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1.  A cross-sectional study of growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents at a medical center specializing in the treatment of cystic fibrosis in Poland 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2015;11(1):155-163.
Malnutrition, delayed growth and delayed puberty are commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis.
Material and methods
The evaluation was based on 19 somatic measurements and indices calculated from these measurements. Somatic development was evaluated in relation to several factors connected to the clinical picture or the course of the disease. Anthropometric data were extracted from the medical histories of 41 boys and 48 girls diagnosed and treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw (Poland). Mean values for somatic parameters and body build indices for the children suffering from CF were compared to those for the reference group.
The results revealed that growth in these children was significantly delayed in comparison to that seen in the healthy population (Z-score = –0.56, p < 0.001). Nutritional status was also adversely affected (Z-score = –0.85, p < 0.001). The children suffered more from a deficit in muscularity than in adiposity (Z-score = –0.75 and Z-score = –0.34, p < 0.01, respectively). This was especially true for boys. The children had infantile body proportions and defects in trunk and chest structure.
The factors that most affected somatic development were infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the time at which the disease was diagnosed. Chronic infection by P. aeruginosa and type of CFTR mutation were the factors that most affected pulmonary function parameters.
PMCID: PMC4379371  PMID: 25861303
cystic fibrosis; anthropometry; growth status; malnutrition; body proportions; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2.  Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: Polish 4 years' experience with CFTR sequencing strategy 
Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBS CF) in Poland was started in September 2006. Summary from 4 years' experience is presented in this study. The immunoreactive trypsin/DNA sequencing strategy was implemented. The group of 1 212 487 newborns were screened for cystic fibrosis during the programme. We identified a total of 221 CF cases during this period, including, 4 CF cases were reported to be omitted by NBS CF. Disease incidence in Poland based on the programme results was estimated as 1/4394 and carrier frequency as 1/33. The frequency of the F508del was similar (62%) to population data previously reported. This strategy allowed us to identify 29 affected infants with rare genotypes. The frequency of some mutations (eg, 2184insA, K710X) was assessed in Poland for the first time. Thus, sequencing assay seems to be accurate method for screening programme using blood spots in the Polish population.
PMCID: PMC3598320  PMID: 22892530
cystic fibrosis; gene mutation; screening-newborn; screening
3.  Lactose malabsorption is a risk factor for decreased bone mineral density in pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis patients 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2012;20(10):1092-1095.
As decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common problem in cystic fibrosis (CF) and milk products may have pivotal dietary role affecting BMD, we aimed to assess the potential influence of adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and lactose malabsorption (LM) on BMD in adolescent and young adult patients. In 95 CF pancreatic-insufficient patients aged 10–25 years (without liver cirrhosis, steatosis and cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, systemic glucocorticoid therapy), lumbar BMD, the nutritional status, pulmonary function, vitamin D3 concentration, calcium intake and single-nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene were assessed. In subjects with the −13910 C/C genotype predisposing to ATH, the presence of LM was determined with the use of a hydrogen–methane breath test (BT). BMD and calcium intake were significantly lower in patients with the C/C genotype (P<0.028 and P<0.043, respectively). The abnormal BMD was stated more frequently in patients with the C/C genotype (P<0.042) and with LM (P<0.007). BMD, daily calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration were significantly lower in LM subjects than in the other patients (P<0.037, P<0.000004 and P<0.0038, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the relationship between examined parameters and BMD, was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). However, only standardized body weight and LM were documented to influence BMD (P<0.025 and P<0.044, respectively). In conclusion, LM seems to be an independent risk factor for decreased BMD in CF patients.
PMCID: PMC3449072  PMID: 22453291
cystic fibrosis; bone mineral density; adult-type hypolactasia; lactose malabsorption
4.  Mild CFTR mutations and genetic predisposition to lactase persistence in cystic fibrosis 
Taking into account the reported incidence of hypolactasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the possible impact of milk products on nutritional status we aimed to assess the genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and its incidence in CF. Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) was assessed in 289 CF patients. In subject with −13910C/C genotype (C/C) predisposing to ATH, hydrogen-methane breath test (BT) with lactose loading was conducted and clinical symptoms typical for lactose malabsorption were assessed. The percentage of CF patients with C/C was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (HS) (31.5 vs 32.5% ). Eleven out of 52 (24.5%) CF C/C patients had abnormal BT results. The recalculated frequency of lactose malabsorption was similar for the entire CF and HS populations (6.9 vs 7.2%). Similarly as in the control group, few CF patients have identified and linked to lactose consumption clinical symptoms. The frequency of LCT polymorphic variants in CF patients having and not having severe mutations of CFTR gene showed significant differences. The C allele was more frequent in homozygotes of the severe mutations than in patients carrying at least one mild/unknown mutation (P<0.0028) and in patients with at least one mild mutation (P<0.0377). In conclusion, CF patients carrying mild CFTR mutations seem to have lower genetic predisposition to ATH. Lactose malabsorption due to ATH in CF is not more frequent than in the general population. Symptomatic assessment of lactose malabsorption in CF is not reliable.
PMCID: PMC3137504  PMID: 21407263
cystic fibrosis; CFTR mutations; LCT polymorphism; hypolactasia; lactose malabsorption; lactose intolerance
5.  Modifier gene study of meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis: statistical considerations and gene mapping results 
Human genetics  2009;126(6):763-778.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Yet, variability in CF disease presentation is presumed to be affected by modifier genes, such as those recently demonstrated for the pulmonary aspect. Here, we conduct a modifier gene study for meconium ileus (MI), an intestinal obstruction that occurs in 16–20% of CF newborns, providing linkage and association results from large family and case–control samples. Linkage analysis of modifier traits is different than linkage analysis of primary traits on which a sample was ascertained. Here, we articulate a source of confounding unique to modifier gene studies and provide an example of how one might overcome the confounding in the context of linkage studies. Our linkage analysis provided evidence of a MI locus on chromosome 12p13.3, which was segregating in up to 80% of MI families with at least one affected offspring (HLOD = 2.9). Fine mapping of the 12p13.3 region in a large case–control sample of pancreatic insufficient Canadian CF patients with and without MI pointed to the involvement of ADIPOR2 in MI (p = 0.002). This marker was substantially out of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the cases only, and provided evidence of a cohort effect. The association with rs9300298 in the ADIPOR2 gene at the 12p13.3 locus was replicated in an independent sample of CF families. A protective locus, using the phenotype of no-MI, mapped to 4q13.3 (HLOD = 3.19), with substantial heterogeneity. A candidate gene in the region, SLC4A4, provided preliminary evidence of association (p = 0.002), warranting further follow-up studies. Our linkage approach was used to direct our fine-mapping studies, which uncovered two potential modifier genes worthy of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2888886  PMID: 19662435
6.  A Novel Lipidomic Strategy Reveals Plasma Phospholipid Signatures Associated with Respiratory Disease Severity in Cystic Fibrosis Patients 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7735.
The aim of this study was to search for lipid signatures in blood plasma from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients using a novel MALDI-TOF-ClinProTools™ strategy, initially developed for protein analysis, and thin layer chromatography coupled to MALDI-TOF (TLC-MALDI). Samples from 33 CF patients and 18 healthy children were subjected to organic extraction and column chromatography separation of lipid classes. Extracts were analyzed by MALDI-TOF, ion signatures were compared by the ClinProTools™ software and by parallel statistical analyses. Relevant peaks were identified by LC-MSn. The ensemble of analyses provided 11 and 4 peaks differentially displayed in CF vs healthy and in mild vs severe patients respectively. Ten ions were significantly decreased in all patients, corresponding to 4 lysophosphatidylcholine (18∶0, 18∶2, 20∶3, and 20∶5) and 6 phosphatidylcholine (36∶5, O-38∶0, 38∶4, 38∶5, 38∶6, and P-40∶1) species. One sphingolipid, SM(d18∶0), was significantly increased in all patients. Four PC forms (36∶3, 36∶5, 38∶5, and 38∶6) were consistently downregulated in severe vs mild patients. These observations were confirmed by TLC-MALDI. These results suggest that plasma phospholipid signatures may be able to discriminate mild and severe forms of CF, and show for the first time MALDI-TOF-ClinProTools™ as a suitable methodology for the search of lipid markers in CF.
PMCID: PMC2768907  PMID: 19893743

Results 1-6 (6)