PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-11 (11)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Improved production of sublancin via introduction of three characteristic promoters into operon clusters responsible for this novel distinct glycopeptide biosynthesis 
Background
Sublancin is a novel and distinct antimicrobial glycopeptide that can be used as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. The reported production of sublancin by Bacillus subtilis 168 is poor because transcriptional regulatory circuit of sunA, a gene that encodes presublancin, is complex and difficult to control.
Results
A strong inducible and easy to control vegetative σA promoter of Pglv was introduced to replace that of sunA in situ in B. subtilis 1A747 [SPβc, prototroph, the derivative of B. subtilis 168 (trpC2)]. Meanwhile, other two strong promoters of P43 and PluxS were respectively placed before sunI and sunT–bdbA–sunS–bdbB, encoding five functional proteins that involved in the biosynthesis of mature sublancin. 642 mg sublancin was obtained from 1 L culture supernatant of recombinant B. subtilis 1A747 strains. Analysises of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectrum showed that mature sublancin had a molecular weight of 3877.642 Da and displayed a α–helical conformation that are consistent with reported results. In addition, the mature sublancin was proved to be a potent antimicrobial glycopeptide with broad activity spectrum, moderate cytotoxicity and good conditional stability under high temperature, extreme pH and protease–rich environments, thus showing its potential for clinical applications.
Conclusions
Our present findings suggest that recombinant B. subtilis 1A747 strains can effectively and efficiently biosynthesize mature sublancin. The replacement of native promoters provides an extra method for production improvement of some other complicated peptides such as nisin and subtilin.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12934-015-0201-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12934-015-0201-0
PMCID: PMC4336743
Sublancin; Glycopeptide; Recombinant B. subtilis 1A747; Improved production; Transcriptional regulatory circuit
2.  A Novel Lung Disease Phenotype Adjusted for Mortality Attrition for Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Modifier Studies 
Pediatric pulmonology  2011;46(9):857-869.
SUMMARY
Genetic studies of lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis are hampered by the lack of a severity measure that accounts for chronic disease progression and mortality attrition. Further, combining analyses across studies requires common phenotypes that are robust to study design and patient ascertainment.
Using data from the North American Cystic Fibrosis Modifier Consortium (Canadian Consortium for CF Genetic Studies, Johns Hopkins University CF Twin and Sibling Study, and University of North Carolina/Case Western Reserve University Gene Modifier Study), the authors calculated age-specific CF percentile values of FEV1 which were adjusted for CF age-specific mortality data.
The phenotype was computed for 2061 patients representing the Canadian CF population, 1137 extreme phenotype patients in the UNC/Case Western study, and 1323 patients from multiple CF sib families in the CF Twin and Sibling Study. Despite differences in ascertainment and median age, our phenotype score was distributed in all three samples in a manner consistent with ascertainment differences, reflecting the lung disease severity of each individual in the underlying population. The new phenotype score was highly correlated with the previously recommended complex phenotype, but the new phenotype is more robust for shorter follow-up and for extreme ages.
A disease progression and mortality adjusted phenotype reduces the need for stratification or additional covariates, increasing statistical power and avoiding possible distortions. This approach will facilitate large scale genetic and environmental epidemiological studies which will provide targeted therapeutic pathways for the clinical benefit of patients with CF.
doi:10.1002/ppul.21456
PMCID: PMC3130075  PMID: 21462361
Forced Expiratory Volume; Age Effects; Severity of Illness Index
3.  The Genetics of Reading Disability in an Often Excluded Sample: Novel Loci Suggested for Reading Disability in Rolandic Epilepsy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40696.
Background
Reading disability (RD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic basis established in families segregating “pure” dyslexia. RD commonly occurs in neurodevelopmental disorders including Rolandic Epilepsy (RE), a complex genetic disorder. We performed genomewide linkage analysis of RD in RE families, testing the hypotheses that RD in RE families is genetically heterogenenous to pure dyslexia, and shares genetic influences with other sub-phenotypes of RE.
Methods
We initially performed genome-wide linkage analysis using 1000 STR markers in 38 US families ascertained through a RE proband; most of these families were multiplex for RD. We analyzed the data by two-point and multipoint parametric LOD score methods. We then confirmed the linkage evidence in a second US dataset of 20 RE families. We also resequenced the SEMA3C gene at the 7q21 linkage locus in members of one multiplex RE/RD pedigree and the DISC1 gene in affected pedigrees at the 1q42 locus.
Results
In the discovery dataset there was suggestive evidence of linkage for RD to chromosome 7q21 (two-point LOD score 3.05, multipoint LOD 3.08) and at 1q42 (two-point LOD 2.87, multipoint LOD 3.03). Much of the linkage evidence at 7q21 derived from families of French-Canadian origin, whereas the linkage evidence at 1q42 was well distributed across all the families. There was little evidence for linkage at known dyslexia loci. Combining the discovery and confirmation datasets increased the evidence at 1q42 (two-point LOD = 3.49, multipoint HLOD = 4.70), but decreased evidence at 7q21 (two-point LOD = 2.28, multipoint HLOD  = 1.81), possibly because the replication sample did not have French Canadian representation.
Discussion
Reading disability in rolandic epilepsy has a genetic basis and may be influenced by loci at 1q42 and, in some populations, at 7q21; there is little evidence of a role for known DYX loci discovered in “pure” dyslexia pedigrees. 1q42 and 7q21 are candidate novel dyslexia loci.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040696
PMCID: PMC3399896  PMID: 22815793
4.  Multiple apical plasma membrane constituents are associated with susceptibility to meconium ileus in individuals with cystic fibrosis 
Nature Genetics  2012;44(5):562-569.
Variants associated with meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis (CF) were identified in 3,763 patients by GWAS. Five SNPs at two loci near SLC6A14 (min P=1.28×10−12 at rs3788766), chr Xq23-24 and SLC26A9 (min P=9.88×10−9 at rs4077468), chr 1q32.1 accounted for ~5% of the phenotypic variability, and were replicated in an independent patient collection (n=2,372; P=0.001 and 0.0001 respectively). By incorporating that disease-causing mutations in CFTR alter electrolyte and fluid flux across epithelia into an hypothesis-driven genome-wide analysis (GWAS-HD), we identified the same SLC6A14 and SLC26A9 associated SNPs, while establishing evidence for the involvement of SNPs in a third solute carrier gene, SLC9A3. In addition, GWAS-HD provided evidence of association between meconium ileus and multiple constituents of the apical plasma membrane where CFTR resides (P=0.0002, testing 155 apical genes jointly and replicated, P=0.022). These findings suggest that modulating activities of apical membrane constituents could complement current therapeutic paradigms for cystic fibrosis.
doi:10.1038/ng.2221
PMCID: PMC3371103  PMID: 22466613
5.  Genome-wide association and linkage identify modifier loci of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis at 11p13 and 20q13.2 
Nature Genetics  2011;43(6):539-546.
A combined genome-wide association and linkage study was used to identify loci causing variation in CF lung disease severity. A significant association (P=3. 34 × 10-8) near EHF and APIP (chr11p13) was identified in F508del homozygotes (n=1,978). The association replicated in F508del homozygotes (P=0.006) from a separate family-based study (n=557), with P=1.49 × 10-9 for the three-study joint meta-analysis. Linkage analysis of 486 sibling pairs from the family-based study identified a significant QTL on chromosome 20q13.2 (LOD=5.03). Our findings provide insight into the causes of variation in lung disease severity in CF and suggest new therapeutic targets for this life-limiting disorder.
doi:10.1038/ng.838
PMCID: PMC3296486  PMID: 21602797
6.  Understanding the Population Structure of North American Patients with Cystic Fibrosis 
Clinical genetics  2011;79(2):136-146.
Rationale
It is generally presumed that the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) population is relatively homogeneous, and predominantly of European origin. The complex ethnic make-up observed in the CF patients collected by the North American CF Modifier Gene Consortium has brought this assumption into question, and suggested the potential for population substructure in the three CF study samples collected from North America. It is well appreciated that population substructure can result in spurious genetic associations.
Objectives
To understand the ethnic composition of the North American CF population, and to assess the need for population structure adjustment in genetic association studies with North American CF patients.
Methods
Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms on 3076 unrelated North American CF patients were used to perform population structure analyses. We compared self-reported ethnicity to genotype-inferred ancestry, and also examined whether geographic distribution and CFTR mutation type could explain the structure observed.
Main Results
Although largely Caucasian, our analyses identified a considerable number of CF patients with admixed African-Caucasian, Mexican-Caucasian and Indian-Caucasian ancestries. Population substructure was present and comparable across the three studies of the consortium. Neither geographic distribution nor mutation type explained the population structure.
Conclusion
Given the ethnic diversity of the North American CF population, it is essential to carefully detect, estimate and adjust for population substructure to guard against potential spurious findings in CF genetic association studies. Other Mendelian diseases that are presumed to predominantly affect single ethnic groups may also benefit from careful analysis of population structure.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01502.x
PMCID: PMC2995003  PMID: 20681990
ethnicity; principal component analysis; population substructure; population stratification
7.  Modifier gene study of meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis: statistical considerations and gene mapping results 
Human genetics  2009;126(6):763-778.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Yet, variability in CF disease presentation is presumed to be affected by modifier genes, such as those recently demonstrated for the pulmonary aspect. Here, we conduct a modifier gene study for meconium ileus (MI), an intestinal obstruction that occurs in 16–20% of CF newborns, providing linkage and association results from large family and case–control samples. Linkage analysis of modifier traits is different than linkage analysis of primary traits on which a sample was ascertained. Here, we articulate a source of confounding unique to modifier gene studies and provide an example of how one might overcome the confounding in the context of linkage studies. Our linkage analysis provided evidence of a MI locus on chromosome 12p13.3, which was segregating in up to 80% of MI families with at least one affected offspring (HLOD = 2.9). Fine mapping of the 12p13.3 region in a large case–control sample of pancreatic insufficient Canadian CF patients with and without MI pointed to the involvement of ADIPOR2 in MI (p = 0.002). This marker was substantially out of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the cases only, and provided evidence of a cohort effect. The association with rs9300298 in the ADIPOR2 gene at the 12p13.3 locus was replicated in an independent sample of CF families. A protective locus, using the phenotype of no-MI, mapped to 4q13.3 (HLOD = 3.19), with substantial heterogeneity. A candidate gene in the region, SLC4A4, provided preliminary evidence of association (p = 0.002), warranting further follow-up studies. Our linkage approach was used to direct our fine-mapping studies, which uncovered two potential modifier genes worthy of follow-up.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0724-8
PMCID: PMC2888886  PMID: 19662435
8.  Panic Disorder is Associated with the Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) But Not the Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) 
Molecular psychiatry  2008;15(2):166-176.
Panic disorder (PD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are moderately heritable anxiety disorders. We analyzed five genes, derived from pharmacological or translational mouse models, in a new case-control study of PD and SAD in European Americans: (1) the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), (2) the serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A), (3) catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), (4) a regulator of g-protein signalling, RGS2, and (5) the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). Cases were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA-IV) and were required to have a probable or definite lifetime diagnosis of PD (N = 179), SAD (161) or both (140), with first onset by age 31 and a family history of anxiety. Final diagnoses were determined using the best estimate procedure, blind to genotyping data. Controls were obtained from the NIMH Human Genetics Initiative; only subjects above 25 years of age who screened negative for all psychiatric symptoms were included (N = 470). A total of 45 SNPs were successfully genotyped over the 5 selected genes using Applied Biosystems SNPlex protocol. SLC6A4 provided strong and consistent evidence of association with the PD and PD+SAD groups, with the most significant association in both groups being at rs140701 (χ2=10.72, p=0.001 with PD and χ2=8.59, p=0.003 in the PD+SAD group). This association remained significant after multiple test correction. Those carrying at least one copy of the haplotype A-A-G constructed from rs3794808, rs140701 and rs4583306 have 1.7 times the odds of PD than those without the haplotype (90%CI 1.2-2.3). The SAD only group did not provide evidence of association, suggesting a PD driven association. The findings remained after adjustment for age and sex, and there was no evidence that the association was due to population stratification. The promoter region of the gene, 5-HTTLPR, did not provide any evidence of association, regardless of whether analyzed as a triallelic or biallelic locus, nor did any of the other four candidate genes tested. Our findings suggest that the serotonin transporter gene may play a role in PD; however, the findings require replication. Future studies should attend to the entire genetic region rather than the promoter.
doi:10.1038/mp.2008.79
PMCID: PMC2811233  PMID: 18663369
anxiety disorder; social phobia; association; SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR; serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A); catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT); regulator of g-protein signalling; gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)
9.  Centrotemporal sharp wave EEG trait in Rolandic epilepsy maps to Elongator Protein Complex 4 
Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common human epilepsy, affecting children between 3 and 12 years of age, boys more often than girls (3:2). Focal sharp waves in the centrotemporal area define the electroencephalographic (EEG) trait for the syndrome; are a feature of several related childhood epilepsies; and are freqently observed in common developmental disorders (e.g. speech dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD)). Here we report the first genome-wide linkage scan in RE for the EEG trait, centrotemporal sharp waves (CTS), with genomewide linkage of CTS to 11p13 (HLOD 4.30). Pure likelihood statistical analysis refined our linkage peak by fine-mapping CTS to variants in Elongator Protein Complex 4 (hELP4) in two independent datasets; the strongest evidence was with rs986527 in intron 9 of hELP4, providing a Likelihood Ratio of 629:1 (p=0.0002) in favor of an association. Resequencing of hELP4 coding, flanking and promoter regions revealed no significant exonic polymorphisms. This is the first report of a gene implicated in a common focal epilepsy and the first human disease association of hELP4. hELP4 is a component of the Elongator complex, involved in transcription and tRNA modification. Elongator depletion results in the brain-specific downregulation of genes implicated in cell motility and migration. We hypothesize that a non-coding mutation in hELP4 impairs brain-specific Elongator mediated interaction of genes implicated in brain development, resulting in susceptibility to seizures and neurodevelopmental disorders.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.267
PMCID: PMC2729813  PMID: 19172991
linkage; neurodevelopmental traits; centrotemporal spikes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; speech dyspraxia; developmental coordination disorder; association
10.  Centrotemporal sharp wave EEG trait in rolandic epilepsy maps to Elongator Protein Complex 4 (ELP4) 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2009;17(9):1171-1181.
Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common human epilepsy, affecting children between 3 and 12 years of age, boys more often than girls (3:2). Focal sharp waves in the centrotemporal area define the electroencephalographic (EEG) trait for the syndrome, are a feature of several related childhood epilepsies and are frequently observed in common developmental disorders (eg, speech dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder). Here we report the first genome-wide linkage scan in RE for the EEG trait, centrotemporal sharp waves (CTS), with genome-wide linkage of CTS to 11p13 (HLOD 4.30). Pure likelihood statistical analysis refined our linkage peak by fine mapping CTS to variants in Elongator Protein Complex 4 (ELP4) in two independent data sets; the strongest evidence was with rs986527 in intron 9 of ELP4, providing a likelihood ratio of 629:1 (P=0.0002) in favor of an association. Resequencing of ELP4 coding, flanking and promoter regions revealed no significant exonic polymorphisms. This is the first report of a gene implicated in a common focal epilepsy and the first human disease association of ELP4. ELP4 is a component of the Elongator complex, involved in transcription and tRNA modification. Elongator depletion results in the brain-specific downregulation of genes implicated in cell motility and migration. We hypothesize that a non-coding mutation in ELP4 impairs brain-specific Elongator-mediated interaction of genes implicated in brain development, resulting in susceptibility to seizures and neurodevelopmental disorders.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.267
PMCID: PMC2729813  PMID: 19172991
linkage; neurodevelopmental traits; centrotemporal spikes; idiopathic partial epilepsy; association
11.  A Glucan Synthase FKS1 Homolog in Cryptococcus neoformans Is Single Copy and Encodes an Essential Function 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(2):444-453.
Cryptococcal meningitis is a fungal infection, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which is prevalent in immunocompromised patient populations. Treatment failures of this disease are emerging in the clinic, usually associated with long-term treatment with existing antifungal agents. The fungal cell wall is an attractive target for drug therapy because the syntheses of cell wall glucan and chitin are processes that are absent in mammalian cells. Echinocandins comprise a class of lipopeptide compounds known to inhibit 1,3-β-glucan synthesis, and at least two compounds belonging to this class are currently in clinical trials as therapy for life-threatening fungal infections. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans mutants identify the membrane-spanning subunit of glucan synthase, encoded by the FKS genes, as the molecular target of echinocandins. In vitro, the echinocandins show potent antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus species but are much less potent against C. neoformans. In order to examine why C. neoformans cells are less susceptible to echinocandin treatment, we have cloned a homolog of S. cerevisiae FKS1 from C. neoformans. We have developed a generalized method to evaluate the essentiality of genes in Cryptococcus and applied it to the FKS1 gene. The method relies on homologous integrative transformation with a plasmid that can integrate in two orientations, only one of which will disrupt the target gene function. The results of this analysis suggest that the C. neoformans FKS1 gene is essential for viability. The C. neoformans FKS1 sequence is closely related to the FKS1 sequences from other fungal species and appears to be single copy in C. neoformans. Furthermore, amino acid residues known to be critical for echinocandin susceptibility in Saccharomyces are conserved in the C. neoformans FKS1 sequence.
PMCID: PMC93397  PMID: 9882657

Results 1-11 (11)