standard technique of mass spectrometry (MS). Different measurement techniques may be responsible for the conflicting results of associations between serum E2 and clinical phenotypes in men.
Our objective was to compare immunoassay and MS measurements of E2 levels in men and evaluate associations with clinical phenotypes.
Design and Setting:
Middle-aged and older male subjects participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study (n = 2599), MrOS US (n = 688), and the European Male Aging Study (n = 2908) were included.
Main Outcome Measures:
Immunoassay and MS measurements of serum E2 were compared and related to bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ankle-brachial index.
Within each cohort, serum E2 levels obtained by immunoassay and MS correlated moderately (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rS 0.53–0.76). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels associated significantly (albeit to a low extent, rS = 0.29) with immunoassay E2 but not with MS E2 levels. Similar associations of immunoassay E2 and MS E2 were seen with lumbar spine and total hip BMD, independent of serum CRP. However, immunoassay E2, but not MS E2, associated inversely with ankle-brachial index, and this correlation was lost after adjustment for CRP.
Our findings suggest interference in the immunoassay E2 analyses, possibly by CRP or a CRP-associated factor. Although associations with BMD remain unaffected, this might imply for a reevaluation of previous association studies between immunoassay E2 levels and inflammation-related outcomes.
Low grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) as well as androgen deficiency has in older men been associated with several pathologies, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to investigate whether low testosterone levels are linked to biomarkers of LGSI already in young age, before any concurrent manifestations of CVD or other systemic diseases.
Nested cross-sectional study.
Forty subfertile biochemically hypogonadal (n = 20) or eugonadal (n = 20) men (mean age 37 years, SD = 4.3) and 20 age-matched controls were randomly selected from an ongoing study on male subfertility. Subjects comprised male partners in infertile couples in whom also subnormal sperm concentration was present. Blood sampling, interviews, and anthropometric measures were undertaken. Serum levels of testosterone, LH, estradiol, SHBG, and 21 LGSI-markers were assessed.
Among 21 inflammatory markers, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1a) (ß = −0.025; p = 0.028), 1-beta (MIP1B) (ß = −0.015; p = 0.049) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) (ß = −0.015; p = 0.040) showed negative association to total testosterone (TT) levels. MIP1a (ß = −1.95; p = 0.001) and TNFa (ß = −0.95; p = 0.014) showed negative association to calculated free testosterone (cFT) levels. Compared to men with normal TT and cFT levels, TNFa levels were higher in men with subnormal levels of TT (mean ratio 1.61; p = 0.006) and cFT (mean ratio 1.58; p = 0.007). Also, MIP1a levels were higher in men with subnormal levels of TT (mean ratio 1.84; p = 0.030).
Subnormal testosterone may already in young age associate to LGSI, which might be a part of the mechanism underlying adverse health outcomes of male hypogonadism.
In the Western world, testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common malignancy of young men. The malignant transformation of germ cells is thought to be caused by developmental and hormonal disturbances, probably related to environmental and lifestyle factors because of rapidly increasing incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). AHR signaling pathway is known to interfere with reproductive hormone signaling, which is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis and invasive progression of TGCC. The aim of the present study was to identify whether AHR-related polymorphisms were associated with risk as well as histological and clinical features of TGCC in 367 patients and 537 controls. Haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in genes encoding AHR and AHR repressor (AHRR). Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of TGCC, non-seminoma versus seminoma, and metastasis versus localized disease. Four SNPs in AHRR demonstrated a significant allele association with risk to develop metastases (rs2466287: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.90; rs2672725: OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25–0.94; rs6879758: OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08–0.92; rs6896163: OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12–0.98). This finding supports the hypothesis that compounds acting through AHR may play a role in the invasive progression of TGCC, either directly or through modification of reproductive hormone action.
aryl hydrocarbon receptor; aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor; testicular germ cell cancers; genetic polymorphisms; genetic variation; association studies; metastasis; histology
Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529 male partners of pregnant women living in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine between May 2002 and February 2004. The median concentration of the total content of mercury in whole blood was 9.2 ng ml−1 in Greenland (0.2–385.8 ng ml−1), 1.0 ng ml−1 in Poland (0.2–6.4 ng ml−1) and 1.0 ng ml−1 in Ukraine (0.2–4.9 ng ml−1). We found a significantly positive association between the blood levels of mercury and serum concentration of inhibin B in men from Greenland (β=0.074, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.021 to 0.126) and in an analysis including men from all three regions (β=0.067, 95% CI=0.024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury exposure in Greenlandic and European men with median whole blood concentration up to 10 ng ml−1 has adverse effects on biomarkers of male reproductive health.
blood mercury concentration; environmental mercury exposure; male fertility; reproduction; reproductive hormones; semen characteristics; semen quality
Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization. Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell. DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<0.01), more motile sperms (P=0.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=0.05). These associations were consistent within and across study regions. Furthermore, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well. The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics. The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarify the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers.
apoptosis; Bcl-x protein; Fas-associated death domain protein; fertility; sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA); spermatozoa; TUNEL assay
Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case–control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malmö and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l−1; P = 0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility.
folate; idiopathic male infertility; semen quality; vitamin B12
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is a common disease that links testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of hypospadias and male infertility with impaired development of the testis. The incidence of these disorders has increased over the last few decades, and testicular cancer now affects 1% of the Danish and Norwegian male population.
To identify genetic variants that span the four TDS phenotypes, the authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 to screen 488 patients with symptoms of TDS and 439 selected controls with excellent reproductive health. Furthermore, they developed a novel integrative method that combines GWAS data with other TDS-relevant data types and identified additional TDS markers. The most significant findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 671 Nordic men.
Markers located in the region of TGFBR3 and BMP7 showed association with all TDS phenotypes in both the discovery and replication cohorts. An immunohistochemistry investigation confirmed the presence of transforming growth factor β receptor type III (TGFBR3) in peritubular and Leydig cells, in both fetal and adult testis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene showed significant associations, but only with testicular cancer.
The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGFBR3 and BMP7 genes, which belong to the transforming growth factor β signalling pathway, suggests a role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of TDS. Integrating data from multiple layers can highlight findings in GWAS that are biologically relevant despite having border significance at currently accepted statistical levels.
TDS; systems biology; GWAS; infertility; testis cancer; reproductive medicine; genome-wide; genetics; epidemiology; diabetes; endocrinology; genetic epidemiology; cancer: urological; chromosomal; oncology; developmental
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two genes involved in the NF-κB cascade (GPR177 and MAP3K14) and bone mineral density (BMD) assessed at different skeletal sites, radial geometric parameters and bone turnover.
Ten GPR177 SNPs previously associated with BMD with genome-wide significance and twelve tag SNPs (r2≥0.8) within MAP3K14 (±10 kb) were genotyped in 2359 men aged 40–79 years recruited from 8 centres for participation in the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Measurement of bone turnover markers (PINP and CTX-I) in the serum and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus were performed in all centres. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), at the distal and midshaft radius, were performed in a subsample (2 centres). Linear regression was used to test for association between the SNPs and bone measures under an additive genetic model adjusting for study centre.
We validated the associations between SNPs in GPR177 and BMDa previously reported and also observed evidence of pleiotrophic effects on density and geometry. Rs2772300 in GPR177 was associated with increased total hip and LS BMDa, increased total and cortical vBMD at the radius and increased cortical area, thickness and stress strain index. We also found evidence of association with BMDa, vBMD, geometric parameters and CTX-I for SNPs in MAP3K14. None of the GPR177 and MAP3K14 SNPs were associated with calcaneal estimated BMD measured by QUS.
Our findings suggest that SNPs in GPR177 and MAP3K14 involved in the NF-κB signalling pathway influence bone mineral density, geometry and turnover in a population-based cohort of middle aged and elderly men. This adds to the understanding of the role of genetic variation in this pathway in determining bone health.
Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case–control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malmö and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P=0.01 and P=0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l−1; P=0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility.
folate; idiopathic male infertility; semen quality; vitamin B12
We sought to determine the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RANKL, RANK, and OPG on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone geometry at the radius in men. Pairwise tag SNPs (r2 ≥ 0.8) for RANKL (n = 8), RANK (n = 44), and OPG (n = 22) and five SNPs near RANKL and OPG strongly associated with areal BMD in genomewide association studies were previously genotyped in men aged 40–79 years in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Here, these SNPs were analyzed in a subsample of men (n = 589) who had peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) performed at the distal (4%) and mid-shaft (50%) radius. Estimated parameters were total and trabecular vBMD (mg/mm3) and cross-sectional area (mm2) at the 4% site and cortical vBMD (mg/mm3); total, cortical, and medullary area (mm2); cortical thickness (mm); and stress strain index (SSI) (mm3) at the 50% site. We identified 12 OPG SNPs associated with vBMD and/or geometric parameters, including rs10505348 associated with total vBMD (β [95% CI] = 9.35 [2.12–16.58], P = 0.011), cortical vBMD (β [95% CI] = 5.62 [2.10–9.14], P = 0.002), cortical thickness (β [95% CI] = 0.08 [0.03–0.13], P = 0.002), and medullary area (β [95% CI] = −2.90 [−4.94 to −0.86], P = 0.005) and rs2073618 associated with cortical vBMD (β [95% CI] = −4.30 [−7.78 to −0.82], P = 0.015) and cortical thickness (β [95% CI] = −0.08 [−0.13 to −0.03], P = 0.001). Three RANK SNPs were associated with vBMD, including rs12956925 associated with trabecular vBMD (β [95% CI] = −7.58 [−14.01 to −1.15], P = 0.021). There were five RANK SNPs associated with geometric parameters, including rs8083511 associated with distal radius cross-sectional area (β [95% CI] = 8.90 [0.92–16.88], P = 0.029). No significant association was observed between RANKL SNPs and pQCT parameters. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in OPG and RANK influences radius vBMD and geometry in men.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9532-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Osteoporosis; Genetic association; Genetic polymorphism; Male; QCT
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6q25, which incorporates the oestrogen receptor α gene (ESR1), as a quantitative trait locus for areal bone mineral density (BMDa) of the hip and lumbar spine. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of this locus on other bone health outcomes; calcaneal ultrasound (QUS) parameters, radial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters and markers of bone turnover in a population sample of European men.
Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 6q25 locus were genotyped in men aged 40–79 years from 7 European countries, participating in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). The associations between SNPs and measured bone parameters were tested under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre using linear regression.
2468 men, mean (SD) aged 59.9 (11.1) years had QUS measurements performed and bone turnover marker levels measured. A subset of 628 men had DXA and pQCT measurements. Multiple independent SNPs showed significant associations with BMD using all three measurement techniques. Most notably, rs1999805 was associated with a 0.10 SD (95%CI 0.05, 0.16; p = 0.0001) lower estimated BMD at the calcaneus, a 0.14 SD (95%CI 0.05, 0.24; p = 0.004) lower total hip BMDa, a 0.12 SD (95%CI 0.02, 0.23; p = 0.026) lower lumbar spine BMDa and a 0.18 SD (95%CI 0.06, 0.29; p = 0.003) lower trabecular BMD at the distal radius for each copy of the minor allele. There was no association with serum levels of bone turnover markers and a single SNP which was associated with cortical density was also associated with cortical BMC and thickness.
Our data replicate previous associations found between SNPs in the 6q25 locus and BMDa at the hip and extend these data to include associations with calcaneal ultrasound parameters and radial volumetric BMD.
The aim of this study was to determine the association of hormone levels with the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain. Men ages 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers in 8 European centres. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire, which enquired about lifestyle and the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain over the past month. Total testosterone (T), oestradiol (E2), luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were assayed from a fasting blood sample. The association between pain status and hormone levels was assessed using multinomial logistic regression with results expressed as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 3206 men had complete data on pain status. Of these, 8.7% reported chronic widespread pain (CWP), whereas 50% had some pain although not CWP and were classified as having some pain. T and E2 were not associated with musculoskeletal pain, whereas significant differences in LH and FSH levels were found between pain groups. After adjustment for age and other possible confounders, the association between pain status and both LH and FSH persisted. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of LH, those in the highest tertile were more likely to report some pain (vs no pain, RRR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.50) and also CWP (vs no pain, RRR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.07). Similar results were found for FSH. Gonadotrophins, but not sex steroid hormone levels, are associated with musculoskeletal pain in men.
Higher levels of gonadotrophins but not androgens were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain in men. Alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular feedback mechanisms may play a role in the onset of chronic widespread pain.
Musculoskeletal pain; Reproductive hormones; American College of Rheumatology; European Male Ageing Study; Epidemiology
The potential mutagenic effects of cancer therapies and the growing number of young male cancer survivors have given rise to concern about the health of their offspring.
We identified all singleton children born alive in Denmark between 1994 and 2004 and in Sweden between 1994 and 2005 (n = 1 777 765). Of the 8670 children with a paternal history of cancer, 8162 were conceived naturally and 508 were conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection). Of the 1 769 0795 children without a paternal history of cancer, 25 926 were conceived using ARTs. Associations between paternal history of cancer and risk of adverse birth outcomes of children conceived naturally or by ARTs were investigated using log-linear binomial models, yielding risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.
The offspring of male cancer survivors were more likely to have major congenital abnormalities than the offspring of fathers with no history of cancer (RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.31, P = .0043, 3.7% vs 3.2%). However, the mode of conception (natural conception or ARTs) did not modify the association between paternal history of cancer and risk of congenital abnormalities (natural conception, RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.31; ARTs, RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.87, Pinteraction = .84).
We observed a statistically significant but modest increase in the risk of major congenital abnormalities among offspring of males with a history of cancer, independent of the mode of conception.
A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS) but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was also tested.
Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960) were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p < 10-4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD) bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p < 0.05 indicated replication.
Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD) = 0.07, p = 0.032) but not BUA (β(SD) = 0.02, p = 0.505) and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77) also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD) = -0.22, p = 0.014), FN (β(SD) = -0.31,p = 0.001) and TH (β(SD) = -0.36, p = 0.002) in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL.
We found suggestive evidence of association between a single SNP located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 with calcaneal ultrasound parameters. The majority of SNPs, associated with QUS parameters in the Framingham Study, were not replicated in an independent population sample of European men.
Diagnosis of male infertility has mainly been based on the World Health Organization (WHO) manual-based semen parameter's concentration, motility and morphology. It has, however, become apparent that none of these parameters are reliable markers for evaluation of the fertility potential of a couple. A search for better markers has led to an increased focus on sperm chromatin integrity testing in fertility work-up and assisted reproductive techniques. During the last couple of decades, numerous sperm DNA integrity tests have been developed. These are claimed to be characterized by a lower intraindividual variation, less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation and thus less subjective than the conventional sperm analysis. However, not all the sperm chromatin integrity tests have yet been shown to be of clinical value. So far, the test that has been found to have the most stable clinical threshold values in relation to fertility is the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric test that measures the susceptibility of sperm DNA to acid-induced DNA denaturation in situ. Sperm DNA fragmentation as measured by SCSA has shown to be an independent predictor of successful pregnancy in first pregnancy planners as well as in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination, and can be used as a tool in investigation, counseling and treatment of involuntary childlessness. More conflicting data exist regarding the role of sperm DNA fragmentation in relation to fertilization, pre-embryo development and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
assisted reproductive techniques; infertility; sperm chromatin structure assay; sperm DNA
As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between and within populations, genetic variants might be important determinants of the individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of environment or lifestyle. Although the possible mechanisms of such interplay in relation to the reproductive system are largely unknown, some recent studies have indicated that specific genotypes may confer a larger risk of male reproductive disorders following certain exposures. This paper presents a critical review of animal and human evidence on how genes may modify environmental effects on male reproductive function. Some examples have been found that support this mechanism, but the number of studies is still limited. This type of interaction studies may improve our understanding of normal physiology and help us to identify the risk factors to male reproductive malfunction. We also shortly discuss other aspects of gene-environment interaction specifically associated with the issue of reproduction, namely environmental and lifestyle factors as the cause of sperm DNA damage. It remains to be investigated to what extent such genetic changes, by natural conception or through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, are transmitted to the next generation, thereby causing increased morbidity in the offspring.
endocrine disruption; gene-environment interaction; persistent organic pollutants; semen quality; testicular cancer
It is generally thought that a single ejaculate is a bad predictor of semen quality of a subject, because of significant intra-individual variation. Therefore, we investigated the degree to which the results of a first semen analysis differ from that of a second analysis among men from a general population in Norway. In addition, we analysed how the two different semen results mirrored the overall semen quality assessment. A total of 199 volunteers participated in the study and delivered two semen samples with an interval of 6 months. The semen parameters were determined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 guidelines, which were also used to determine whether semen quality was normal or abnormal. In addition, the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was determined using the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay. The two samples from each individual were very similar with regard to standard semen parameters and DFI (rs: 0.67–0.72), and there were no significant systematic differences between the two samples. The result of the first sample (normal/abnormal) was highly predictive of the overall conclusion based on the two samples (sperm concentration: in 93% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89%–96%); sperm motility: in 85% of the cases (95% CI: 79%–89%); overall semen quality: in 85% of the cases (95% CI: 80%–90%). In epidemiological studies, one ejaculate is a sufficient indicator of semen quality in a group of subjects. In a clinical situation, when the question is whether the semen quality is normal or not, the first ejaculate will, in at least 85% of cases, give a correct overall conclusion.
DNA fragmentation; intra-individual; semen quality; semen volume; sperm concentration; sperm motility