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author:("permute, Alan")
1.  Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome 
Gait & posture  2012;36(3):619-624.
AIM
Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test.
METHOD
Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals.
RESULTS
A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age (p < 0.001, rs = 0.59) among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age.
INTERPRETATION
Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms.
doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.06.008
PMCID: PMC3417287  PMID: 22771154
Wolfram syndrome; balance; neurodevelopment; pediatric rehabilitation; clinical scale
2.  Detailed Investigation of the Role of Common and Low-Frequency WFS1 Variants in Type 2 Diabetes Risk 
Diabetes  2009;59(3):741-746.
OBJECTIVE
Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study we aimed to refine this association and investigate the role of low-frequency WFS1 variants in type 2 diabetes risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
For fine-mapping, we sequenced WFS1 exons, splice junctions, and conserved noncoding sequences in samples from 24 type 2 diabetic case and 68 control subjects, selected tagging SNPs, and genotyped these in 959 U.K. type 2 diabetic case and 1,386 control subjects. The same genomic regions were sequenced in samples from 1,235 type 2 diabetic case and 1,668 control subjects to compare the frequency of rarer variants between case and control subjects.
RESULTS
Of 31 tagging SNPs, the strongest associated was the previously untested 3′ untranslated region rs1046320 (P = 0.008); odds ratio 0.84 and P = 6.59 × 10−7 on further replication in 3,753 case and 4,198 control subjects. High correlation between rs1046320 and the original strongest SNP (rs10010131) (r2 = 0.92) meant that we could not differentiate between their effects in our samples. There was no difference in the cumulative frequency of 82 rare (minor allele frequency [MAF] <0.01) nonsynonymous variants between type 2 diabetic case and control subjects (P = 0.79). Two intermediate frequency (MAF 0.01–0.05) nonsynonymous changes also showed no statistical association with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
We identified six highly correlated SNPs that show strong and comparable associations with risk of type 2 diabetes, but further refinement of these associations will require large sample sizes (>100,000) or studies in ethnically diverse populations. Low frequency variants in WFS1 are unlikely to have a large impact on type 2 diabetes risk in white U.K. populations, highlighting the complexities of undertaking association studies with low-frequency variants identified by resequencing.
doi:10.2337/db09-0920
PMCID: PMC2828659  PMID: 20028947
3.  Detailed investigation of the role of common and low frequency WFS1 variants in type 2 diabetes risk 
Diabetes  2009;59(3):741-746.
OBJECTIVE
WFS1 (Wolfram Syndrome 1) SNPs are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we aimed to refine this association and investigate the role of low frequency WFS1 variants in T2D risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
For fine-mapping, we sequenced WFS1 exons, splice junctions and conserved non-coding sequences in 24 T2D cases and 68 controls, selected tagging SNPs, and genotyped these in 959 UK T2D cases and 1386 controls. The same genomic regions were sequenced in 1235 T2D cases and 1668 controls to compare the frequency of rarer variants between cases and controls.
RESULTS
Of 31 tagging SNPs, the strongest associated was the previously untested 3′ UTR rs1046320 (P=0.008); OR=0.84, P=6.59 × 10−7 on further replication in 3753 cases and 4198 controls. High correlation between rs1046320 and the original strongest SNP (rs10010131) (r2=0.92) meant that we could not differentiate between their effects in our samples. There was no difference in the cumulative frequency of 82 rare (MAF<0.01) non-synonymous variants between T2D cases and controls (P=0.79). Two intermediate frequency (MAF 0.01-0.05) non-synonymous changes also showed no statistical association with T2D.
CONCLUSION
We identified six highly correlated SNPs that show strong and comparable associations with risk of T2D association but further refinement of these associations will require large sample sizes (>100,000), or studies in ethnically diverse populations. Low frequency variants in WFS1 are unlikely to have a large impact on T2D risk in white UK populations, highlighting the complexities of undertaking association studies with low frequency variants identified by re-sequencing.
doi:10.2337/db09-0920
PMCID: PMC2828659  PMID: 20028947
4.  Isolation and Characterization of Immunoreactive Somatostatin from Fish Pancreatic Islets 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1980;65(5):993-1002.
Using a radioimmunoassay with labeled synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin, a large amount of immunoreactive somatostatin was found in the principal pancreatic islet of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctata). The purpose of these experiments was to isolate and characterize the somatostatin-like material. Extracts of islets were chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-30 column, and over 90% of the immunoreactive somatostatin migrated with proteins at least twice the size of synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin. This fraction was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose columns. Two peptides were obtained with identical immunoreactivity, which was ∼25% that of the synthetic somatostatin. Each peptide was judged to be >95% pure by thin-layer electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9, and highpressure liquid chromatography. Further criteria of purity included amino-terminal analysis of fraction IV yielding only aspartic acid. A total of 1.3 mg of fraction II, and 3.8 mg of fraction IV somatostatin-like peptides were obtained from 10 g of fresh frozen islets.
Characterization of the two peptides revealed both peptides slightly more acidic than synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin. Fraction II had an isoelectric point of 8.0-8.3, and fraction IV 8.3-9.0. Molecular weight estimation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed similar mobility of both peptides, between pancreatic polypeptide (mol wt 4,500) and glucagon (mol wt 3,500). The mobility was not altered by reduction, and was approximately twice the size of synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin (mol wt 1,800). This confirmed that the peptides were single polypeptide chains and not aggregates, or somatostatin bound to larger proteins. Molecular weight determination by gel filtration chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6 in 8 M urea gave an estimated mol wt of 3,700. Amino acid analysis of the two immunoreactive somatostatins indicated that they were very similar in composition. Both pancreatic somatostatins (1 μM) had full biological activity relative to synthetic somatostatin measured as inhibition of growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC371429  PMID: 6102573

Results 1-4 (4)