The prevalence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing, which is one of the most frequent operations in orthopedic practice. To further investigate the safe and effective role of using tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing transfusion rate and blood loss in total knee arthroplasty.
This meta-analysis was conducted according to the Cochrane methodology. Twenty-eight superior quality and well designed randomized controlled trials (RCT) were collected to analyze for this study. Patients who had undergone primary unilateral TKA were chosen. The software, RevMan 5.2, was used to analyze collected data.
Finally, 28 RCTs were collected to analyze for this study. Total blood loss was dramatically decreased via the application of TA, by a mean of 420 ml [95% CI: −514 to −327]. A significant reduction about blood transfusion rate was also found in patients who received TA. [RD: −0.26, 95%CI: −0.33 to −0.19]. Moreover, no significant differences were found between TA and control groups in incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).
This meta-analysis demonstrates that the application of TA in TKA could decrease total blood loss and transfusion rate. On the other hand, the application of TA is not associated with high incidence of DVT or other adverse events. TA should be taken into account in routine use in primary knee arthroplasty to benefit the patients.
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee; Blood Loss, Surgical; Meta-Analysis; Tranexamic Acid
The identification of small molecules that target specific CFTR variants has ushered in a new era of treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), yet optimal, individualized treatment of CF will require identification and targeting of disease modifiers. Here we use genome-wide association analysis to identify genetic modifiers of CF lung disease, the primary cause of mortality. Meta-analysis of 6,365 CF patients identifies five loci that display significant association with variation in lung disease. Regions on chr3q29 (MUC4/MUC20; P=3.3 × 10−11), chr5p15.3 (SLC9A3; P=6.8 × 10−12), chr6p21.3 (HLA Class II; P=1.2 × 10−8) and chrXq22-q23 (AGTR2/SLC6A14; P=1.8 × 10−9) contain genes of high biological relevance to CF pathophysiology. The fifth locus, on chr11p12-p13 (EHF/APIP; P=1.9 × 10−10), was previously shown to be associated with lung disease. These results provide new insights into potential targets for modulating lung disease severity in CF.
Cystic fibrosis imposes a decline in quality of life but new treatments are being developed that target specific CFTR variants. Here the authors identify five genome loci significantly associated with variation in disease severity in a meta-analysis, which may provide targets for individualized treatment of cystic fibrosis.
Sublancin 168, as a distinct S-linked antimicrobial glycopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis 168, is effective in killing specific microorganisms. However, the reported yield of sublancin 168 is at a low level of no more than 60 mg from 1 L fermentation culture of B. subtilis 168 by using the method in the literature. Thus optimization of fermentation condition for efficiently producing sublancin 168 is required. Here, Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal combination of three fermentation parameters, namely, corn powder, soybean meal, and temperature that were identified previously by Plackett-Burman design and the steepest ascent experiment. Subsequently, based on the response surface methodology, the quadratic regression model for optimally producing sublancin 168 was developed, and the optimal combination of culture parameters for maximum sublancin 168 production of 129.72 mg/L was determined as corn powder 28.49 g/L, soybean meal 22.99 g/L, and incubation temperature 30.8°C. The results showed that sublancin 168 production obtained experimentally was coincident with predicted value of 125.88 mg/L, and the developed model was proved to be adequate, and the aim of efficiently producing sublancin 168 was achieved.
Circulating immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT), a biomarker of exocrine pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), is elevated in most CF newborns. In those with severe CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotypes, IRT declines rapidly in the first years of life, reflecting progressive pancreatic damage. Consistent with this progression, a less elevated newborn IRT measure would reflect more severe pancreatic disease, including compromised islet compartments, and potentially increased risk of CF-related diabetes (CFRD). We show in two independent CF populations that a lower newborn IRT estimate is associated with higher CFRD risk among individuals with severe CFTR genotypes, and we provide evidence to support a causal relationship. Increased loge(IRT) at birth was associated with decreased CFRD risk in Canadian and Colorado samples (hazard ratio 0.30 [95% CI 0.15–0.61] and 0.39 [0.18–0.81], respectively). Using Mendelian randomization with the SLC26A9 rs7512462 genotype as an instrumental variable since it is known to be associated with IRT birth levels in the CF population, we provide evidence to support a causal contribution of exocrine pancreatic status on CFRD risk. Our findings suggest CFRD risk could be predicted in early life and that maintained ductal fluid flow in the exocrine pancreas could delay the onset of CFRD.
Sublancin is a novel and distinct antimicrobial glycopeptide that can be used as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. The reported production of sublancin by Bacillus subtilis 168 is poor because transcriptional regulatory circuit of sunA, a gene that encodes presublancin, is complex and difficult to control.
A strong inducible and easy to control vegetative σA promoter of Pglv was introduced to replace that of sunA in situ in B. subtilis 1A747 [SPβc, prototroph, the derivative of B. subtilis 168 (trpC2)]. Meanwhile, other two strong promoters of P43 and PluxS were respectively placed before sunI and sunT–bdbA–sunS–bdbB, encoding five functional proteins that involved in the biosynthesis of mature sublancin. 642 mg sublancin was obtained from 1 L culture supernatant of recombinant B. subtilis 1A747 strains. Analysises of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectrum showed that mature sublancin had a molecular weight of 3877.642 Da and displayed a α–helical conformation that are consistent with reported results. In addition, the mature sublancin was proved to be a potent antimicrobial glycopeptide with broad activity spectrum, moderate cytotoxicity and good conditional stability under high temperature, extreme pH and protease–rich environments, thus showing its potential for clinical applications.
Our present findings suggest that recombinant B. subtilis 1A747 strains can effectively and efficiently biosynthesize mature sublancin. The replacement of native promoters provides an extra method for production improvement of some other complicated peptides such as nisin and subtilin.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12934-015-0201-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Sublancin; Glycopeptide; Recombinant B. subtilis 1A747; Improved production; Transcriptional regulatory circuit
Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the
lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and
mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common
phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment.
Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium
(Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin
and Sibling Study, and University of North Carolina/Case Western Reserve
University Gene Modifier Study), the authors calculated age-specific CF
percentile values of FEV1 which were adjusted for CF age-specific mortality
The phenotype was computed for 2061 patients representing the Canadian CF
population, 1137 extreme phenotype patients in the UNC/Case Western study, and
1323 patients from multiple CF sib families in the CF Twin and Sibling Study.
Despite differences in ascertainment and median age, our phenotype score was
distributed in all three samples in a manner consistent with ascertainment
differences, reflecting the lung disease severity of each individual in the
underlying population. The new phenotype score was highly correlated with the
previously recommended complex phenotype, but the new phenotype is more robust
for shorter follow-up and for extreme ages.
A disease progression and mortality adjusted phenotype reduces the need
for stratification or additional covariates, increasing statistical power and
avoiding possible distortions. This approach will facilitate large scale genetic
and environmental epidemiological studies which will provide targeted
therapeutic pathways for the clinical benefit of patients with CF.
Forced Expiratory Volume; Age Effects; Severity of Illness Index
Reading disability (RD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic basis established in families segregating “pure” dyslexia. RD commonly occurs in neurodevelopmental disorders including Rolandic Epilepsy (RE), a complex genetic disorder. We performed genomewide linkage analysis of RD in RE families, testing the hypotheses that RD in RE families is genetically heterogenenous to pure dyslexia, and shares genetic influences with other sub-phenotypes of RE.
We initially performed genome-wide linkage analysis using 1000 STR markers in 38 US families ascertained through a RE proband; most of these families were multiplex for RD. We analyzed the data by two-point and multipoint parametric LOD score methods. We then confirmed the linkage evidence in a second US dataset of 20 RE families. We also resequenced the SEMA3C gene at the 7q21 linkage locus in members of one multiplex RE/RD pedigree and the DISC1 gene in affected pedigrees at the 1q42 locus.
In the discovery dataset there was suggestive evidence of linkage for RD to chromosome 7q21 (two-point LOD score 3.05, multipoint LOD 3.08) and at 1q42 (two-point LOD 2.87, multipoint LOD 3.03). Much of the linkage evidence at 7q21 derived from families of French-Canadian origin, whereas the linkage evidence at 1q42 was well distributed across all the families. There was little evidence for linkage at known dyslexia loci. Combining the discovery and confirmation datasets increased the evidence at 1q42 (two-point LOD = 3.49, multipoint HLOD = 4.70), but decreased evidence at 7q21 (two-point LOD = 2.28, multipoint HLOD = 1.81), possibly because the replication sample did not have French Canadian representation.
Reading disability in rolandic epilepsy has a genetic basis and may be influenced by loci at 1q42 and, in some populations, at 7q21; there is little evidence of a role for known DYX loci discovered in “pure” dyslexia pedigrees. 1q42 and 7q21 are candidate novel dyslexia loci.
Variants associated with meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis (CF) were identified in 3,763 patients by GWAS. Five SNPs at two loci near SLC6A14 (min P=1.28×10−12 at rs3788766), chr Xq23-24 and SLC26A9 (min P=9.88×10−9 at rs4077468), chr 1q32.1 accounted for ~5% of the phenotypic variability, and were replicated in an independent patient collection (n=2,372; P=0.001 and 0.0001 respectively). By incorporating that disease-causing mutations in CFTR alter electrolyte and fluid flux across epithelia into an hypothesis-driven genome-wide analysis (GWAS-HD), we identified the same SLC6A14 and SLC26A9 associated SNPs, while establishing evidence for the involvement of SNPs in a third solute carrier gene, SLC9A3. In addition, GWAS-HD provided evidence of association between meconium ileus and multiple constituents of the apical plasma membrane where CFTR resides (P=0.0002, testing 155 apical genes jointly and replicated, P=0.022). These findings suggest that modulating activities of apical membrane constituents could complement current therapeutic paradigms for cystic fibrosis.
A combined genome-wide association and linkage study was used to identify loci causing variation in CF lung disease severity. A significant association (P=3. 34 × 10-8) near EHF and APIP (chr11p13) was identified in F508del homozygotes (n=1,978). The association replicated in F508del homozygotes (P=0.006) from a separate family-based study (n=557), with P=1.49 × 10-9 for the three-study joint meta-analysis. Linkage analysis of 486 sibling pairs from the family-based study identified a significant QTL on chromosome 20q13.2 (LOD=5.03). Our findings provide insight into the causes of variation in lung disease severity in CF and suggest new therapeutic targets for this life-limiting disorder.
It is generally presumed that the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) population is relatively homogeneous, and predominantly of European origin. The complex ethnic make-up observed in the CF patients collected by the North American CF Modifier Gene Consortium has brought this assumption into question, and suggested the potential for population substructure in the three CF study samples collected from North America. It is well appreciated that population substructure can result in spurious genetic associations.
To understand the ethnic composition of the North American CF population, and to assess the need for population structure adjustment in genetic association studies with North American CF patients.
Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms on 3076 unrelated North American CF patients were used to perform population structure analyses. We compared self-reported ethnicity to genotype-inferred ancestry, and also examined whether geographic distribution and CFTR mutation type could explain the structure observed.
Although largely Caucasian, our analyses identified a considerable number of CF patients with admixed African-Caucasian, Mexican-Caucasian and Indian-Caucasian ancestries. Population substructure was present and comparable across the three studies of the consortium. Neither geographic distribution nor mutation type explained the population structure.
Given the ethnic diversity of the North American CF population, it is essential to carefully detect, estimate and adjust for population substructure to guard against potential spurious findings in CF genetic association studies. Other Mendelian diseases that are presumed to predominantly affect single ethnic groups may also benefit from careful analysis of population structure.
ethnicity; principal component analysis; population substructure; population stratification
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Yet, variability in CF disease presentation is presumed to be affected by modifier genes, such as those recently demonstrated for the pulmonary aspect. Here, we conduct a modifier gene study for meconium ileus (MI), an intestinal obstruction that occurs in 16–20% of CF newborns, providing linkage and association results from large family and case–control samples. Linkage analysis of modifier traits is different than linkage analysis of primary traits on which a sample was ascertained. Here, we articulate a source of confounding unique to modifier gene studies and provide an example of how one might overcome the confounding in the context of linkage studies. Our linkage analysis provided evidence of a MI locus on chromosome 12p13.3, which was segregating in up to 80% of MI families with at least one affected offspring (HLOD = 2.9). Fine mapping of the 12p13.3 region in a large case–control sample of pancreatic insufficient Canadian CF patients with and without MI pointed to the involvement of ADIPOR2 in MI (p = 0.002). This marker was substantially out of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the cases only, and provided evidence of a cohort effect. The association with rs9300298 in the ADIPOR2 gene at the 12p13.3 locus was replicated in an independent sample of CF families. A protective locus, using the phenotype of no-MI, mapped to 4q13.3 (HLOD = 3.19), with substantial heterogeneity. A candidate gene in the region, SLC4A4, provided preliminary evidence of association (p = 0.002), warranting further follow-up studies. Our linkage approach was used to direct our fine-mapping studies, which uncovered two potential modifier genes worthy of follow-up.
Panic disorder (PD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are moderately heritable anxiety disorders. We analyzed five genes, derived from pharmacological or translational mouse models, in a new case-control study of PD and SAD in European Americans: (1) the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), (2) the serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A), (3) catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), (4) a regulator of g-protein signalling, RGS2, and (5) the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). Cases were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA-IV) and were required to have a probable or definite lifetime diagnosis of PD (N = 179), SAD (161) or both (140), with first onset by age 31 and a family history of anxiety. Final diagnoses were determined using the best estimate procedure, blind to genotyping data. Controls were obtained from the NIMH Human Genetics Initiative; only subjects above 25 years of age who screened negative for all psychiatric symptoms were included (N = 470). A total of 45 SNPs were successfully genotyped over the 5 selected genes using Applied Biosystems SNPlex protocol. SLC6A4 provided strong and consistent evidence of association with the PD and PD+SAD groups, with the most significant association in both groups being at rs140701 (χ2=10.72, p=0.001 with PD and χ2=8.59, p=0.003 in the PD+SAD group). This association remained significant after multiple test correction. Those carrying at least one copy of the haplotype A-A-G constructed from rs3794808, rs140701 and rs4583306 have 1.7 times the odds of PD than those without the haplotype (90%CI 1.2-2.3). The SAD only group did not provide evidence of association, suggesting a PD driven association. The findings remained after adjustment for age and sex, and there was no evidence that the association was due to population stratification. The promoter region of the gene, 5-HTTLPR, did not provide any evidence of association, regardless of whether analyzed as a triallelic or biallelic locus, nor did any of the other four candidate genes tested. Our findings suggest that the serotonin transporter gene may play a role in PD; however, the findings require replication. Future studies should attend to the entire genetic region rather than the promoter.
anxiety disorder; social phobia; association; SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR; serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A); catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT); regulator of g-protein signalling; gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)
Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common human epilepsy, affecting children between 3 and 12 years of age, boys more often than girls (3:2). Focal sharp waves in the centrotemporal area define the electroencephalographic (EEG) trait for the syndrome; are a feature of several related childhood epilepsies; and are freqently observed in common developmental disorders (e.g. speech dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD)). Here we report the first genome-wide linkage scan in RE for the EEG trait, centrotemporal sharp waves (CTS), with genomewide linkage of CTS to 11p13 (HLOD 4.30). Pure likelihood statistical analysis refined our linkage peak by fine-mapping CTS to variants in Elongator Protein Complex 4 (hELP4) in two independent datasets; the strongest evidence was with rs986527 in intron 9 of hELP4, providing a Likelihood Ratio of 629:1 (p=0.0002) in favor of an association. Resequencing of hELP4 coding, flanking and promoter regions revealed no significant exonic polymorphisms. This is the first report of a gene implicated in a common focal epilepsy and the first human disease association of hELP4. hELP4 is a component of the Elongator complex, involved in transcription and tRNA modification. Elongator depletion results in the brain-specific downregulation of genes implicated in cell motility and migration. We hypothesize that a non-coding mutation in hELP4 impairs brain-specific Elongator mediated interaction of genes implicated in brain development, resulting in susceptibility to seizures and neurodevelopmental disorders.
linkage; neurodevelopmental traits; centrotemporal spikes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; speech dyspraxia; developmental coordination disorder; association
Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common human epilepsy, affecting children between 3 and 12 years of age, boys more often than girls (3:2). Focal sharp waves in the centrotemporal area define the electroencephalographic (EEG) trait for the syndrome, are a feature of several related childhood epilepsies and are frequently observed in common developmental disorders (eg, speech dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder). Here we report the first genome-wide linkage scan in RE for the EEG trait, centrotemporal sharp waves (CTS), with genome-wide linkage of CTS to 11p13 (HLOD 4.30). Pure likelihood statistical analysis refined our linkage peak by fine mapping CTS to variants in Elongator Protein Complex 4 (ELP4) in two independent data sets; the strongest evidence was with rs986527 in intron 9 of ELP4, providing a likelihood ratio of 629:1 (P=0.0002) in favor of an association. Resequencing of ELP4 coding, flanking and promoter regions revealed no significant exonic polymorphisms. This is the first report of a gene implicated in a common focal epilepsy and the first human disease association of ELP4. ELP4 is a component of the Elongator complex, involved in transcription and tRNA modification. Elongator depletion results in the brain-specific downregulation of genes implicated in cell motility and migration. We hypothesize that a non-coding mutation in ELP4 impairs brain-specific Elongator-mediated interaction of genes implicated in brain development, resulting in susceptibility to seizures and neurodevelopmental disorders.
linkage; neurodevelopmental traits; centrotemporal spikes; idiopathic partial epilepsy; association
Cryptococcal meningitis is a fungal infection, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which is prevalent in immunocompromised patient populations. Treatment failures of this disease are emerging in the clinic, usually associated with long-term treatment with existing antifungal agents. The fungal cell wall is an attractive target for drug therapy because the syntheses of cell wall glucan and chitin are processes that are absent in mammalian cells. Echinocandins comprise a class of lipopeptide compounds known to inhibit 1,3-β-glucan synthesis, and at least two compounds belonging to this class are currently in clinical trials as therapy for life-threatening fungal infections. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans mutants identify the membrane-spanning subunit of glucan synthase, encoded by the FKS genes, as the molecular target of echinocandins. In vitro, the echinocandins show potent antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus species but are much less potent against C. neoformans. In order to examine why C. neoformans cells are less susceptible to echinocandin treatment, we have cloned a homolog of S. cerevisiae FKS1 from C. neoformans. We have developed a generalized method to evaluate the essentiality of genes in Cryptococcus and applied it to the FKS1 gene. The method relies on homologous integrative transformation with a plasmid that can integrate in two orientations, only one of which will disrupt the target gene function. The results of this analysis suggest that the C. neoformans FKS1 gene is essential for viability. The C. neoformans FKS1 sequence is closely related to the FKS1 sequences from other fungal species and appears to be single copy in C. neoformans. Furthermore, amino acid residues known to be critical for echinocandin susceptibility in Saccharomyces are conserved in the C. neoformans FKS1 sequence.