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author:("brazili, Zia")
1.  Development of a Standard Reference Material for Metabolomics Research 
Analytical chemistry  2013;85(24):11732-11738.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) to support technology development in metabolomics research. SRM 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma is intended to have metabolite concentrations that are representative of those found in adult human plasma. The plasma used in the preparation of SRM 1950 was collected from both male and female donors, and donor ethnicity targets were selected based upon the ethnic makeup of the U.S. population. Metabolomics research is diverse in terms of both instrumentation and scientific goals. This SRM was designed to apply broadly to the field, not toward specific applications. Therefore, concentrations of approximately 100 analytes, including amino acids, fatty acids, trace elements, vitamins, hormones, selenoproteins, clinical markers, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), were determined. Value assignment measurements were performed by NIST and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). SRM 1950 is the first reference material developed specifically for metabolomics research.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1021/ac402689t
PMCID: PMC4823010  PMID: 24187941
2.  Folate is absorbed across the human colon: evidence by using enteric-coated caplets containing 13C-labeled [6S]-5-formyltetrahydrofolate1, 2, 3, 4 
Background
Folate intakes that do not meet or greatly exceed requirements may be associated with negative health outcomes. A better understanding of contributors that influence the input side will help establish dietary guidance that ensures health benefits without associated risks. Colonic microbiota produce large quantities of folate, and [13C5]5-formyltetrahydrofolate infused during colonoscopy is absorbed. However, it is unclear if significant quantities of folate are absorbed in an intact microbiome.
Objective
We determined whether and how much of a physiologic dose of [13C5]5-formyltetrahydrofolate delivered in a pH-sensitive enteric caplet to an intact colonic microbiome is absorbed.
Design
Healthy adults ingested a specially designed pH-sensitive acrylic copolymer–coated barium sulfate caplet that contained 855 nmol (400 μg) [13C5]5-formyltetrahydrofolate. After a washout period ≥4 wk, subjects received an intravenous injection of the same compound (214 nmol). Serially collected blood samples before and after each test dose were analyzed by using a microbiological assay and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.
Results
Caplet disintegration in the colon was observed by fluoroscopic imaging for 6 subjects with a mean (±SD) complete disintegration time of 284 ± 155 min. The mean (±SEM) rate of appearance of [13C5]5-methyltetrahydrofolate in plasma was 0.33 ± 0.09 (caplet) and 5.8 ± 1.2 (intravenous) nmol/h. Likely because of the significant time in the colon, the mean apparent absorption across the colon was 46%.
Conclusions
Folate is absorbed across the colon in humans with an undisturbed microbiome. This finding and previous observations of the size of the colonic depot of folate and its potential for manipulation by diet (eg, dietary fiber, oligosaccharides, and probiotics) suggest that an individual’s dietary folate requirement may differ depending on the consumption of dietary constituents that affect the size and composition of their gastrointestinal microbiota. In addition, a systematic investigation of the role of colonic folate on gastrointestinal development and the prevention of colorectal cancer is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941174.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.091785
PMCID: PMC4823011  PMID: 25332326
3.  Neither Folic Acid Supplementation nor Pregnancy Affects the Distribution of Folate Forms in the Red Blood Cells of Women1–3 
The Journal of nutrition  2014;144(9):1364-1369.
It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30–36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83–84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6–3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741077.
doi:10.3945/jn.113.189233
PMCID: PMC4811356  PMID: 24991041
4.  Are autistic-behaviors in children related to prenatal vitamin use and maternal whole blood folate concentrations? 
Prenatal multivitamin/folic acid supplement use may reduce the risk of autism spectrum disorders. We investigated whether 2nd trimester prenatal vitamin use and maternal whole blood folate (WBF) concentrations were associated with Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores at 4-5 years of age in a prospective cohort of 209 mother-child pairs. After confounder adjustment, children born to women taking prenatal vitamins weekly/daily (n=179) had lower odds of clinically elevated SRS scores (odds ratio:0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.08, 0.89) than those who rarely/never took them (n=30). WBF concentrations were not associated with SRS scores. The lack of association between WBF and autistic-behaviors may be due to the timing of biomarker measures relative to critical periods of brain development, confounding, or other modifying factors.
doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2114-x
PMCID: PMC4167931  PMID: 24710813
Autism spectrum disorders; folate; pregnancy; prenatal vitamins
5.  Serum Cotinine and Whole Blood Folate Concentrations in Pregnancy 
Annals of epidemiology  2014;24(7):498-503.e1.
Background
Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with low maternal folate levels that increase the risk of adverse infant and child health outcomes by reducing folate availability during fetal development.
Methods
Using data from the HOME Study, we examined the relationship between secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure and whole blood folate concentrations in pregnant women from Cincinnati, OH (n=362) at approximately 16 weeks gestation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the association between continuous or categorical serum cotinine levels and whole blood folate levels, adjusting for sociodemographic, dietary, and perinatal variables.
Results
After adjustment for potential confounders, an interquartile range increase in serum cotinine concentration (0.012 to 0.224 ng/mL) was suggestively associated with decreased whole blood folate levels (β:−23 nmol/L; 95% CI:−49, 3, p-value=0.08). Compared to unexposed women, reductions in mean whole blood folate were observed among active smokers (β:−94, 95% CI:−195, 6 nmol/L, p-value=0.40); smaller reductions were observed among women with secondhand exposure (β:−26; CI:−84, 32 nmol/L, p-value=0.07).
Conclusions
Consistent with prior studies, active smoking was associated with reduced whole blood folate levels among these pregnant women. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposures were associated with small and imprecise reductions in whole blood folate levels.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.04.004
PMCID: PMC4071615  PMID: 24854185
Epidemiology; folic acid; pregnancy; tobacco smoke pollution; smoking
6.  The association between circulating total folate and folate vitamers with overall survival after post-menopausal breast cancer diagnosis 
Nutrition and cancer  2015;67(3):442-448.
We studied the relationship between plasma total folate and folate vitamer concentrations (5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid [5-methylTHF], pteroylglutamic acid [folic acid] and tetrahydrofolic acid [THF] with overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between folic acid supplement use with circulating total folate and folate vitamer concentrations. Participants were post-menopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 498) with an average follow-up of 6.7 years. Plasma total folate and folate vitamers were measured by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS in samples collected at or post-diagnosis. Cox proportional multivariate hazards models (controlled for stage, age at diagnosis, body mass index, parity, HRT use, treatment, alcohol use, folic acid use, and energy intake), were used to assess overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis. We found that the relative risk of dying for women with plasma total folate concentrations in the highest quartile was 59% lower (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19 –0.90) compared with the lowest quartile. Data on supplement use showed that women taking folic acid supplements had significantly higher circulating total folate and folate vitamer concentrations (p < 0.0001), suggesting that increased folate consumption through diet and/or supplementation may improve prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis.
doi:10.1080/01635581.2015.1002623
PMCID: PMC4385432  PMID: 25647689
folate; folate vitamers; breast cancer survival; epidemiological study
7.  Biomarkers of folate status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456 
A roundtable to discuss the measurement of folate status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES has measured serum folate since 1974 and red blood cell (RBC) folate since 1978 with the use of several different measurement procedures. Data on serum 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and folic acid (FA) concentrations in persons aged ≥60 y are available in NHANES 1999–2002. The roundtable reviewed data that showed that folate concentrations from the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA; used in NHANES 1991–1994 and NHANES 1999–2006) were, on average, 29% lower for serum and 45% lower for RBC than were those from the microbiological assay (MA), which was used in NHANES 2007–2010. Roundtable experts agreed that these differences required a data adjustment for time-trend analyses. The roundtable reviewed the possible use of an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure for future NHANES and agreed that the close agreement between the MA and LC-MS/MS results for serum folate supported conversion to the LC-MS/MS procedure. However, for RBC folate, the MA gave 25% higher concentrations than did the LC-MS/MS procedure. The roundtable agreed that the use of the LC-MS/MS procedure to measure RBC folate is premature at this time. The roundtable reviewed the reference materials available or under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and recognized the challenges related to, and the scientific need for, these materials. They noted the need for a commutability study for the available reference materials for serum 5MTHF and FA.
doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013011
PMCID: PMC3127517  PMID: 21593502

Results 1-7 (7)