Pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) are part of the initial step of a host defense against pathogens in detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, determinants of the specificity of this recognition by innate immune molecules of invertebrates remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of an invertebrate PRR C-type lectin in the antimicrobial response of the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis. Based on the initial expressed sequence tags (EST) of a hepatopancreatic cDNA library, the full-length EsLecF cDNA was cloned and determined to contain a 477-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 158-amino-acid protein. A comparison with other reported invertebrate and vertebrate C-type lectin superfamily sequences revealed the presence of a common carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). EsLecF transcripts in E. sinensis were mainly detected in the hepatopancreas and were inducible by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The recombinant EsLecF (rEsLecF) protein produced via a prokaryotic expression system and affinity chromatography was found to have a wide spectrum of binding activities towards various microorganisms, and its microbial-binding activity was calcium-independent. Moreover, the binding of rEsLecF induced the aggregation of microbial pathogens. Results of the microorganism growth inhibitory assay and antibacterial assay revealed capabilities of rEsLecF in suppressing microorganism growth and directly killing bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, rEsLecF could enhance cellular encapsulation in vitro. Collectively, the findings presented here demonstrated the successful isolation of a novel C-type lectin in a crustacean and highlighted its critical role in the innate immunity of an invertebrate.
Accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau has been observed in the brain of aging and tauopathies. Tau was observed in microglia, but its role is not illustrated. By immunofluorescence staining and the fractal dimension value assay in the present study, we observed that microglia were activated in the brains of rats and mice during aging, simultaneously, the immunoreactivities of total tau and the phosphorylated tau were significantly enhanced in the activated microglia. Furtherly by transient transfection of tau40 (human 2N/4R tau) into the cultured rat microglia, we demonstrated that expression of tau40 increased the level of Iba1, indicating activation of microglia. Moreover, expression of tau40 significantly enhanced the membranous localization of the phosphorylated tau at Ser396 in microglia possibly by a mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. It was also found that expression of tau40 promoted microglial migration and phagocytosis, but not proliferation. And we observed increased secretion of several cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide after the expression of tau40. These data suggest a novel role of human 2N/4R tau in microglial activation.
Various types of lignocellulosic wastes extensively used in biofuel production were provided to assess the potential of EXLX1 as a cellulase synergist. Enzymatic hydrolysis of natural wheat straw showed that all the treatments using mixtures of cellulase and an optimized amount of EXLX1, released greater quantities of sugars than those using cellulase alone, regardless of cellulase dosage and incubation time. EXLX1 exhibited different synergism and binding characteristics for different wastes, but this can be related to their lignocellulosic components. The cellulose proportion could be one of the important factors. However, when the cellulose proportion of different biomass samples exhibited no remarkable differences, a higher synergism of EXLX1 is prone to occur on these materials, with a high proportion of hemicellulose and a low proportion of lignin. The information could be favorable to assess whether EXLX1 is effective as a cellulase synergist for the hydrolysis of the used materials. Binding assay experiments further suggested that EXLX1 bound preferentially to alkali pretreated materials, as opposed to acid pretreated materials under the assay condition and the binding preference would be affected by incubation temperature.
This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug.
The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action.
Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P < 0.05). The PDOX group had significantly higher WBC than the DOX group (P < 0.05), and higher PLT than Control (P < 0.05). Serum BUN and Cr levels were lower in the PDOX group than DOX and Control groups (P < 0.05). Compared with Control, DOX increased CK and CK-MB; while PDOX decreased CK compared with DOX (P < 0.05). Multiple spotty degenerative changes of the myocardium were observed in DOX-treated mice, but not in the Control and PDOX groups. PDOX could significantly reduce the Ki-67 positive rate of tumor cells, compared with DOX and Control groups. PDOX produced the effects at least via the ERK pathway.
Compared with DOX, PDOX may have better anti-metastatic efficacy and reduced side effects especially cardio-toxicities in this HCC model.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Molecular targeting therapy; Doxorubicin; PDOX; Metastases
Whey acidic proteins (WAP) belong to a large gene family of antibacterial peptides, which are critical in the host immune response against microbial invasion. The common feature of these proteins is a single WAP domain maintained by at least one four-disulfide core (4-DSC) structure rich in cysteine residues. In this study, a double WAP domain (DWD)-containing protein, Es-DWD1, was first cloned from the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheirsinensis). The full-length Es-DWD1cDNA was 1193 bp, including a 411 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids in the N-terminus. A comparison with other reported invertebrate and vertebrate sequences revealed the presence of WAP domains characteristic of WAP superfamilies. As determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Es-DWD1 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it was up-regulated in hemocytes post-challenge with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The mature recombinant Es-DWD1 (rEs-DWD1) protein exhibited different binding activities to bacteria and fungus. Moreover, rEs-DWD1 could exert agglutination activities against Bacillus subtilis and Pichiapastoris and demonstrated inhibitory activities against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and P. pastoris. Furthermore, rEs-DWD1 showed a specific protease inhibitory activity in B. subtilis. Coating of rEs-DWD1 onto agarose beads enhanced encapsulation of the beads by crab hemocytes. Collectively, the results suggest that Es-DWD1 is a double WAP domain containing protein with antimicrobial and proteinase inhibitory activities, which play significant roles in the immunity of crustaceans.
Clinically, some patients would have false-negative results in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pleural dissemination, losing their chances of prolonged survival from surgery. Hence, this study aimed to clarify the benefit of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for NSCLC with malignant pleural dissemination that is detected during thoracoscopic lobectomy.
From July 2006, we started the application of RFA in combination with talc pleurodesis (R-TP) for pleural disseminated NSCLCs diagnosed by thoracoscopy. Patients who underwent TP alone (from December 30, 2005 to June 30, 2006) were retrospectively evaluated in compared with R-TP (from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2008). Clinical features were collected and compared to identify the difference in clinical outcomes between R-TP and TP alone. After discharge (three months after surgery), tumor response to treatment was assessed, and follow-up results were recorded to determine the perioperative and mid-time survival difference between the two groups.
In our study, the two groups were comparable in age, sex, performance status (PS) score, tumor location, and histological diagnosis. The incidence rate of intraoperative pleural dissemination was 5.98%, as diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. All the surgeries were completed without conversion to open thoracotomy. Except for the longer operation duration in the R-TP group (p < 0.001), there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of surgical features. Postoperatively, no mortality occurred in either group during hospital stay; however, two patients from the R-TP group developed complications (9.52%). The complete and partial remission rates in the R-TP group were 80% and 10%, respectively, and the stabilization rate was 10%. After the three-year follow-up, the overall survival (OS) rates of the R-TP and TP groups were 14.29% and 0%, respectively. The median survival and median tumor progression-free survival (PFS) periods were longer in the R-TP group than in the TP group (OS: 19 months versus 12.5 months, p = 0.045; PFS: 9.5 months versus 5.5 months, p = 0.028).
The introduction of RFA to TP offered survival benefits to pleural disseminated NSCLC patients, making it a potential alternative palliative treatment for local tumor. However, multicenter randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings.
Ablative therapy; Lung cancer surgery; Thoracoscopy/VATS
To date, a great number of studies have demonstrated that altered expression of kinesins is associated with development and progression of various human cancers. Kinesin family member 26B (KIF26B), a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), is essential for kidney development. However, the role of KIF26B during tumorigenesis and progression is limited. Here, we demonstrate that both KIF26B mRNA and protein are overexpression in breast cancer tissues by RT-qPCR and western blot. Immunohistochemistry revealed that KIF26B expression significantly correlated with clinicopathological factors, including tumor size (P = 0.011), grade (P = 0.017), lymph node status (P = 0.009) and ER status (P = 0.012). Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that breast cancer patients with high KIF26B expression had a shorter survival than those with low KIF26B expression. In addition, multivariate analysis indicated that KIF26B is an independent prognostic for outcome in breast cancer (HR, 2.356; 95%CI, 1.268–4.378; P = 0.007). Collectively, our study demonstrated that KIF26B was overexpression in breast cancer and could be served as a potential prognostic marker.
The objective of this work is to use colloidal gel from alginate-chitosan-PLGA complex to deliver Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 peptide in a controlled-release manner as a vaccine-like therapeutic to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the mouse model. Oppositely charged PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by a solvent diffusion method. The carboxyl group of the alginate and the amine group of the chitosan coated the nanoparticles with negative and positive charges, respectively. The peptide (Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2), designed to bind to MHC-II and ICAM-1 simultaneously, was formulated into the colloidal gel by physical mixture. Vaccine-like administration of the peptide-loaded colloidal gel (Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2-NP) was achieved by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection to EAE mice. Disease severity was measured using clinical scoring and percent change in body weight. Cytokine production was determined using the splenocytes from Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2-NP-treated mice and compared to that of controls. Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2-NP suppressed and delayed the onset of EAE as well as Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 when delivered in a vaccine-like manner. IL-6 and IL-17 levels were significantly lower in the Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2-NP-treated mice compared to the mice group treated with blank colloidal gel, suggesting that the mechanism of suppression of EAE is due to a shift in the immune response away from Th17 production. The results of this study suggest that a one-time s.c. administration of Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 formulated in a colloidal gel can produce long-term suppression of EAE by reducing Th17 proliferation.
Autoimmune disease; immune tolerance; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; colloidal gel; PLGA; chitosan; alginate; bifunctional peptide inhibitor
Type 2 episodic ataxia (EA2) is the most common subtype among a group of rare hereditary syndromes characterized by recurrent attacks of ataxia. More than 60 mutations and several gene rearrangements due to large deletions in CACNA1A gene have been reported so far for the cause of EA2. Because CACNA1A gene is a large gene containing 47 exons and there is no hot spot mutation, direct sequencing will be a challenge in clinical genetic testing. In this study, we used next generation sequencing technology to identify a novel nonsense mutation of CACNA1A (p.Tyr1957Ter, NP_001120693.1) resulting in truncated protein without 305 amino acids in the c-terminus. Sanger sequencing confirmed the heterozygous mutation of CACNA1A in a Chinese family with 11 affected individuals. Affected individuals experienced recurrent attacks with or without nystagmus, dysarthria, seizure, myokymia, dystonia, weakness, blurred vision, visual field defects, diplopia, migraine, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, sweating and abdominal pain. This is the first report of EA2 in a Chinese family that carries a novel mutation in CACNA1A gene and had abdominal pain as a novel phenotype associated with EA2.
Invertebrates rely solely on the innate immune system for defense against pathogens and other stimuli. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP), members of the lipid binding proteins superfamily, play a crucial role in fatty acid transport and lipid metabolism and are also involved in gene expression induced by fatty acids. In the vertebrate immune system, FABP is involved in inflammation regulated by fatty acids through its interaction with peroxidase proliferator activate receptors (PPARs). However, the immune functions of FABP in invertebrates are not well characterized. For this reason, we investigated the immune functionality of two fatty acid binding proteins, Es-FABP9 and Es-FABP10, following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). An obvious variation in the expression of Es-FABP9 and Es-FABP10 mRNA in E. sinensis was observed in hepatopancreas, gills, and hemocytes post-LPS challenge. Recombinant proteins rEs-FABP9 and rEs-FABP10 exhibited distinct bacterial binding activity and bacterial agglutination activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays demonstrated that rEs-FABP9 responds positively to the growth inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticuss and S. aureus, while rEs-FABP10 responds positively to the growth inhibition of Aeromonas hydrophila and Bacillus subtilis. Coating of agarose beads with recombinant rEs-FABP9 and rEs-FABP10 dramatically enhanced encapsulation of the beads by crab hemocytes in vitro. In conclusion, the data presented here demonstrate the participation of these two lipid metabolism-related proteins in the innate immune system of E. sinensis.
The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation.
A human antibody facilitates opsonophagocytic killing, inhibits attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and exerts protective effects in several animal models of P. aeruginosa infection.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections in the seriously ill, and the primary agent of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A major obstacle to effective control of P. aeruginosa infections is its intrinsic resistance to most antibiotic classes, which results from chromosomally encoded drug-efflux systems and multiple acquired resistance mechanisms selected by years of aggressive antibiotic therapy. These factors demand new strategies and drugs to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb) selection strategy on whole P. aeruginosa cells using single-chain variable fragment phage libraries derived from healthy individuals and patients convalescing from P. aeruginosa infections. This approach enabled identification of mAbs that bind three distinct epitopes on the product of the Psl. This exopolysaccharide is important for P. aeruginosa attachment to mammalian cells, and for the formation and maintenance of biofilms produced by nonmucoid and mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates. Functional screens revealed that mAbs to one epitope exhibit superior activity in opsonophagocytic killing and cell attachment assays, and confer significant protection in multiple animal models. Our results indicate that Psl is an accessible serotype-independent surface feature and promising novel protective antigen for preventing P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, our mAb discovery strategy holds promise for application to other bacterial pathogens.
Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats.
Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered.
Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.
Sciatic nerve; WDR; Pain; Acute pressure
We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet (ND) or restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue (AT), and blood monocytes of obese mice.
In mice with HFD-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from HFD to ND and maintaining on ND ad libitum or by restricting HFD intake to match body weight of mice with ND-induced weight loss. After diet interventions for 4 weeks, hepatic steatosis, hepatic and AT inflammation, and blood CD11c+ monocytes were examined.
At 4 weeks after switching diets, body weight was reduced by 23% from baseline. To achieve the same reduced body weight required restricting calorie intake from HFD. Weight loss with either ND or HFD restriction decreased body fat mass and ameliorated liver steatosis; both effects were greater with ND-induced weight loss than HFD restriction–induced weight loss. Weight loss with ND but not HFD restriction normalized blood CD11c+ monocytes and attenuated hepatic inflammation assessed by chemokine and CD11c expression. In contrast, weight loss with HFD restriction significantly reduced chemokine levels and CD11c+ cells in AT compared to obese controls, and tended to reduce AT chemokines and CD11c+ cells more than ND-induced weight loss.
In mice with diet-induced obesity, weight loss with ND was superior in alleviating hepatic inflammation and steatosis, whereas weight loss with HFD calorie restriction provided greater amelioration of AT inflammation.
diet; inflammation; obesity; weight loss
The optimal treatment for pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), a rare type of tumor, has not been established yet. This study analyzed the survival of pulmonary MEC patients and attempted to find clues for optimal treatment.
A total of 21 patients with pulmonary MEC from November 2004 to January 2011 were included in the investigation. Immunohistochemistry, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, and survival were retrospectively studied.
Among the 21 pulmonary MEC patients, 17 were diagnosed with low-grade malignancy and 4 with high-grade malignancy through pathological examination. The prognosis was found to be poor in the presence of lymph nodes. The expression rates of EGFR and HER2 were 28.6% and 0%, respectively, which correlated with neither grade nor prognosis. The mutation rate of EGFR was 0. Log-rank test results indicated that age, grade, lymph node metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage were prognostic factors.
Age, grade, lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis stage correlate with the survival of pulmonary MEC patients.
This study was approved and registered by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to treatment.
Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma; Treatment; Prognosis
Altered lipid metabolism underlies several major human diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, lipid metabolism pathophysiology remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Insulin is the primary stimulator of hepatic lipogenesis through activation of the SREBP-1c transcription factor. Here we identified cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and its regulatory partner cyclin C (CycC) as negative regulators of the lipogenic pathway in Drosophila, mammalian hepatocytes, and mouse liver. The inhibitory effect of CDK8 and CycC on de novo lipogenesis was mediated through CDK8 phosphorylation of nuclear SREBP-1c at a conserved threonine residue. Phosphorylation by CDK8 enhanced SREBP-1c ubiquitination and protein degradation. Importantly, consistent with the physiologic regulation of lipid biosynthesis, CDK8 and CycC proteins were rapidly downregulated by feeding and insulin, resulting in decreased SREBP-1c phosphorylation. Moreover, overexpression of CycC efficiently suppressed insulin and feeding–induced lipogenic gene expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK8 and CycC function as evolutionarily conserved components of the insulin signaling pathway in regulating lipid homeostasis.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by histone-modifying co-repressor complexes is central to normal animal development. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase and gene repressor SIRT1 removes histone H4K16 acetylation marks and facilitates heterochromatin formation. However, the mechanistic contribution of SIRT1 to epigenetic regulation at euchromatic loci and whether it acts in concert with other chromatin-modifying activities to control developmental gene expression programs remain unclear. We describe here a SIRT1 co-repressor complex containing the histone H3K4 demethylase LSD1/KDM1A and several other LSD1-associated proteins. SIRT1 and LSD1 interact directly and play conserved and concerted roles in H4K16 deacetylation and H3K4 demethylation to repress genes regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Mutations in Drosophila SIRT1 and LSD1 orthologs result in similar developmental phenotypes and genetically interact with the Notch pathway in Drosophila. These findings offer new insights into conserved mechanisms of epigenetic gene repression and regulation of development by SIRT1 in metazoans.
SIRT1; LSD1; co-repressor; Notch; chromatin modification
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for approximately 10% of all paediatric oncology deaths1,2. To identify genetic risk factors for neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,251 patients and 6,097 control subjects of European ancestry from four case series. Here we report a significant association within LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) at 11p15.4 (rs110419, combined P = 5.2 × 10−16, odds ratio of risk allele = 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.25–1.44)). The signal was enriched in the subset of patients with the most aggressive form of the disease. LMO1 encodes a cysteine-rich transcriptional regulator, and its paralogues (LMO2, LMO3 and LMO4) have each been previously implicated in cancer. In parallel, we analysed genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 701 primary tumours. We found that the LMO1 locus was aberrant in 12.4% through a duplication event, and that this event was associated with more advanced disease (P < 0.0001) and survival (P = 0.041). The germline single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles and somatic copy number gains were associated with increased LMO1 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of LMO1 inhibited growth of neuroblastoma cells with high LMO1 expression, whereas forced expression of LMO1 in neuroblastoma cells with low LMO1 expression enhanced proliferation. These data show that common polymorphisms at the LMO1 locus are strongly associated with susceptibility to developing neuroblastoma, but also may influence the likelihood of further somatic alterations at this locus, leading to malignant progression.
The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10−5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.
The natural polymers chitosan and alginate represent an attractive material choice for biodegradable inplants. These were used as coating materials to make positively and negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles, respectively. After blending at total solids concentration >10% wt/vol, these oppositely charged nanoparticles yielded a cohesive colloidal gel. Electrostatic forces between oppositely charged nanoparticles produced a stable 3-D porous network that may be extruded or molded to the desired shape. This high concentration colloidal system demonstrated shear-thinning behavior due to the disruption of interparticle interactions. Once the external force was removed, the cohesive property of the colloidal gel was recovered. Scanning electron micrographs of dried colloidal networks revealed an organized, 3-D microporous structure. Rheological studies were employed to probe the differences in plasticity and shear sensitivity of colloidal gels. Viability tests of hUCMSCs seeded on the colloidal gels also demonstrated the negligible cytotoxicity of the materials. All the results indicated the potential application of the biodegradable colloidal gels as an injectable scaffold in tissue engineering and drug release.
PLGA; natural polymers; colloidal gel; tissue engineering
Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays a key role in skeletal development, repair and regeneration. To gain a better understanding of the role of BMP-2 in periosteum-mediated bone repair, we deleted BMP-2 postnatally at the initiation stage of healing utilizing a Tamoxifen-inducible CreER mouse model. To mark the mutant cells, we further generated a BMP-2f/f; CreER; RosaR mouse model that enabled the activation of a LacZ reporter gene upon treatment of Tamoxifen. We demonstrated that deletion of BMP-2 at the onset of healing abolished periosteum-mediated bone/cartilage callus formation. In a chimeric periosteal callus with cells derived from both wild type and the mutant, over 90% of the mutant mesenchymal progenitors remained undifferentiated. Within differentiated bone and cartilage tissues, only a few cells could be identified as mutants. Using a bone graft transplantation approach, we further showed that transplantation of a mutant bone graft into a wild type host failed to rescue the deficient differentiation of the mutant cells at day 10 post-grafting. These data strongly suggest that the endogenous expression of BMP-2 plays a critical role in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of periosteal progenitors during repair. To determine whether BMP-2 deficient cells remained responsive to exogenous BMP-2, we isolated periosteal mesenchymal progenitors from BMP-2 deficient bone autografts. The isolated cells demonstrated a 90% reduction of endogenous BMP-2 expression, accompanied by significant decrease in cellular proliferation and a near blockade of osteogenic differentiation. The addition of exogenous BMP-2 partially rescued impaired proliferation and further enhanced osteogenic differentiation in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our data show that the initiation of the cortical bone repair in vivo is controlled by endogenous BMP-2. Future studies are necessary to determine the mechanisms by which the BMP-2 pathway is activated in periosteal progenitor cells at the onset of cortical bone repair.
We studied whether CB1 blockade with rimonabant has an anti-inflammatory effect in obese mice, and whether this effect depends on weight loss and/or diet consumption. High-fat diet (HFD)–induced obese mice were treated orally with rimonabant (HFD-R) or vehicle (HFD-V) for 4 weeks. Paired-feeding was conducted in 2 additional groups of obese mice to achieve either the same body weight (HFD-BW) or the same HFD intake (HFD-DI) as HFD-R. All these groups of mice were maintained on HFD throughout, with mice on normal diet throughout as lean controls. Rimonabant treatment of obese mice induced marked diet-intake reduction and weight loss during the first week, which was followed by maintenance of low body weight but not diet-intake reduction. Lower HFD intake was required to reach the same degree of weight loss in HFD-BW. HFD-DI had similar weight loss initially, but then started to gain weight, reaching a higher body weight than HFD-R. Despite the same degree of weight loss, HFD-R had less fat mass and lower adipogenic gene expression than HFD-BW. Compared to HFD-V or HFD-DI, HFD-R had reduced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and/or liver indicated primarily by lower monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) levels. However, MCP-1 levels were not significantly different between HFD-R and HFD-BW. In vitro incubation of rimonabant with AT explants did not change MCP-1 levels. Thus, rimonabant induced weight loss in obese mice by diet intake–dependent and –independent fashions. Rimonabant decreased inflammation in obese mice, possibly through a primary effect on weight reduction.
Rimonabant; chemokine; inflammation; obesity