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1.  Targeting transcription regulation in cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor 
Nature  2014;511(7511):616-620.
Tumor oncogenes include transcription factors that co-opt the general transcriptional machinery to sustain the oncogenic state1, but direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors has thus far proven difficult2. However, the transcriptional machinery contains various enzymatic co-factors that can be targeted for development of new therapeutic candidates3, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)4. Here we present the discovery and characterization of the first covalent CDK7 inhibitor, THZ1, which has the unprecedented ability to target a remote cysteine residue located outside of the canonical kinase domain, providing an unanticipated means of achieving selectivity for CDK7. Cancer cell line profiling indicates that a subset of cancer cell lines, including T-ALL, exhibit exceptional sensitivity to THZ1. Genome-wide analysis in Jurkat T-ALL shows that THZ1 disproportionally affects transcription of RUNX1 and suggests that sensitivity to THZ1 may be due to vulnerability conferred by the RUNX1 super-enhancer and this transcription factor’s key role in the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of these tumor cells. Pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity may thus provide an approach to identify and treat tumor types exhibiting extreme dependencies on transcription for maintenance of the oncogenic state.
doi:10.1038/nature13393
PMCID: PMC4244910  PMID: 25043025
3.  The Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD5 Is a Transcriptional Repressor of WEE1 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108066.
Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108066
PMCID: PMC4172601  PMID: 25247294
4.  TYK2-STAT1-BCL2 Pathway Dependence in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
Cancer discovery  2013;3(5):564-577.
Targeted molecular therapy has yielded remarkable outcomes in certain cancers, but specific therapeutic targets remain elusive for many others. As a result of two independent RNA interference (RNAi) screens, we identified pathway dependence on a member of the JAK tyrosine kinase family, TYK2, and its downstream effector STAT1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Gene knockdown experiments consistently demonstrated TYK2 dependence in both T-ALL primary specimens and cell lines, and a small-molecule inhibitor of JAK kinase activity induced T-ALL cell death. Activation of this TYK2-STAT1 pathway i n T-ALL cell lines occurs by gain-of-function TYK2 mutations or activation of IL-10 receptor signaling, and this pathway mediates T-ALL cell survival through upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. These findings indicate that in many T-ALL cases, the leukemic cells are dependent upon the TYK2-STAT1-BCL2 pathway for continued survival, supporting the development of molecular therapies targeting TYK2 and other components of this pathway.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0504
PMCID: PMC3651770  PMID: 23471820
Tyrosine kinase; TYK2; STAT1; BCL2; T-ALL
5.  KPT-330 inhibitor of CRM1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export has selective anti-leukaemic activity in preclinical models of T-ALL and AML 
British journal of haematology  2013;161(1):117-127.
Summary
This study explored the anti-leukaemic efficacy of novel irreversible inhibitors of the major nuclear export receptor, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1, also termed XPO1). We found that these novel CRM1 antagonists, termed SINE (Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export), induced rapid apoptosis at low nanomolar concentrations in a panel of 14 human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cell lines representing different molecular subtypes of the disease. To assess in vivo anti-leukaemia cell activity, we engrafted immunodeficient mice intravenously with the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cells, which harbour activating mutations of NOTCH1 and NRAS as well as loss of function of the CDKN2A, PTEN and TP53 tumour suppressors and express a high level of oncogenic transcription factor TAL1. Importantly, we examined the in vivo anti-leukaemic efficacy of the clinical SINE compound KPT-330 against TALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. These studies demonstrated striking in vivo activity of KPT-330 against T-ALL and AML cells, with little toxicity to normal murine haematopoietic cells. Taken together, our results show that SINE CRM1 antagonists represent promising “first-in-class” drugs with a novel mechanism of action and wide therapeutic index, and imply that drugs of this class show promise for the targeted therapy of T-ALL and AML.
doi:10.1111/bjh.12231
PMCID: PMC3980736  PMID: 23373539
6.  Peripheral Neuroblastic Tumors with Genotype-Phenotype Discordance: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Groupand the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2012;60(3):363-370.
Background
Of 4,706 peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs) registered on the Children’s Cancer Group and Children’s Oncology Group Neuroblastoma Study between 1989 and 2010, 51 cases (1.1%) had genotype-phenotype discordance characterized by MYCN amplification (indicating poor prognosis) and Favorable Histology (indicating better prognosis).
Procedure
To distinguish prognostic subgroups in the genotype-phenotype discordant pNTs, two subgroups, “conventional” and “bull’s eye”, were identified based on the nuclear morphology. The “conventional” tumors (35 cases) included: Neuroblastoma, Poorly differentiated subtype (NB-PD, 26 cases) with “salt-and-pepper” nuclei; Neuroblastoma, Differentiating subtype (4 cases); Ganglioneuroblastoma, Intermixed (3 cases); and Ganglioneuroma, Maturing subtype (2 cases). The “bull’s eye” tumors included NB-PD with prominent nucleoli (16 cases). Clinicopathologic characteristics of these two subgroups were analyzed. N-myc protein expression was tested immunohistochemically on available tumors.
Results
No significant difference was found between these two subgroups in the distribution of prognostic factors such as age at diagnosis, clinical stage, histopathology category/subtype, mitosis-karyorrhexis index, ploidy, 1p LOH, and unbalanced 11qLOH. However, prognosis of the patients with “conventional” tumors (5-year EFS 85.7±12.2%; OS 89.3±10.3%) was significantly better than those with “bull’s eye” tumors (EFS 31.3±13.0%; OS 42.9±16.2%) (P=0.0010 and 0.0008, respectively). Immunohistochemically all (11/11) tested “conventional” tumors were negative, and 10/11 tested “bull’s eye” tumors were positive for N-myc protein expression.
Conclusions
Based on the presence or absence of prominent nucleoli (the putative site of RNA synthesis/accumulation leading to N-myc protein expression), two prognostic subgroups, “conventional” with a better prognosis and “bull’s eye” with a poor prognosis, were distinguished among the genotype-phenotype discordant pNTs.
doi:10.1002/pbc.24238
PMCID: PMC3397468  PMID: 22744966
neuroblastoma; International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification; MYCN; genotype-phenotype correlation; prognosis; immunohistochemistry
7.  The TAL1 complex targets the FBXW7 tumor suppressor by activating miR-223 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2013;210(8):1545-1557.
miR-223 is upregulated by the transcription factor TAL1 in human T-ALL cells and suppress the FBXW7 tumor suppressor.
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in 60% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and initiates T-ALL in mouse models. By performing global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling after depletion of TAL1, together with genome-wide analysis of TAL1 occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified the miRNA genes directly controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. The most dynamically regulated miRNA was miR-223, which is bound at its promoter and up-regulated by the TAL1 complex. miR-223 expression mirrors TAL1 levels during thymic development, with high expression in early thymocytes and marked down-regulation after the double-negative-2 stage of maturation. We demonstrate that aberrant miR-223 up-regulation by TAL1 is important for optimal growth of TAL1-positive T-ALL cells and that sustained expression of miR-223 partially rescues T-ALL cells after TAL1 knockdown. Overexpression of miR-223 also leads to marked down-regulation of FBXW7 protein expression, whereas knockdown of TAL1 leads to up-regulation of FBXW7 protein levels, with a marked reduction of its substrates MYC, MYB, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN E. We conclude that TAL1-mediated up-regulation of miR-223 promotes the malignant phenotype in T-ALL through repression of the FBXW7 tumor suppressor.
doi:10.1084/jem.20122516
PMCID: PMC3727321  PMID: 23857984
8.  Phenothiazines induce PP2A-mediated apoptosis in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer that is frequently associated with activating mutations in NOTCH1 and dysregulation of MYC. Here, we performed 2 complementary screens to identify FDA-approved drugs and drug-like small molecules with activity against T-ALL. We developed a zebrafish system to screen small molecules for toxic activity toward MYC-overexpressing thymocytes and used a human T-ALL cell line to screen for small molecules that synergize with Notch inhibitors. We identified the antipsychotic drug perphenazine in both screens due to its ability to induce apoptosis in fish, mouse, and human T-ALL cells. Using ligand-affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a perphenazine target. T-ALL cell lines treated with perphenazine exhibited rapid dephosphorylation of multiple PP2A substrates and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of specific PP2A subunits attenuated perphenazine activity, indicating that PP2A mediates the drug’s antileukemic activity. Finally, human T-ALLs treated with perphenazine exhibited suppressed cell growth and dephosphorylation of PP2A targets in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the recurring identification of phenothiazines as a class of drugs with anticancer effects. Furthermore, these data suggest that pharmacologic PP2A activation in T-ALL and other cancers driven by hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates has therapeutic potential.
doi:10.1172/JCI65093
PMCID: PMC3904599  PMID: 24401270
9.  The Requirement for Cyclin D Function in Tumor Maintenance 
Cancer cell  2012;22(4):438-451.
SUMMARY
D-cyclins represent components of cell cycle machinery. To test the efficacy of targeting D-cyclins in cancer treatment, we engineered mouse strains which allow acute and global ablation of individual D-cyclins in a living animal. Ubiquitous shutdown of cyclin D1 or inhibition of cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mice bearing ErbB2-driven mammary carcinomas triggered tumor cell senescence, without compromising the animals’ health. Ablation of cyclin D3 in mice bearing Notch1-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) triggered tumor cell apoptosis. Such selective killing of leukemic cells can also be achieved by inhibiting cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mouse and human T-ALL models. Inhibition of cyclin D-kinase activity represents a highly-selective anti-cancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.09.015
PMCID: PMC3487466  PMID: 23079655
10.  PIDD Death-Domain Phosphorylation by ATM Controls Prodeath Versus Prosurvival PIDDosome Signaling 
Molecular cell  2012;47(5):681-693.
Summary
Biochemical evidence implicates the death-domain (DD) protein PIDD as a molecular switch capable of signaling cell survival or death in response to genotoxic stress. PIDD activity is determined by binding-partner selection at its DD: whereas recruitment of RIP1 triggers prosurvival NF-κB signaling, recruitment of RAIDD activates proapoptotic caspase-2 via PIDDosome formation. However, it remains unclear how interactor selection, and thus fate decision, are regulated at the PIDD platform. We show that the PIDDosome functions in the ‘Chk1-suppressed’ apoptotic response to DNA damage, a conserved ATM/ATR–caspase-2 pathway antagonized by Chk1. In this pathway, ATM phosphorylates PIDD on Thr788 within the DD. This phosphorylation is necessary and sufficient for RAIDD binding and caspase-2 activation. Conversely, nonphosphorylatable PIDD fails to bind RAIDD or activate caspase-2, and recruits prosurvival RIP1 instead. Thus, ATM phosphorylation of the PIDD DD enables a binary switch through which cells elect to survive or die upon DNA injury.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.06.024
PMCID: PMC3444620  PMID: 22854598
11.  Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit Controlled by the TAL1 Complex in Human T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
Cancer cell  2012;22(2):209-221.
SUMMARY
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3 and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected auto-regulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1, and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MYB oncogene, forming a positive feed-forward regulatory loop that reinforces and stabilizes the TAL1-regulated oncogenic program. One of the critical downstream targets in this circuitry is the TRIB2 gene, which is oppositely regulated by TAL1 and E2A/HEB and is essential for the survival of T-ALL cells.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.06.007
PMCID: PMC3422504  PMID: 22897851
12.  MYBL2 is a sub-haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in myeloid malignancy 
eLife  2013;2:e00825.
A common deleted region (CDR) in both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) affects the long arm of chromosome 20 and has been predicted to harbor a tumor suppressor gene. Here we show that MYBL2, a gene within the 20q CDR, is expressed at sharply reduced levels in CD34+ cells from most MDS cases (65%; n = 26), whether or not they harbor 20q abnormalities. In a murine competitive reconstitution model, Mybl2 knockdown by RNAi to 20–30% of normal levels in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors resulted in clonal dominance of these ‘sub-haploinsufficient’ cells, which was reflected in all blood cell lineages. By 6 months post-transplantation, the reconstituted mice had developed a clonal myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disorder originating from the cells with aberrantly reduced Mybl2 expression. We conclude that downregulation of MYBL2 activity below levels predicted by classical haploinsufficiency underlies the clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in a large fraction of human myeloid malignancies.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00825.001
eLife digest
Blood cells are produced within bone marrow by specialized stem cells and progenitor cells. Abnormalities in this process lead to a group of diseases known as myeloid malignancies, which include acute myeloid leukaemia—in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells—and myelodysplastic syndromes, which are caused by too few mature blood cells being produced.
Many individuals affected by these disorders possess a shortened form of chromosome 20 that lacks a number of genes. This deletion is only ever seen in one of their two copies of the chromosome—suggesting that at least some of these genes are essential for survival—but the identity of the gene(s) that are associated with the increased risk of myeloid malignancies is unknown.
Now, Heinrichs et al. have uncovered a key tumor suppressor among those genes frequently lost on chromosome 20. The gene, which is called MYBL2, encodes a transcription factor that helps to control the cell division cycle. Myeloid malignancy patients lacking one copy of this gene showed levels of MYBL2 expression that were less than 50% of those in healthy individuals. This suggests that additional mechanisms must be acting to reduce expression of their remaining copy of the gene. Surprisingly, MYBL2 levels were also reduced in myeloid malignancy patients who possessed two intact copies of chromosome 20, indicating that loss of a single copy represents only one mechanism to reduce MYBL2 expression, i.e., the ‘tip-of-the-iceberg’. Hence, this finding reveals a more general role for MYBL2 as it indicates that more patients are likely to be affected by altered expression of this gene.
To confirm their findings from studies in patients, Heinrichs et al. used gene silencing techniques to reduce the expression of MYBL2 in mice and showed that this induced symptoms of myeloid malignancies in the animals. Moreover, injection of modified cells from these animals into healthy mice also induced symptoms in the recipients. The modified cells are able to expand more robustly than normal cells, and this dominance induced by downregulation of the tumor suppressor increases the risk of malignancy.
In addition to revealing a new tumor suppressor gene and its contribution to myeloid malignancies, the study by Heinrichs et al. highlights the importance of gene dosage in mediating the effects of tumor suppressors.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00825.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00825
PMCID: PMC3713455  PMID: 23878725
Myelodysplastic Syndromes; MYBL2; 20q CDR; Human; Mouse
13.  Activated ALK Collaborates with MYCN in Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis 
Cancer Cell  2012;21(3):362-373.
SUMMARY
Amplification of the MYCN oncogene in childhood neuroblastoma is often accompanied by mutational activation of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), suggesting their pathogenic cooperation. We generated a transgenic zebrafish model of neuroblastoma in which MYCN-induced tumors arise from a subpopulation of neuroblasts that migrate into the adrenal medulla analogue following organogenesis. Coexpression of activated ALK with MYCN in this model triples the disease penetrance and markedly accelerates tumor onset. MYCN overexpression induces adrenal sympathetic neuroblast hyperplasia, blocks chromaffin cell differentiation, and ultimately triggers a developmentally-timed apoptotic response in the hyperplastic sympathoadrenal cells. Coexpression of activated ALK with MYCN provides prosurvival signals that block this apoptotic response and allow continued expansion and oncogenic transformation of hyperplastic neuroblasts, thus promoting progression to neuroblastoma.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.02.010
PMCID: PMC3315700  PMID: 22439933
14.  Notch signaling expands a pre-malignant pool of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia clones without affecting leukemia-propagating cell frequency 
NOTCH1 pathway activation contributes to the pathogenesis of over 60% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). While Notch is thought to exert the majority of its effects through transcriptional activation of Myc, it also likely has independent roles in T-ALL malignancy. Here, we utilized a zebrafish transgenic model of T-ALL, where Notch does not induce Myc transcription, to identify a novel Notch gene expression signature that is also found in human T-ALL and is regulated independently of Myc. Cross-species microarray comparisons between zebrafish and mammalian disease identified a common T-ALL gene signature, suggesting that conserved genetic pathways underlie T-ALL development. Functionally, Notch expression induced a significant expansion of pre-leukemic clones; however, a majority of these clones were not fully transformed and could not induce leukemia when transplanted into recipient animals. Limiting-dilution cell transplantation revealed that Notch signaling does not increase the overall frequency of leukemia-propagating cells (LPCs), either alone or in collaboration with Myc. Taken together, these data indicate that a primary role of Notch signaling in T-ALL is to expand a population of pre-malignant thymocytes, of which a subset acquire the necessary mutations to become fully transformed LPCs.
doi:10.1038/leu.2012.116
PMCID: PMC3435461  PMID: 22538478
thymocyte; relapse; Myc; zebrafish; self-renewal
15.  Autocrine activation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in acute myeloid leukemia 
Nature medicine  2012;18(7):1118-1122.
Although the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved significantly, more than half of all patients develop disease that is refractory to intensive chemotherapy1,2. Functional genomics approaches offer a means to discover specific molecules mediating aberrant growth and survival of cancer cells3–8. Thus, using a loss-of-function RNA interference genomic screen, we identified aberrant expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as a critical factor in AML pathogenesis. We found HGF expression leading to autocrine activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase, MET, in nearly half of the AML cell lines and clinical samples studied. Genetic depletion of HGF or MET potently inhibited the growth and survival of HGF-expressing AML cells. However, leukemic cells treated with the specific MET kinase inhibitor crizotinib developed resistance due to compensatory upregulation of HGF expression, leading to restoration of MET signaling. In cases of AML where MET is coactivated with other tyrosine kinases, such as fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1)9, concomitant inhibition of FGFR1 and MET blocked compensatory HGF upregulation, resulting in sustained logarithmic cell kill both in vitro and in xenograft models in vivo. Our results demonstrate widespread dependence of AML cells on autocrine activation of MET, as well as the importance of compensatory upregulation of HGF expression in maintaining leukemogenic signaling by this receptor. We anticipate that these findings will lead to the design of additional strategies to block adaptive cellular responses that drive compensatory ligand expression as an essential component of the targeted inhibition of oncogenic receptors in human cancers.
doi:10.1038/nm.2819
PMCID: PMC3438345  PMID: 22683780
16.  Zebrafish neurofibromatosis type 1 genes have redundant functions in tumorigenesis and embryonic development 
Disease Models & Mechanisms  2012;5(6):881-894.
SUMMARY
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, dominantly inherited genetic disorder that results from mutations in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. Affected individuals demonstrate abnormalities in neural-crest-derived tissues that include hyperpigmented skin lesions and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. NF1 patients also have a predisposition to malignancies including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), optic glioma, glioblastoma, schwannoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In an effort to better define the molecular and cellular determinants of NF1 disease pathogenesis in vivo, we employed targeted mutagenesis strategies to generate zebrafish harboring stable germline mutations in nf1a and nf1b, orthologues of NF1. Animals homozygous for loss-of-function alleles of nf1a or nf1b alone are phenotypically normal and viable. Homozygous loss of both alleles in combination generates larval phenotypes that resemble aspects of the human disease and results in larval lethality between 7 and 10 days post fertilization. nf1-null larvae demonstrate significant central and peripheral nervous system defects. These include aberrant proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), dysmorphic myelin sheaths and hyperplasia of Schwann cells. Loss of nf1 contributes to tumorigenesis as demonstrated by an accelerated onset and increased penetrance of high-grade gliomas and MPNSTs in adult nf1a+/−; nf1b−/−; p53e7/e7 animals. nf1-null larvae also demonstrate significant motor and learning defects. Importantly, we identify and quantitatively analyze a novel melanophore phenotype in nf1-null larvae, providing the first animal model of the pathognomonic pigmentation lesions of NF1. Together, these findings support a role for nf1a and nf1b as potent tumor suppressor genes that also function in the development of both central and peripheral glial cells as well as melanophores in zebrafish.
doi:10.1242/dmm.009779
PMCID: PMC3484870  PMID: 22773753
17.  p63 mediates an apoptotic response to pharmacological and disease-related ER stress in the developing epidermis 
Developmental cell  2011;21(3):492-505.
Summary
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers tissue-specific responses that culminate in either cellular adaptation or apoptosis, but the genetic networks distinguishing these responses are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that ER stress induced in the developing zebrafish causes rapid apoptosis in the brain, spinal cord, tail epidermis, lens and epiphysis. Focusing on the tail epidermis, we uncover an apoptotic response that depends on Puma, but not on p53 or Chop. Puma is transcriptionally activated during this ER stress response in a p53-independent manner, and is an essential mediator of epidermal apoptosis. We demonstrate that the p63 transcription factor is upregulated to initiate this apoptotic pathway and directly activates puma transcription in response to ER stress. We also show that a mutation of human Connexin 31, which causes erythrokeratoderma variabilis, induces ER stress and p63-dependent epidermal apoptosis in the zebrafish embryo, thus implicating this pathway in the pathogenesis of inherited disease.
doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2011.07.012
PMCID: PMC3200231  PMID: 21920315
ER stress; zebrafish; apoptosis; p63; puma; chop; erythrokeratodermia variabilis
18.  Ccdc94 Protects Cells from Ionizing Radiation by Inhibiting the Expression of p53 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(8):e1002922.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage to a cell. In cancer therapy, induction of cell death by DNA DSBs by ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapies is thought to mediate the successful elimination of cancer cells. However, cancer cells often evolve to evade the cytotoxicity induced by DNA DSBs, thereby forming the basis for treatment resistance. As such, a better understanding of the DSB DNA damage response (DSB–DDR) pathway will facilitate the design of more effective strategies to overcome chemo- and radioresistance. To identify novel mechanisms that protect cells from the cytotoxic effects of DNA DSBs, we performed a forward genetic screen in zebrafish for recessive mutations that enhance the IR–induced apoptotic response. Here, we describe radiosensitizing mutation 7 (rs7), which causes a severe sensitivity of zebrafish embryonic neurons to IR–induced apoptosis and is required for the proper development of the central nervous system. The rs7 mutation disrupts the coding sequence of ccdc94, a highly conserved gene that has no previous links to the DSB–DDR pathway. We demonstrate that Ccdc94 is a functional member of the Prp19 complex and that genetic knockdown of core members of this complex causes increased sensitivity to IR–induced apoptosis. We further show that Ccdc94 and the Prp19 complex protect cells from IR–induced apoptosis by repressing the expression of p53 mRNA. In summary, we have identified a new gene regulating a dosage-sensitive response to DNA DSBs during embryonic development. Future studies in human cancer cells will determine whether pharmacological inactivation of CCDC94 reduces the threshold of the cancer cell apoptotic response.
Author Summary
Radiation therapy and most chemotherapies elicit cancer cell death through the induction of excessive DNA damage. However, cancer cells can harbor genetic defects that confer resistance to these therapies. To identify cellular components whose targeted therapeutic inactivation could potentially enhance the sensitivity of treatment-resistant cancer cells to DNA–damaging therapies, we have chosen an unbiased genetic approach in live whole zebrafish embryos to identify genes that normally protect cells from the lethal effects of DNA damage. This approach has yielded the discovery of a novel radioprotective gene called ccdc94. Upon inactivation of ccdc94, cells become more sensitive to radiation-induced cell death. Our further analysis revealed that the Ccdc94 protein functions in the Prp19 complex, which is known to regulate gene expression and repair of damaged DNA. We found that this complex normally represses radiation-induced cell death by inhibiting the expression of the p53 gene, a critical mediator of DNA damage–induced cell death. Future experiments that inactivate Ccdc94 and Prp19 complex proteins in human cancer cells will determine if inactivation of this complex represents a novel therapeutic strategy that could increase p53 expression to enhance sensitivity to DNA damaging therapies in chemo- and radio-resistant cancer cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002922
PMCID: PMC3431329  PMID: 22952453
19.  NOTCH1 Signaling Promotes Human T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Initiating Cell Regeneration in Supportive Niches 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39725.
Background
Leukemia initiating cells (LIC) contribute to therapeutic resistance through acquisition of mutations in signaling pathways, such as NOTCH1, that promote self-renewal and survival within supportive niches. Activating mutations in NOTCH1 occur commonly in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and have been implicated in therapeutic resistance. However, the cell type and context specific consequences of NOTCH1 activation, its role in human LIC regeneration, and sensitivity to NOTCH1 inhibition in hematopoietic microenvironments had not been elucidated.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We established humanized bioluminescent T-ALL LIC mouse models transplanted with pediatric T-ALL samples that were sequenced for NOTCH1 and other common T-ALL mutations. In this study, CD34+ cells from NOTCH1Mutated T-ALL samples had higher leukemic engraftment and serial transplantation capacity than NOTCH1Wild-type CD34+ cells in hematopoietic niches, suggesting that self-renewing LIC were enriched within the NOTCH1Mutated CD34+ fraction. Humanized NOTCH1 monoclonal antibody treatment reduced LIC survival and self-renewal in NOTCH1Mutated T-ALL LIC-engrafted mice and resulted in depletion of CD34+CD2+CD7+ cells that harbor serial transplantation capacity.
Conclusions
These results reveal a functional hierarchy within the LIC population based on NOTCH1 activation, which renders LIC susceptible to targeted NOTCH1 inhibition and highlights the utility of NOTCH1 antibody targeting as a key component of malignant stem cell eradication strategies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039725
PMCID: PMC3387267  PMID: 22768113
20.  Pten mediates Myc oncogene dependence in a conditional zebrafish model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2011;208(8):1595-1603.
Loss-of-function mutations in pten genes, or expression of a constitutively active version of Akt2, render T-ALL cell survival and disease progression independent of Myc.
The MYC oncogenic transcription factor is overexpressed in most human cases of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), often downstream of mutational NOTCH1 activation. Genetic alterations in the PTEN–PI3K–AKT pathway are also common in T-ALL. We generated a conditional zebrafish model of T-ALL in which 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT) treatment induces MYC activation and disease, and withdrawal of 4HT results in T-ALL apoptosis and tumor regression. However, we found that loss-of-function mutations in zebrafish pten genes, or expression of a constitutively active Akt2 transgene, rendered tumors independent of the MYC oncogene and promoted disease progression after 4HT withdrawal. Moreover, MYC suppresses pten mRNA levels, suggesting that Akt pathway activation downstream of MYC promotes tumor progression. Our findings indicate that Akt pathway activation is sufficient for tumor maintenance in this model, even after loss of survival signals driven by the MYC oncogene.
doi:10.1084/jem.20101691
PMCID: PMC3149218  PMID: 21727187
21.  mll ortholog containing functional domains of human MLL is expressed throughout the zebrafish lifespan and in haematopoietic tissues 
British journal of haematology  2010;152(3):307-321.
Summary
Infant leukaemia is an embryonal disease in which the underlying MLL translocations initiate in utero. Zebrafish offer unique potential to understand how MLL impacts haematopoiesis from the earliest embryonic timepoints and how translocations cause leukaemia as an embryonal process. In this study, a zebrafish mll cDNA syntenic to human MLL spanning the 5’ to 3’UTRs, was cloned from embryos, and mll expression was characterized over the zebrafish lifespan. The protein encoded by the 35-exon ORF exhibited 46.4% overall identity to human MLL and 68–100% conservation in functional domains (AT-hooks, SNL, CXXC, PHD, bromodomain, FYRN, taspase1 sites, FYRC, SET). Maternally supplied transcripts were detected at 0–2 hpf. Strong ubiquitous early zygotic expression progressed to a cephalo-caudal gradient during later embryogenesis. mll was expressed in the intermediate cell mass (ICM) where primitive erythrocytes are produced and in the kidney where definitive haematopoiesis occurs in adults. mll exhibits high cross species conservation, is developmentally regulated in haematopoietic and other tissues and is expressed from the earliest embryonic timepoints throughout the zebrafish lifespan. Haematopoietic tissue expression validates using zebrafish for MLL haematopoiesis and leukaemia models.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08398.x
PMCID: PMC3158705  PMID: 21155757
zebrafish; Mll; molecular cloning; primitive haematopoiesis; definitive haematopoiesis
22.  Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers and migration are regulated by the zebrafish orthologs of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(23):4643-4653.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the most commonly inherited human cancer predisposition syndrome. Neurofibromin (NF1) gene mutations lead to increased risk of neurofibromas, schwannomas, low grade, pilocytic optic pathway gliomas, as well as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and glioblastomas. Despite the evidence for NF1 tumor suppressor function in glial cell tumors, the mechanisms underlying transformation remain poorly understood. In this report, we used morpholinos to knockdown the two nf1 orthologs in zebrafish and show that oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) numbers are increased in the developing spinal cord, whereas neurons are unaffected. The increased OPC numbers in nf1 morphants resulted from increased proliferation, as detected by increased BrdU labeling, whereas TUNEL staining for apoptotic cells was unaffected. This phenotype could be rescued by the forced expression of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain of human NF1. In addition, the in vivo analysis of OPC migration following nf1 loss using time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that olig2-EGFP+ OPCs exhibit enhanced cell migration within the developing spinal cord. OPCs pause intermittently as they migrate, and in nf1 knockdown animals, they covered greater distances due to a decrease in average pause duration, rather than an increase in velocity while in motion. Interestingly, nf1 knockdown also leads to an increase in ERK signaling, principally in the neurons of the spinal cord. Together, these results show that negative regulation of the Ras pathway through the GAP activity of NF1 limits OPC proliferation and motility during development, providing insight into the oncogenic mechanisms through which NF1 loss contributes to human glial tumors.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq395
PMCID: PMC3999377  PMID: 20858602
23.  T-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Cells Express High Levels of BCL2, S1P1 and ICAM1 Leading to a Blockade of Tumor Cell Intravasation 
Cancer cell  2010;18(4):353-366.
Summary
The molecular events underlying the progression of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) to acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remain elusive. In our zebrafish model, concomitant overexpression of bcl-2 with Myc accelerated T-LBL onset while inhibiting progression to T-ALL. The T-LBL cells failed to invade the vasculature and showed evidence of increased homotypic cell-cell adhesion and autophagy. Further analysis using clinical biopsy specimens revealed autophagy and increased levels of BCL2, S1P1 and ICAM1 in human T-LBL compared to T-ALL. Inhibition of S1P1 signaling in T-LBL cells led to decreased homotypic adhesion in vitro and increased tumor cell intravasation in vivo. Thus, blockade of intravasation and hematologic dissemination in T-LBL is due to elevated S1P1 signaling, increased expression of ICAM1 and augmented homotypic cell-cell adhesion.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2010.09.009
PMCID: PMC3003429  PMID: 20951945
24.  Repression of tumor suppressor miR-451 is essential for NOTCH1-induced oncogenesis in T-ALL 
miR-451 represses expression of Myc and acts as a tumor suppressor in murine and human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
The NOTCH1 signaling pathway is a critical determinant of cell fate decisions and drives oncogenesis through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using an established mouse model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), here we report that induction of intracellular Notch1 (ICN1) leads to repression of miR-451 and miR-709. ICN1 decreases expression of these miRNAs by inducing degradation of the E2a tumor suppressor, which transcriptionally activates the genes encoding miR-451 and miR-709. Both miR-451 and miR-709 directly repress Myc expression. In addition, miR-709 directly represses expression of the Akt and Ras-GRF1 oncogenes. We also show that repression of miR-451 and miR-709 expression is required for initiation and maintenance of mouse T-ALL. miR-451 but not miR-709 is conserved in humans, and human T-ALLs with activating NOTCH1 mutations have decreased miR-451 and increased MYC levels compared with T-ALLs with wild-type NOTCH1. Thus, miR-451 and miR-709 function as potent suppressors of oncogenesis in NOTCH1-induced mouse T-ALL, and miR-451 influences MYC expression in human T-ALL bearing NOTCH1 mutations.
doi:10.1084/jem.20102384
PMCID: PMC3135352  PMID: 21464222
25.  SCFFbw7 Regulates Cellular Apoptosis By Targeting Mcl-1 for Ubiquitination and Destruction 
Nature  2011;471(7336):104-109.
The effective use of targeted therapy is highly dependent upon the identification of responder patient populations. Loss of the Fbw7 tumor suppressor is frequently found in various types of human cancers including breast cancer, colon cancer 1 and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)2. In line with these genomic data, engineered deletion of Fbw7 in mouse T cells results in T-ALL3–5, validating Fbw7 as a T-ALL tumor suppressor. The precise molecular mechanisms by which Fbw7 exerts anti-tumor activity remain areas of intensive investigation and are thought to relate in part to Fbw7-mediated destruction of key cancer relevant proteins including c-Jun6, c-Myc 7, Cyclin E 8 and Notch-19, all of which possess oncogenic activity and are overexpressed in various human cancers including leukemia. Besides accelerating cell growth 10, overexpression of either c-Jun, c-Myc or Notch-1 can also provoke programmed cell death 11. Thus, considerable uncertainty surrounds how Fbw7-deficient cells evade cell death in the setting of upregulated c-Jun, c-Myc and/or Notch-1. Here we report that SCFFbw7 governs cellular apoptosis by targeting the pro-survival Bcl-2 family member, Mcl-1, for ubiquitination and destruction in a GSK3 phosphorylation-dependent manner. Human T-ALL cell lines showed a close relationship between Fbw7 loss and Mcl-1 overexpression. Correspondingly, T-ALL cell lines with defective Fbw7 are particularly sensitive to the multi-kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, but resistant to the Bcl-2 antagonist, ABT-737. On the genetic level, Fbw7 reconstitution or Mcl-1 depletion restores ABT-737 sensitivity, establishing Mcl-1 as a therapeutically relevant bypass survival mechanism for Fbw7-deficient cells to evade apoptosis. Therefore, our work provides novel molecular insight into Fbw7-direct tumor suppression with direct implications for the targeted treatment of Fbw7-deficient T-ALL patients.
doi:10.1038/nature09732
PMCID: PMC3076007  PMID: 21368833

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