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1.  Testing reported associations of genetic risk factors for oral clefts in a large Irish study population 
BACKGROUND
Suggestive, but not conclusive, studies implicate many genetic variants in oral cleft etiology. We used a large, ethnically homogenous study population to test whether reported associations between nonsyndromic oral clefts and 12 genes (CLPTM1, CRISPLD2, FGFR2, GABRB3, GLI2, IRF6, PTCH1, RARA, RYK, SATB2, SUMO1, TGFA) could be confirmed.
METHODS
Thirty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exons, splice sites, and conserved non-coding regions were studied in 509 patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), 383 with cleft palate only (CP), 838 mothers and 719 fathers of patients with oral clefts, and 902 controls from Ireland. Case-control and family-based statistical tests were performed using isolated oral clefts for the main analyses.
RESULTS
In case-control comparisons, the minor allele of PTCH1 A562A (rs2066836) was associated with reduced odds of CLP (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13–0.64 for homozygotes) whereas the minor allele of PTCH1 L1315P (rs357564) was associated with increased odds of CLP (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.74 for heterozygotes and OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.09–2.24 for homozygotes). The minor allele of one SUMO1 SNP, rs3769817 located in intron 2, was associated with increased odds of CP (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06–1.99 for heterozygotes). Transmission disequilibrium was observed for the minor allele of TGFA V159V (rs2166975) which was over-transmitted to CP cases (P=0.041).
CONCLUSIONS
For 10 of the 12 genes, this is the largest candidate gene study of nonsyndromic oral clefts to date. The findings provide further evidence that PTCH1, SUMO1, and TGFA contribute to nonsyndromic oral clefts.
doi:10.1002/bdra.20639
PMCID: PMC3503531  PMID: 19937600
cleft lip; cleft palate; congenital abnormalities
2.  Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate 
BACKGROUND
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and cleft palate only (CPO) have an inherited component and, many studies suggest, a relationship with folate. Attempts to find folate-related genes associated with clefts have, however, often been inconclusive. This study examined four SNPs related to folate metabolism (MTHFR 677 C→T, MTHFR 1298 A→C, MTHFD1 1958 G→A, and TC II 776 C→G) in a large Irish population to clarify their relationship with clefts.
METHODS
Cases and their parents were recruited from major surgical centers performing cleft repairs in Ireland and a support organization. Data on risk factors, medical history, and DNA were collected. Controls were pregnant women from the greater Dublin area (n = 1,599).
RESULTS
CLP cases numbered 536 and CPO cases 426 after exclusions. CPO mothers were significantly more likely than controls to be MTHFR 677 TT, OR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.05–2.16; p = .03). Log-linear analysis showed a borderline association (p = .07). Isolated CPO case mothers were significantly more likely than controls to be homozygous for the MTHFD1 1958 G→A variant, OR 1.50 (95%CI: 1.08–2.09; p = .02). When multiple cases were added, both CPO cases and case mothers were significantly more likely to be AA (p = .02 and p = .007, respectively). The CLP case-control and mother-control analyses also showed significant effects, ORs 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05–1.82; p = .03) and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04–1.85; p = .03), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Associations were found for both CPO and CLP and MTHFD1 1958 G→A in cases and case mothers. MTHFR 677 C→T could be a maternal risk factor for clefts but the association was not strong. Because multiple comparisons were made, these findings require additional investigation. Given the known association between MTHFD1 1958 G→A and NTDs, these findings should be explored in more detail.
doi:10.1002/bdra.20491
PMCID: PMC2670560  PMID: 18661527
cleft lip; cleft palate; oral clefts; folate; folate genes; vitamin B12; transcobalamin gene
3.  Catechol-O-methyltransferase: Effects of the Val108Met polymorphism on protein turnover in human cells 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2007;1780(1):27-33.
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene has been associated with increased risk for breast cancer and several CNS diseases and disorders. The G to A polymorphism causes a valine (val) to methionine (met) substitution at codon 108 soluble- (S)/ 158 membrane- (MB) COMT, generating alleles encoding high and low activity forms of the enzyme, COMTH and COMTL, respectively. Tissues and cells with a COMTLL genotype have decreased COMT activity compared to COMTHH cells. Previously, we reported that the decreased activity was due to decreased amounts of S-COMTL protein in human hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of S-COMT protein synthesis and turnover as determinates of reduced COMT protein in COMTLL compared to COMTHH cells. No association between S-COMT protein synthesis and COMT genotype was detected. Using a pulse-chase protocol, the half-life of S-COMTH was determined to be 4.7 days, which was considerably longer than expected from the half-lives of other phase 2 enzyme proteins. The half-life of S-COMTL compared to S-COMTH protein was significantly shorter at 3.0 days, but the difference was affected by the medium used during the chase period. These results suggest that increased turnover may contribute to reduced COMT activity in cells and tissues from COMTLL individuals. Subtle differences appear to be able to affect the stability of the S-COMTL protein, and this may contribute to the differences observed in epidemiological studies on the association of this polymorphism with breast cancer risk.
doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.10.002
PMCID: PMC2198850  PMID: 17980711
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT); COMT polymorphism; protein synthesis; protein turnover; human breast epithelial cell lines

Results 1-3 (3)