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1.  Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array 
Ganesh, Santhi K. | Tragante, Vinicius | Guo, Wei | Guo, Yiran | Lanktree, Matthew B. | Smith, Erin N. | Johnson, Toby | Castillo, Berta Almoguera | Barnard, John | Baumert, Jens | Chang, Yen-Pei Christy | Elbers, Clara C. | Farrall, Martin | Fischer, Mary E. | Franceschini, Nora | Gaunt, Tom R. | Gho, Johannes M.I.H. | Gieger, Christian | Gong, Yan | Isaacs, Aaron | Kleber, Marcus E. | Leach, Irene Mateo | McDonough, Caitrin W. | Meijs, Matthijs F.L. | Mellander, Olle | Molony, Cliona M. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Price, Tom S. | Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan | Shaffer, Jonathan | Shah, Sonia | Shen, Haiqing | Soranzo, Nicole | van der Most, Peter J. | Van Iperen, Erik P.A. | Van Setten, Jessica | Vonk, Judith M. | Zhang, Li | Beitelshees, Amber L. | Berenson, Gerald S. | Bhatt, Deepak L. | Boer, Jolanda M.A. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Burkley, Ben | Burt, Amber | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chen, Wei | Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M. | Curtis, Sean P. | Dreisbach, Albert | Duggan, David | Ehret, Georg B. | Fabsitz, Richard R. | Fornage, Myriam | Fox, Ervin | Furlong, Clement E. | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Hofker, Marten H. | Hovingh, G. Kees | Kirkland, Susan A. | Kottke-Marchant, Kandice | Kutlar, Abdullah | LaCroix, Andrea Z. | Langaee, Taimour Y. | Li, Yun R. | Lin, Honghuang | Liu, Kiang | Maiwald, Steffi | Malik, Rainer | Murugesan, Gurunathan | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | O'Connell, Jeffery R. | Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Palmas, Walter | Penninx, Brenda W. | Pepine, Carl J. | Pettinger, Mary | Polak, Joseph F. | Ramachandran, Vasan S. | Ranchalis, Jane | Redline, Susan | Ridker, Paul M. | Rose, Lynda M. | Scharnag, Hubert | Schork, Nicholas J. | Shimbo, Daichi | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Srinivasan, Sathanur R. | Stolk, Ronald P. | Taylor, Herman A. | Thorand, Barbara | Trip, Mieke D. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Verschuren, W. Monique | Wijmenga, Cisca | Winkelmann, Bernhard R. | Wyatt, Sharon | Young, J. Hunter | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Davidson, Karina W. | Doevendans, Pieter A. | FitzGerald, Garret A. | Gums, John G. | Hakonarson, Hakon | Hillege, Hans L. | Illig, Thomas | Jarvik, Gail P. | Johnson, Julie A. | Kastelein, John J.P. | Koenig, Wolfgang | März, Winfried | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Murray, Sarah S. | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Reiner, Alex P. | Schadt, Eric E. | Silverstein, Roy L. | Snieder, Harold | Stanton, Alice V. | Uitterlinden, André G. | van der Harst, Pim | van der Schouw, Yvonne T. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Johnson, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Zhu, Xiaofeng | Levy, Daniel | Keating, Brendan J. | Asselbergs, Folkert W.
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(16):3394-3395.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt177
PMCID: PMC3888295
2.  Allele-specific expression in the germline of patients with familial pancreatic cancer 
Cancer biology & therapy  2007;7(1):135-144.
Physiologic allele-specific expression (ASE) in germline tissues occurs during random X-chromosome inactivation1 and in genomic imprinting,2 wherein the two alleles of a gene in a heterozygous individual are not expressed equally. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of ASE in apparently non-imprinted autosomal genes;3–14 however, the extent of ASE in the human genome is unknown. We explored ASE in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 145 individuals using an oligonucleotide array based assay. ASE of autosomal genes was found to be a very common phenomenon in ∼20% of heterozygotes at 78% of SNPs at 84% of the genes examined. Comparison of 100 affected individuals from familial pancreatic cancer kindreds and 45 controls revealed three types of changes in the germline: (a) loss of ASE, (b) gain of ASE, and, (c) rare instances of “extreme” (near monoallelic) ASE. The latter changes identified heterozygous deleterious mutations in a subset of these genes. Consequently, an ASE assay efficiently identifies candidate disease genes with altered germline expression properties as compared to controls, and provides insights into mechanisms that confer an inherited disease risk for pancreatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC4104667  PMID: 18059179
allele-specific; familial; pancreatic; mutation; microarray; cancer; regulation
3.  Genetic variation associated with circulating monocyte count in the eMERGE Network 
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(10):2119-2127.
With white blood cell count emerging as an important risk factor for chronic inflammatory diseases, genetic associations of differential leukocyte types, specifically monocyte count, are providing novel candidate genes and pathways to further investigate. Circulating monocytes play a critical role in vascular diseases such as in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We performed a joint and ancestry-stratified genome-wide association analyses to identify variants specifically associated with monocyte count in 11 014 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. In the joint and European ancestry samples, we identified novel associations in the chromosome 16 interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) gene (P-value = 2.78×10(−16), β = −0.22). Other monocyte associations include novel missense variants in the chemokine-binding protein 2 (CCBP2) gene (P-value = 1.88×10(−7), β = 0.30) and a region of replication found in ribophorin I (RPN1) (P-value = 2.63×10(−16), β = −0.23) on chromosome 3. The CCBP2 and RPN1 region is located near GATA binding protein2 gene that has been previously shown to be associated with coronary heart disease. On chromosome 9, we found a novel association in the prostaglandin reductase 1 gene (P-value = 2.29×10(−7), β = 0.16), which is downstream from lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1. This region has previously been shown to be associated with monocyte count. We also replicated monocyte associations of genome-wide significance (P-value = 5.68×10(−17), β = −0.23) at the integrin, alpha 4 gene on chromosome 2. The novel IRF8 results and further replications provide supporting evidence of genetic regions associated with monocyte count.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt010
PMCID: PMC3633369  PMID: 23314186
4.  Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels 
Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Do, Ron | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian’an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O’Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Kathiresan, Sekar | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Gonçalo R.
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):10.1038/ng.2797.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research.
doi:10.1038/ng.2797
PMCID: PMC3838666  PMID: 24097068
5.  Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease 
Do, Ron | Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Gao, Chi | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian'an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Altshuler, David | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Daly, Mark J. | Neale, Benjamin M. | Kathiresan, Sekar
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):1345-1352.
Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
doi:10.1038/ng.2795
PMCID: PMC3904346  PMID: 24097064
6.  Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array 
Ganesh, Santhi K. | Tragante, Vinicius | Guo, Wei | Guo, Yiran | Lanktree, Matthew B. | Smith, Erin N. | Johnson, Toby | Castillo, Berta Almoguera | Barnard, John | Baumert, Jens | Chang, Yen-Pei Christy | Elbers, Clara C. | Farrall, Martin | Fischer, Mary E. | Franceschini, Nora | Gaunt, Tom R. | Gho, Johannes M.I.H. | Gieger, Christian | Gong, Yan | Isaacs, Aaron | Kleber, Marcus E. | Leach, Irene Mateo | McDonough, Caitrin W. | Meijs, Matthijs F.L. | Mellander, Olle | Molony, Cliona M. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Price, Tom S. | Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan | Shaffer, Jonathan | Shah, Sonia | Shen, Haiqing | Soranzo, Nicole | van der Most, Peter J. | Van Iperen, Erik P.A. | Van Setten, Jessic A. | Vonk, Judith M. | Zhang, Li | Beitelshees, Amber L. | Berenson, Gerald S. | Bhatt, Deepak L. | Boer, Jolanda M.A. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Burkley, Ben | Burt, Amber | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chen, Wei | Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M. | Curtis, Sean P. | Dreisbach, Albert | Duggan, David | Ehret, Georg B. | Fabsitz, Richard R. | Fornage, Myriam | Fox, Ervin | Furlong, Clement E. | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Hofker, Marten H. | Hovingh, G. Kees | Kirkland, Susan A. | Kottke-Marchant, Kandice | Kutlar, Abdullah | LaCroix, Andrea Z. | Langaee, Taimour Y. | Li, Yun R. | Lin, Honghuang | Liu, Kiang | Maiwald, Steffi | Malik, Rainer | Murugesan, Gurunathan | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | O'Connell, Jeffery R. | Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Palmas, Walter | Penninx, Brenda W. | Pepine, Carl J. | Pettinger, Mary | Polak, Joseph F. | Ramachandran, Vasan S. | Ranchalis, Jane | Redline, Susan | Ridker, Paul M. | Rose, Lynda M. | Scharnag, Hubert | Schork, Nicholas J. | Shimbo, Daichi | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Srinivasan, Sathanur R. | Stolk, Ronald P. | Taylor, Herman A. | Thorand, Barbara | Trip, Mieke D. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Verschuren, W. Monique | Wijmenga, Cisca | Winkelmann, Bernhard R. | Wyatt, Sharon | Young, J. Hunter | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Davidson, Karina W. | Doevendans, Pieter A. | FitzGerald, Garret A. | Gums, John G. | Hakonarson, Hakon | Hillege, Hans L. | Illig, Thomas | Jarvik, Gail P. | Johnson, Julie A. | Kastelein, John J.P. | Koenig, Wolfgang | März, Winfried | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Murray, Sarah S. | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Reiner, Alex P. | Schadt, Eric E. | Silverstein, Roy L. | Snieder, Harold | Stanton, Alice V. | Uitterlinden, André G. | van der Harst, Pim | van der Schouw, Yvonne T. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Johnson, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Zhu, Xiaofeng | Levy, Daniel | Keating, Brendan J. | Asselbergs, Folkert W.
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(8):1663-1678.
Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10−6). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds555
PMCID: PMC3657476  PMID: 23303523
7.  Effects of Rare and Common Blood Pressure Gene Variants on Essential Hypertension: Results from the FBPP, CLUE and ARIC Studies 
Circulation research  2012;112(2):318-326.
Rationale
Hypertension (HTN) affects ~30% of adults in industrialized countries and is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Objective
We sought to study the genetic effect of coding and conserved non-coding variants in syndromic HTN genes on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure to assess their overall impact on essential hypertension (EH).
Methods and Results
We resequenced 11 genes (AGT, CYP11B1, CYP17A1, HSD11B2, NR3C1, NR3C2, SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, WNK1 and WNK4) in 560 European (EA) and African (AA) ancestry GenNet participants with extreme SBP. We investigated genetic associations of 2,535 variants with BP in 19,997 EAs and 6,069 AAs in three types of analyses. First, we studied the combined effects of all variants in GenNet. Second, we studied 1000 Genomes imputed polymorphic variants in 9,747 EA and 3,207 AA ARIC subjects. Lastly, we genotyped 37 missense and common noncoding variants in 6,591 EAs and 6,521 individuals (3,659 EA/2,862 AA) from the CLUE and FBPP studies. None of the variants individually reached significant false-discovery rates (FDR≤0.05) for SBP and DBP. However, upon pooling all coding and non-coding variants we identified at least 5 loci (AGT, CYP11B1, NR3C2, SCNN1G and WNK1), with higher association at evolutionary conserved sites.
Conclusions
Both rare and common variants at these genes affect BP in the general population with modest effects sizes (<0.05 standard deviation units) and much larger sample sizes are required to assess the impact of individual genes. Collectively, conserved noncoding variants affect BP to a greater extent than missense mutations.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.276725
PMCID: PMC3548950  PMID: 23149595
essential hypertension; blood pressure; population genetics; sequencing; genotype
8.  Associations Between NOS1AP Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and QT Interval Duration in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Background
QT is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD). A genome wide association study identified NOS1AP variants associated with QT, which have been replicated in predominantly Caucasian (CAU) populations. We used MESA to examine association of QT with NOS1AP variants in an ethnically diverse cohort.
Methods
Twenty-eight tagging SNPs spanning NOS1AP were genotyped in 2847 MESA participants (approximately equal numbers of CAU, African-Americans (AFA), Hispanics (HIS) and Chinese (CHN)), age 45–84 years, without cardiovascular disease. QT was measured using 12-lead ECG. Associations between QT and NOS1AP variants were evaluated using linear regression, adjusted for heart rate, age, gender, and field center stratified by ancestry, using an additive inheritance model. Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and principal components using AIMs were used as additional covariates.
Results
More NOS1AP SNPs were associated with QT in CAU than the other races. In CAU, each copy of rs1932933 risk allele was associated with an increase in QT (4.9msec, p= 7.20×10-7). Significant associations in CAU and HIS were located at the 5′ end, while associations in CHN were located at the 3′ end.
Conclusions
NOS1AP variants were associated with QT in CAU, with weaker evidence for selected variants in HIS and CHN. Location of significant SNPs varied across ancestry. We identified possible novel associations at the 3′ end of NOS1AP, where we observed significant association with QT in CHN only. Genotyping within these regions may determine functional variants affecting QT and SCD risk. Further investigations are needed across ethnically diverse population cohorts.
doi:10.1111/anec.12028
PMCID: PMC3642094  PMID: 23347024
Genetics; Electrocardiography; Arrhythmia; Electrophysiology
9.  Correction: Defining the Contribution of CNTNAP2 to Autism Susceptibility 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):10.1371/annotation/b4552fc7-285e-42e8-b126-d498eaf9f73a.
doi:10.1371/annotation/b4552fc7-285e-42e8-b126-d498eaf9f73a
PMCID: PMC3869657
10.  Pathways systematically associated to Hirschsprung’s disease 
Despite it has been reported that several loci are involved in Hirschsprung’s disease, the molecular basis of the disease remains yet essentially unknown. The study of collective properties of modules of functionally-related genes provides an efficient and sensitive statistical framework that can overcome sample size limitations in the study of rare diseases. Here, we present the extension of a previous study of a Spanish series of HSCR trios to an international cohort of 162 HSCR trios to validate the generality of the underlying functional basis of the Hirschsprung’s disease mechanisms previously found. The Pathway-Based Analysis (PBA) confirms a strong association of gene ontology (GO) modules related to signal transduction and its regulation, enteric nervous system (ENS) formation and other processes related to the disease. In addition, network analysis recovers sub-networks significantly associated to the disease, which contain genes related to the same functionalities, thus providing an independent validation of these findings. The functional profiles of association obtained for patients populations from different countries were compared to each other. While gene associations were different at each series, the main functional associations were identical in all the five populations. These observations would also explain the reported low reproducibility of associations of individual disease genes across populations.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-187
PMCID: PMC3879038  PMID: 24289864
11.  Defining the Contribution of CNTNAP2 to Autism Susceptibility 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77906.
Multiple lines of genetic evidence suggest a role for CNTNAP2 in autism. To assess its population impact we studied 2148 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) across the entire ~3.3 Mb CNTNAP2 locus in 186 (408 trios) multiplex and 323 simplex families with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This analysis yielded two SNPs with nominal statistical significance (rs17170073, p = 2.0 x 10-4; rs2215798, p = 1.6 x 10-4) that did not survive multiple testing. In a combined analysis of all families, two highly correlated (r2 = 0.99) SNPs in intron 14 showed significant association with autism (rs2710093, p = 9.0 x 10-6; rs2253031, p = 2.5 x 10-5). To validate these findings and associations at SNPs from previous autism studies (rs7794745, rs2710102 and rs17236239) we genotyped 2051 additional families (572 multiplex and 1479 simplex). None of these variants were significantly associated with ASD after corrections for multiple testing. The analysis of Mendelian errors within each family did not indicate any segregating deletions. Nevertheless, a study of CNTNAP2 gene expression in brains of autistic patients and of normal controls, demonstrated altered expression in a subset of patients (p = 1.9 x10-5). Consequently, this study suggests that although CNTNAP2 dysregulation plays a role in some cases, its population contribution to autism susceptibility is limited.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077906
PMCID: PMC3798378  PMID: 24147096
12.  A Polymorphic 3’UTR Element in ATP1B1 Regulates Alternative Polyadenylation and Is Associated with Blood Pressure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76290.
Although variants in many genes have previously been shown to be associated with blood pressure (BP) levels, the molecular mechanism underlying these associations are mostly unknown. We identified a multi-allelic T-rich sequence (TRS) in the 3’UTR of ATP1B1 that varies in length and sequence composition (T22-27 and T12GT 3GT6). The 3’UTR of ATP1B1 contains 2 functional polyadenylation signals and the TRS is downstream of the proximal polyadenylation site (A2). Therefore, we hypothesized that alleles of this TRS might influence ATP1B1 expression by regulating alternative polyadenylation. In vitro, the T12GT 3GT6 allele increases polyadenylation at the A2 polyadenylation site as compared to the T23 allele. Consistent with our hypothesis, the relative abundance of the A2-polyadenylated ATP1B1 mRNA was higher in human kidneys with at least one copy of the T12GT 3GT6 allele than in those lacking this allele. The T12GT 3GT6 allele is also associated with higher systolic BP (beta = 3.3 mmHg, p = 0.014) and diastolic BP (beta = 2.4 mmHg, p = 0.003) in a European-American population. Therefore, we have identified a novel multi-allelic TRS in the 3’UTR of ATP1B1 that is associated with higher BP and may mediate its effect by regulating the polyadenylation of the ATP1B1 mRNA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076290
PMCID: PMC3788127  PMID: 24098465
13.  Male and female differential reproductive rate could explain parental transmission asymmetry of mutation origin in Hirschsprung disease 
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) is a complex and heterogeneous disease with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births. Despite the multifactorial determination of HSCR in the vast majority of cases, there is a monogenic subgroup for which private rare RET coding sequence mutations with high penetrance are found (45% of HSCR familial cases). An asymmetrical parental origin is observed for RET coding sequence mutations with a higher maternal inheritance. A parent-of-origin effect is usually assumed. Here we show that a differential reproductive rate for males and females also leads to an asymmetrical parental origin, which was never considered as a possible explanation till now. In the case of HSCR, we show a positive association between penetrance of the mutation and parental transmission asymmetry: no parental transmission asymmetry is observed in sporadic RET CDS mutation carrier cases for which penetrance of the mutation is low, whereas a parental transmission asymmetry is observed in affected sib-pairs for which penetrance of the mutation is higher. This allows us to conclude that the explanation for this parental asymmetry is that more severe mutations have resulted in a differential reproductive rate between male and female carriers.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.35
PMCID: PMC3421120  PMID: 22395866
Hirschsprung disease; parent-of-origin effect; parental transmission asymmetry; reproductive rate
14.  Chromosome 21 Scan in Down Syndrome Reveals DSCAM as a Predisposing Locus in Hirschsprung Disease 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62519.
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) genetics is a paradigm for the study and understanding of multigenic disorders. Association between Down syndrome and HSCR suggests that genetic factors that predispose to HSCR map to chromosome 21. To identify these additional factors, we performed a dose-dependent association study on chromosome 21 in Down syndrome patients with HSCR. Assessing 10,895 SNPs in 26 Caucasian cases and their parents led to identify two associated SNPs (rs2837770 and rs8134673) at chromosome-wide level. Those SNPs, which were located in intron 3 of the DSCAM gene within a 19 kb-linkage disequilibrium block region were in complete association and are consistent with DSCAM expression during enteric nervous system development. We replicated the association of HSCR with this region in an independent sample of 220 non-syndromic HSCR Caucasian patients and their parents. At last, we provide the functional rationale to the involvement of DSCAM by network analysis and assessment of SOX10 regulation. Our results reveal the involvement of DSCAM as a HSCR susceptibility locus, both in Down syndrome and HSCR isolated cases. This study further ascertains the chromosome-scan dose-dependent methodology used herein as a mean to map the genetic bases of other sub-phenotypes both in Down syndrome and other aneuploidies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062519
PMCID: PMC3646051  PMID: 23671607
15.  Mining Gold Dust under the Genome Wide Significance Level: A Two-Stage Approach to Analysis of GWAS 
Genetic epidemiology  2010;35(2):111-118.
We propose a two-stage approach to analyze genome-wide association (GWA) data in order to identify a set of promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In stage one, we select a list of top signals from single SNP analyses by controlling false discovery rate (FDR). In stage two, we use the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to reduce false positives. The proposed approach was evaluated using simulated quantitative traits based on genome-wide SNP data on 8,861 Caucasian individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Our first stage, targeted at controlling false negatives, yields better power than using Bonferroni corrected significance level. The LASSO regression reduces the number of significant SNPs in stage two: it reduces false positive SNPs and it reduces true positive SNPs also at simulated causal loci due to linkage disequilibrium. Interestingly, the LASSO regression preserves the power from stage one, i.e., the number of causal loci detected from the LASSO regression in stage two is almost the same as in stage one, while reducing false positives further. Real data on systolic blood pressure in the ARIC study was analyzed using our two-stage approach which identified two significant SNPs, one of which was reported to be genome-significant in a meta-analysis containing a much larger sample size. On the other hand, a single SNP association scan did not yield any significant results.
doi:10.1002/gepi.20556
PMCID: PMC3624896  PMID: 21254218
LASSO; FDR; multi-marker; association; power
16.  Trans-Ethnic Fine-Mapping of Lipid Loci Identifies Population-Specific Signals and Allelic Heterogeneity That Increases the Trait Variance Explained 
Wu, Ying | Waite, Lindsay L. | Jackson, Anne U. | Sheu, Wayne H-H. | Buyske, Steven | Absher, Devin | Arnett, Donna K. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Carty, Cara L. | Cheng, Iona | Cochran, Barbara | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C. | Dumitrescu, Logan | Eaton, Charles B. | Franceschini, Nora | Guo, Xiuqing | Henderson, Brian E. | Hindorff, Lucia A. | Kim, Eric | Kinnunen, Leena | Komulainen, Pirjo | Lee, Wen-Jane | Le Marchand, Loic | Lin, Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir | Mitchell, Sabrina L. | Narisu, Narisu | Robinson, Jennifer G. | Schumacher, Fred | Stančáková, Alena | Sundvall, Jouko | Sung, Yun-Ju | Swift, Amy J. | Wang, Wen-Chang | Wilkens, Lynne | Wilsgaard, Tom | Young, Alicia M. | Adair, Linda S. | Ballantyne, Christie M. | Bůžková, Petra | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Collins, Francis S. | Duggan, David | Feranil, Alan B. | Ho, Low-Tone | Hung, Yi-Jen | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Juang, Jyh-Ming J. | Kesäniemi, Antero Y. | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lee, I-Te | Leppert, Mark F. | Matise, Tara C. | Moilanen, Leena | Njølstad, Inger | Peters, Ulrike | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Rotter, Jerome I. | Saramies, Jouko | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | Wang, Tzung-Dau | Boehnke, Michael | Haiman, Christopher A. | Chen, Yii-Der I. | Kooperberg, Charles | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Crawford, Dana C. | Hsiung, Chao A. | North, Kari E. | Mohlke, Karen L.
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(3):e1003379.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ∼100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1×10−4 in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.
Author Summary
Lipid traits are heritable, but many of the DNA variants that influence lipid levels remain unknown. In a genomic region, more than one variant may affect gene expression or function, and the frequencies of these variants can differ across populations. Genotyping densely spaced variants in individuals with different ancestries may increase the chance of identifying variants that affect gene expression or function. We analyzed high-density genotyped variants for association with TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C in African Americans, East Asians, and Europeans. At several genomic regions, we provide evidence that two or more variants can influence lipid traits; across loci, these additional signals increase the proportion of trait variation that can be explained by genes. At some association signals shared across populations, combining data from individuals of different ancestries narrowed the set of likely functional variants. At PCSK9 and APOA5, the data suggest that different variants influence trait levels in different populations. Variants previously reported to alter gene expression or function frequently exhibited the strongest association at those signals. The multiple signals and population-specific characteristics of the loci described here may be shared by genetic loci for other complex traits.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003379
PMCID: PMC3605054  PMID: 23555291
17.  Rapid and efficient human mutation detection using a bench-top next-generation DNA sequencer 
Human mutation  2011;33(1):281-289.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be a boon to human mutation detection given their high throughput: consequently, many genes and samples may be simultaneously studied with high coverage for accurate detection of heterozygotes. In circumstances requiring the intensive study of a few genes, particularly in clinical applications, a rapid turn-around is another desirable goal. To this end, we assessed the performance of the bench-top 454 GS Junior platform as an optimized solution for mutation detection by amplicon sequencing of three type 3 semaphorin genes SEMA3A, SEMA3C and SEMA3D implicated in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). We performed mutation detection on 39 PCR amplicons totaling 14,014bp in 47 samples studied in pools of 12 samples. Each 10-hour run was able to generate ∼75,000 reads and ∼28 million high-quality bases at an average read length of 371bp. The overall sequencing error was 0.26 changes per kb at a coverage depth of ≥20 reads. Altogether, 37 sequence variants were found in this study of which 10 were unique to HSCR patients. We identified five missense mutations in these three genes that may potentially be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR and need to be studied in larger patient samples.
doi:10.1002/humu.21602
PMCID: PMC3240684  PMID: 21898659
Mutation detection; Bench-top sequencer; HSCR; Semaphorin
19.  Next-Generation Sequencing of Human Mitochondrial Reference Genomes Uncovers High Heteroplasmy Frequency 
PLoS Computational Biology  2012;8(10):e1002737.
We describe methods for rapid sequencing of the entire human mitochondrial genome (mtgenome), which involve long-range PCR for specific amplification of the mtgenome, pyrosequencing, quantitative mapping of sequence reads to identify sequence variants and heteroplasmy, as well as de novo sequence assembly. These methods have been used to study 40 publicly available HapMap samples of European (CEU) and African (YRI) ancestry to demonstrate a sequencing error rate <5.63×10−4, nucleotide diversity of 1.6×10−3 for CEU and 3.7×10−3 for YRI, patterns of sequence variation consistent with earlier studies, but a higher rate of heteroplasmy varying between 10% and 50%. These results demonstrate that next-generation sequencing technologies allow interrogation of the mitochondrial genome in greater depth than previously possible which may be of value in biology and medicine.
Author Summary
This manuscript details a novel algorithm to evaluate high-throughput DNA sequence data from whole mitochondrial genomes purified from genomic DNA, which also contains multiple fragmented nuclear copies of mtgenomes (numts). 40 samples were selected from 2 distinct reference (HapMap) populations of African (YRI) and European (CEU) origin. While previous technologies did not allow the assessment of individual mitochondrial molecules, next-generation sequencing technology is an excellent tool for obtaining the mtgenome sequence and its heteroplasmic sites rapidly and accurately through deep coverage of the genome. The computational techniques presented optimize reference-based alignments and introduce a new de novo assembly method. An important contribution of our study was obtaining high accuracy of the resulting called bases that we accomplished by quantitative filtering of reads that were error prone. In addition, several sites were experimentally validated and our method has a strong correlation (R2 = 0.96) with the NIST standard reference sample for heteroplasmy. Overall, our findings indicate that one can now confidently genotype mtDNA variants using next-generation sequencing data and reveal low levels of heteroplasmy (>10%). Beyond enriching our understanding and pathology of certain diseases, this development could be considered as a prelude to sequence-based individualized medicine for the mtgenome.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002737
PMCID: PMC3486893  PMID: 23133345
20.  Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure 
Wain, Louise V | Verwoert, Germaine C | O’Reilly, Paul F | Shi, Gang | Johnson, Toby | Johnson, Andrew D | Bochud, Murielle | Rice, Kenneth M | Henneman, Peter | Smith, Albert V | Ehret, Georg B | Amin, Najaf | Larson, Martin G | Mooser, Vincent | Hadley, David | Dörr, Marcus | Bis, Joshua C | Aspelund, Thor | Esko, Tõnu | Janssens, A Cecile JW | Zhao, Jing Hua | Heath, Simon | Laan, Maris | Fu, Jingyuan | Pistis, Giorgio | Luan, Jian’an | Arora, Pankaj | Lucas, Gavin | Pirastu, Nicola | Pichler, Irene | Jackson, Anne U | Webster, Rebecca J | Zhang, Feng | Peden, John F | Schmidt, Helena | Tanaka, Toshiko | Campbell, Harry | Igl, Wilmar | Milaneschi, Yuri | Hotteng, Jouke-Jan | Vitart, Veronique | Chasman, Daniel I | Trompet, Stella | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L | Alizadeh, Behrooz Z | Chambers, John C | Guo, Xiuqing | Lehtimäki, Terho | Kühnel, Brigitte | Lopez, Lorna M | Polašek, Ozren | Boban, Mladen | Nelson, Christopher P | Morrison, Alanna C | Pihur, Vasyl | Ganesh, Santhi K | Hofman, Albert | Kundu, Suman | Mattace-Raso, Francesco US | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Sijbrands, Eric JG | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Hwang, Shih-Jen | Vasan, Ramachandran S | Wang, Thomas J | Bergmann, Sven | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Laitinen, Jaana | Pouta, Anneli | Zitting, Paavo | McArdle, Wendy L | Kroemer, Heyo K | Völker, Uwe | Völzke, Henry | Glazer, Nicole L | Taylor, Kent D | Harris, Tamara B | Alavere, Helene | Haller, Toomas | Keis, Aime | Tammesoo, Mari-Liis | Aulchenko, Yurii | Barroso, Inês | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Galan, Pilar | Hercberg, Serge | Lathrop, Mark | Eyheramendy, Susana | Org, Elin | Sõber, Siim | Lu, Xiaowen | Nolte, Ilja M | Penninx, Brenda W | Corre, Tanguy | Masciullo, Corrado | Sala, Cinzia | Groop, Leif | Voight, Benjamin F | Melander, Olle | O’Donnell, Christopher J | Salomaa, Veikko | d’Adamo, Adamo Pio | Fabretto, Antonella | Faletra, Flavio | Ulivi, Sheila | Del Greco, M Fabiola | Facheris, Maurizio | Collins, Francis S | Bergman, Richard N | Beilby, John P | Hung, Joseph | Musk, A William | Mangino, Massimo | Shin, So-Youn | Soranzo, Nicole | Watkins, Hugh | Goel, Anuj | Hamsten, Anders | Gider, Pierre | Loitfelder, Marisa | Zeginigg, Marion | Hernandez, Dena | Najjar, Samer S | Navarro, Pau | Wild, Sarah H | Corsi, Anna Maria | Singleton, Andrew | de Geus, Eco JC | Willemsen, Gonneke | Parker, Alex N | Rose, Lynda M | Buckley, Brendan | Stott, David | Orru, Marco | Uda, Manuela | van der Klauw, Melanie M | Zhang, Weihua | Li, Xinzhong | Scott, James | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Burke, Gregory L | Kähönen, Mika | Viikari, Jorma | Döring, Angela | Meitinger, Thomas | Davies, Gail | Starr, John M | Emilsson, Valur | Plump, Andrew | Lindeman, Jan H | ’t Hoen, Peter AC | König, Inke R | Felix, Janine F | Clarke, Robert | Hopewell, Jemma C | Ongen, Halit | Breteler, Monique | Debette, Stéphanie | DeStefano, Anita L | Fornage, Myriam | Mitchell, Gary F | Smith, Nicholas L | Holm, Hilma | Stefansson, Kari | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Samani, Nilesh J | Preuss, Michael | Rudan, Igor | Hayward, Caroline | Deary, Ian J | Wichmann, H-Erich | Raitakari, Olli T | Palmas, Walter | Kooner, Jaspal S | Stolk, Ronald P | Jukema, J Wouter | Wright, Alan F | Boomsma, Dorret I | Bandinelli, Stefania | Gyllensten, Ulf B | Wilson, James F | Ferrucci, Luigi | Schmidt, Reinhold | Farrall, Martin | Spector, Tim D | Palmer, Lyle J | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Pfeufer, Arne | Gasparini, Paolo | Siscovick, David | Altshuler, David | Loos, Ruth JF | Toniolo, Daniela | Snieder, Harold | Gieger, Christian | Meneton, Pierre | Wareham, Nicholas J | Oostra, Ben A | Metspalu, Andres | Launer, Lenore | Rettig, Rainer | Strachan, David P | Beckmann, Jacques S | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | Erdmann, Jeanette | van Dijk, Ko Willems | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boehnke, Michael | Ridker, Paul M | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | Levy, Daniel | Munroe, Patricia B | Psaty, Bruce M | Caulfield, Mark J | Rao, Dabeeru C | Tobin, Martin D | Elliott, Paul | van Duijn, Cornelia M
Nature genetics  2011;43(10):1005-1011.
Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
doi:10.1038/ng.922
PMCID: PMC3445021  PMID: 21909110
21.  Exploring Biologically Relevant Pathways in Frailty 
Background.
Frailty is a late-life syndrome of vulnerability to adverse health outcomes characterized by a phenotype that includes muscle weakness, fatigue, and inflammatory pathway activation. The identification of biologically relevant pathways that influence frailty is challenged by its biological complexity and the necessity in separating disease states from the syndrome of frailty. As with longevity research, genetic analyses may help to provide insights into biologically relevant pathways that contribute to frailty.
Methods.
Based on current understanding of the physiological basis of frailty, we hypothesize that variation in genes related to inflammation and muscle maintenance would associate with frailty. One thousand three hundred and fifty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped across 134 candidate genes using the Illumina Genotyping platform, and the rank order by strength of association between frailty and genotype was determined in a cross-sectional study.
Results.
Although no single-nucleotide polymorphism reached study-wide significance after controlling family-wise false-discovery rate at 0.05, single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), Caspase 8 (CASP8), CREB-binding protein (CREBBP), lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B), and beta-transducin repeat containing (BTRC) loci were among those strongly associated with frailty.
Conclusions.
The apoptosis– and transcription regulation–related pathways highlighted by this preliminary analysis were consistent with prior gene expression studies in a frail mouse model and provide useful etiological insights for future biological studies of frailty.
doi:10.1093/gerona/glr061
PMCID: PMC3156628  PMID: 21743092
Frailty; Candidate genes; Apoptosis
22.  Meta-analysis identifies six new susceptibility loci for atrial fibrillation 
Ellinor, Patrick T | Lunetta, Kathryn L | Albert, Christine M | Glazer, Nicole L | Ritchie, Marylyn D | Smith, Albert V | Arking, Dan E | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Krijthe, Bouwe P | Lubitz, Steven A | Bis, Joshua C | Chung, Mina K | Dörr, Marcus | Ozaki, Kouichi | Roberts, Jason D | Smith, J Gustav | Pfeufer, Arne | Sinner, Moritz F | Lohman, Kurt | Ding, Jingzhong | Smith, Nicholas L | Smith, Jonathan D | Rienstra, Michiel | Rice, Kenneth M | Van Wagoner, David R | Magnani, Jared W | Wakili, Reza | Clauss, Sebastian | Rotter, Jerome I | Steinbeck, Gerhard | Launer, Lenore J | Davies, Robert W | Borkovich, Matthew | Harris, Tamara B | Lin, Honghuang | Völker, Uwe | Völzke, Henry | Milan, David J | Hofman, Albert | Boerwinkle, Eric | Chen, Lin Y | Soliman, Elsayed Z | Voight, Benjamin F | Li, Guo | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Kubo, Michiaki | Tedrow, Usha B | Rose, Lynda M | Ridker, Paul M | Conen, David | Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko | Furukawa, Tetsushi | Sotoodehnia, Nona | Xu, Siyan | Kamatani, Naoyuki | Levy, Daniel | Nakamura, Yusuke | Parvez, Babar | Mahida, Saagar | Furie, Karen L | Rosand, Jonathan | Muhammad, Raafia | Psaty, Bruce M | Meitinger, Thomas | Perz, Siegfried | Wichmann, H-Erich | Witteman, Jacqueline C M | Kao, W H Linda | Kathiresan, Sekar | Roden, Dan M | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Rivadeneira, Fernando | McKnight, Barbara | Sjögren, Marketa | Newman, Anne B | Liu, Yongmei | Gollob, Michael H | Melander, Olle | Tanaka, Toshihiro | Ch Stricker, Bruno H | Felix, Stephan B | Alonso, Alvaro | Darbar, Dawood | Barnard, John | Chasman, Daniel I | Heckbert, Susan R | Benjamin, Emelia J | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Kääb, Stefan
Nature Genetics  2012;44(6):670-675.
Atrial fibrillation is a highly prevalent arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure and death1. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, including 6,707 with and 52,426 without atrial fibrillation. Six new atrial fibrillation susceptibility loci were identified and replicated in an additional sample of individuals of European ancestry, including 5,381 subjects with and 1 0,030 subjects without atrial fibrillation (P < 5 × 10−8). Four of the loci identified in Europeans were further replicated in silico in a GWAS of Japanese individuals, including 843 individuals with and 3,350 individuals without atrial fibrillation. The identified loci implicate candidate genes that encode transcription factors related to cardiopulmonary development, cardiac-expressed ion channels and cell signaling molecules.
doi:10.1038/ng.2261
PMCID: PMC3366038  PMID: 22544366
23.  Combined admixture mapping and association analysis identifies a novel blood pressure genetic locus on 5p13: contributions from the CARe consortium 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(11):2285-2295.
Admixture mapping based on recently admixed populations is a powerful method to detect disease variants with substantial allele frequency differences in ancestral populations. We performed admixture mapping analysis for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), followed by trait-marker association analysis, in 6303 unrelated African-American participants of the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium. We identified five genomic regions (P< 0.001) harboring genetic variants contributing to inter-individual BP variation. In follow-up association analyses, correcting for all tests performed in this study, three loci were significantly associated with SBP and one significantly associated with DBP (P< 10−5). Further analyses suggested that six independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributed to the phenotypic variation observed in the admixture mapping analysis. These six SNPs were examined for replication in multiple, large, independent studies of African-Americans [Women's Health Initiative (WHI), Maywood, Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) and Howard University Family Study (HUFS)] as well as one native African sample (Nigerian study), with a total replication sample size of 11 882. Meta-analysis of the replication set identified a novel variant (rs7726475) on chromosome 5 between the SUB1 and NPR3 genes, as being associated with SBP and DBP (P< 0.0015 for both); in meta-analyses combining the CARe samples with the replication data, we observed P-values of 4.45 × 10−7 for SBP and 7.52 × 10−7 for DBP for rs7726475 that were significant after accounting for all the tests performed. Our study highlights that admixture mapping analysis can help identify genetic variants missed by genome-wide association studies because of drastically reduced number of tests in the whole genome.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr113
PMCID: PMC3090198  PMID: 21422096
24.  Massively parallel rare disease genetics 
Genome Medicine  2011;3(5):29.
A report on the 'Genomic Disorders 2011 - The Genomics of Rare Diseases' meeting, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK, 23-26 March 2011
doi:10.1186/gm244
PMCID: PMC3219070  PMID: 21635711
Rare genetic diseases; genomics; genome sequencing
25.  ASSOCIATION OF HYPERTENSION DRUG TARGET GENES WITH BLOOD PRESSURE AND HYPERTENSION IN 86,588 INDIVIDUALS 
Hypertension  2011;57(5):903-910.
We previously conducted genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWA) of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and hypertension in 29,136 people from six cohort studies in the CHARGE Consortium. Here we examine associations of these traits with 30 gene regions encoding known anti-hypertensive drug targets. We find nominal evidence of association of ADRB1, ADRB2, AGT, CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and SLC12A3 polymorphisms with one or more BP traits in the CHARGE GWA meta-analysis. We attempted replication of the top meta-analysis SNPs for these genes in the Global BPgen Consortium (GBPG, n=34,433) and the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS, n=23,019), and found significant results for rs1801253 in ADRB1 (Arg389Gly), with the Gly allele associated with a lower mean SBP (beta −0.57 (mmHg), se 0.09, meta-analysis P=4.7×10−10), DBP (beta −0.36, se 0.06, meta-analysis P=9.5×10−10) and prevalence of hypertension (beta −0.06, se 0.02, meta-analysis P=3.3×10−4). Variation in AGT (rs2004776) was associated with SBP (beta 0.42, se 0.09, meta-analysis P=3.8×10−6), as well as DBP (P=5.0×10−8) and hypertension (P=3.7×10−7). A polymorphism in ACE (rs4305) showed modest replication of association with increased hypertension (beta 0.06, se 0.01, meta-analysis P=3.0×10−5). Two loci, ADRB1 and AGT, contain SNPs that reached a genome-wide significance threshold in meta-analysis for the first time. Our findings suggest that these genes warrant further studies of their genetic effects on BP, including pharmacogenetic interactions.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.158667
PMCID: PMC3099407  PMID: 21444836
drug target; genome-wide; SNP; hypertension; blood pressure

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