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2.  LIPITENSION: Interplay between dyslipidemia and hypertension 
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing worldwide. The increase in the burden is a major concern in developing countries like India. It is well-established that hypertension and dyslipidemia are the two major contributing risk factors for CVD. Various epidemiological studies have shown the prevalence of the co-existence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, in the range of 15 to 31%. The co-existence of the two risk factors has more than an additive adverse impact on the vascular endothelium, which results in enhanced atherosclerosis, leading to CVD. This review emphasizes on the ‘co-existence and interplay of dyslipidemia and hypertension’. The authors have termed the co-existence as, ‘LIPITENSION’. The term LIPITENSION may help clinicians in easy identification and aggressive management of the two conditions together, ultimately preventing future cardiovascular events.
PMCID: PMC3313742  PMID: 22470861
Cardiovascular risk factors; dyslipidemia; hypertension; lipitension
3.  Common Genetic Variation Near Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B Contributes to Raised Plasma Glucose and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Indian Asians and European Caucasians 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2703-2708.
Fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes are higher among Indian Asians than among European and North American Caucasians. Few studies have investigated genetic factors influencing glucose metabolism among Indian Asians.
We carried out genome-wide association studies for fasting glucose in 5,089 nondiabetic Indian Asians genotyped with the Illumina Hap610 BeadChip and 2,385 Indian Asians (698 with type 2 diabetes) genotyped with the Illumina 300 BeadChip. Results were compared with findings in 4,462 European Caucasians.
We identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose among Indian Asians at P < 5 × 10−8, all near melatonin receptor MTNR1B. The most closely associated was rs2166706 (combined P = 2.1 × 10−9), which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs1387153 (r2 = 0.60) and rs10830963 (r2 = 0.45), both previously associated with glucose in European Caucasians. Risk allele frequency and effect sizes for rs2166706 were similar among Indian Asians and European Caucasians: frequency 46.2 versus 45.0%, respectively (P = 0.44); effect 0.05 (95% CI 0.01–0.08) versus 0.05 (0.03–0.07 mmol/l), respectively, higher glucose per allele copy (P = 0.84). SNP rs2166706 was associated with type 2 diabetes in Indian Asians (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.06–1.38] per copy of risk allele; P = 0.006). SNPs at the GCK, GCKR, and G6PC2 loci were also associated with glucose among Indian Asians. Risk allele frequencies of rs1260326 (GCKR) and rs560887 (G6PC2) were higher among Indian Asians compared with European Caucasians.
Common genetic variation near MTNR1B influences blood glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes in Indian Asians. Genetic variation at the MTNR1B, GCK, GCKR, and G6PC2 loci may contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and related metabolic disturbances among Indian Asians.
PMCID: PMC2768158  PMID: 19651812
4.  Light-activated RNA interference using double-stranded siRNA precursors modified using a remarkable regiospecificity of diazo-based photolabile groups 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(13):4508-4517.
Diazo-based precursors of photolabile groups have been used extensively for modifying nucleic acids, with the intention of toggling biological processes with light. These processes include transcription, translation and RNA interference. In these cases, the photolabile groups have been typically depicted as modifying the phosphate backbone of RNA and DNA. In this work we find that these diazo-based reagents in fact react very poorly with backbone phosphates. Instead, they show a remarkable specificity for terminal phosphates and very modest modification of the nucleobases. Furthermore, the photo deprotection of these terminal modifications is shown to be much more facile than nucleobase modified sites. In this study we have characterized this regiospecificity using RNA duplexes and model nucleotides, analyzed using LC/MS/MS. We have also applied this understanding of the regio-specificity to our technique of light activated RNA interference (LARI). We examined 27-mer double-stranded precursors of siRNA (‘dsRNA’), and have modified them using the photo-cleavable di-methoxy nitro phenyl ethyl group (DMNPE) group. By incorporating terminal phosphates in the dsRNA, we are able to guide DMNPE to react at these terminal locations. These modified dsRNA duplexes show superior performance to our previously described DMNPE-modified siRNA, with the range of expression that can be toggled by light increasing by a factor of two.
PMCID: PMC2715251  PMID: 19477960

Results 1-4 (4)