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1.  Ischaemic conditioning and targeting reperfusion injury: a 30 year voyage of discovery 
To commemorate the auspicious occasion of the 30th anniversary of IPC, leading pioneers in the field of cardioprotection gathered in Barcelona in May 2016 to review and discuss the history of IPC, its evolution to IPost and RIC, myocardial reperfusion injury as a therapeutic target, and future targets and strategies for cardioprotection. This article provides an overview of the major topics discussed at this special meeting and underscores the huge importance and impact, the discovery of IPC has made in the field of cardiovascular research.
doi:10.1007/s00395-016-0588-8
PMCID: PMC5073120  PMID: 27766474
Ischaemic conditioning; Myocardial reperfusion injury; Cardioprotection; RISK and SAFE pathway; Mitochondria
3.  Importance of bicarbonate transport for ischaemia-induced apoptosis of coronary endothelial cells 
Abstract
Bicarbonate transport (BT) has been previously shown to participate in apoptosis induced by various stress factors. However, the precise role of BT in ischaemia-induced apoptosis is still unknown. To investigate this subject, rat coronary endothelial cells (EC) were exposed to simulated ischaemia (glucose free anoxia at Ph 6.4) for 2 hrs and cells undergoing apoptosis were visualized by nuclear staining or by determination of cas-pase- 3 activity. To inhibit BT, EC were either treated with the inhibitor of BT 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS, 300 μmol/l) or exposed to ischaemia in bicarbonate free, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-I-piperazi-neethanesulphonic acid (HEPES)-buffered medium. Simulated ischaemia in bicarbonate-buffered medium (Bic) increased caspase-3 activity and the number of apoptotic cell (23.7 + 1.4%versus 5.1 + 1.2% in control). Omission of bicarbonate during ischaemia further significantly increased caspase-3 activity and the number of apoptotic cells (36.7 1.7%). Similar proapoptotic effect was produced by DIDS treatment during ischaemia in Bic, whereas DIDS had no effect when applied in bicarbonate-free, HEPES-buffered medium (Hep). Inhibition of BT was without influence on cytosolic acidification during ischaemia and slightly reduced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. Initial characterization of the underlying mechanism leading to apoptosis induced by BT inhibition revealed activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, i.e., increase of cytochrome C release, depolarization of mitochondria and translocation of Bax protein to mitochondria. In contrast, no activation of death receptor-dependent pathway (caspase-8 cleavage) and endoplasmic reticulum- dependent pathway (caspase-12 cleavage) was detected. In conclusion, BT plays an important role in ischaemia-induced apoptosis of coronary EC by suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.
doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00053.x
PMCID: PMC3823258  PMID: 17760841
apoptosis; endothelial cells; ischaemia; bicarbonate transport; cytochrome C; Bax
4.  A N-terminal PTHrP peptide fragment void of a PTH/PTHrP-receptor binding domain activates cardiac ETA receptors 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2001;132(2):427-432.
Adult ventricular cardiomyocytes show an unusual structure-function relationship for cyclic AMP-dependent effects of PTHrP. We investigated whether PTHrP(1 – 16), void of biological activity on classical PTHrP target cells, is able to mimic the positive contractile effect of PTHrP(1 – 34), a fully biological agonist on cardiomyocytes.Adult ventricular cardiomyocytes were paced at a constant frequency of 0.5 Hz and cell contraction was monitored using a cell-edge-detection system. Twitch amplitudes, expressed as per cent cell shortening of the diastolic cell length, and rate constants for maximal contraction and relaxation velocity were analysed.PTHrP(1 – 16) (1 μmol l−1) mimicked the contractile effects of PTHrP(1 – 34) (1 μmol l−1). It increased the twitch amplitude from 5.33±0.72 to 8.95±1.10 (% dl l−1) without changing the kinetic of contraction.PTH(1 – 34) (10 μmol l−1) affected the positive contractile effect of PTHrP(1 – 34), but not that of PTHrP(1 – 16).RpcAMPS (10 μmol l−1) inhibited the positive contractile effect of PTHrP(1 – 34), but not that of PTHrP(1 – 16).The positive contractile effect of PTHrP(1 – 16) was antagonized by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123.Sarafotoxin 6b and PTHrP(1 – 16), but not PTHrP(1 – 34), replaced 3H-BQ123 from cardiac binding sites.We conclude that N-terminal PTHrP peptides void of a PTH/PTHrP-receptor binding domain are able to bind to, and activate cardiac ETA receptors.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703830
PMCID: PMC1572577  PMID: 11159691
PTHrP processing; cardiomyocytes; contractility
5.  Effect of Factor XIII on Endothelial Barrier Function  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1999;189(9):1373-1382.
The effect of factor XIII on endothelial barrier function was studied in a model of cultured monolayers of porcine aortic endothelial cells and saline-perfused rat hearts. The thrombin-activated plasma factor XIII (1 U/ml) reduced albumin permeability of endothelial monolayers within 20 min by 30 ± 7% (basal value of 5.9 ± 0.4 × 10−6 cm/s), whereas the nonactivated plasma factor XIII had no effect. Reduction of permeability to the same extent, i.e., by 34 ± 9% could be obtained with the thrombin-activated A subunit of factor XIII (1 U/ml), whereas the iodoacetamide-inactivated A subunit as well as the B subunit had no effect on permeability. Endothelial monolayers exposed to the activated factor XIII A exhibited immunoreactive deposition of itself at interfaces of adjacent cells; however, these were not found on exposure to nonactivated factor XIII A or factor XIII B. Hyperpermeability induced by metabolic inhibition (1 mM potassium cyanide plus 1 mM 2-deoxy-d-glucose) was prevented in the presence of the activated factor XIII A. Likewise, the increase in myocardial water content in ischemic-reperfused rat hearts was prevented in its presence. This study shows that activated factor XIII reduces endothelial permeability. It can prevent the loss of endothelial barrier function under conditions of energy depletion. Its effect seems related to a modification of the paracellular passageways in endothelial monolayers.
PMCID: PMC2193057  PMID: 10224277
edema; endothelial permeability; heart; ischemia-reperfusion; recombinant human factor XIII
6.  Wegener's Granulomatosis: Anti–proteinase 3 Antibodies Are Potent Inductors of Human Endothelial Cell Signaling and Leakage Response  
Anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) have a high specifity for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), and their role in activating leukocytes is well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the influence of PR3-ANCA and murine monoclonal antibodies on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Priming of HUVECs with tumor necrosis factor α induced endothelial upregulation of PR3 message and surface expression of this antigen, as measured by Cyto-ELISA, with a maximum occurrence after 2 h. Primed cells responded to low concentrations of both antibodies (25 ng–2.5 μg/ml), but not to control immunoglobulins, with pronounced, dose-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis, as assessed by accumulation of inositol phosphates. The signaling response peaked after 20 min, in parallel with the appearance of marked prostacyclin and platelet-activating factor synthesis. The F(ab)2 fragment of ANCA was equally potent as ANCA itself. Disrupture of the endothelial F-actin content by botulinum C2 toxin to avoid antigen–antibody internalization did not affect the response. In addition to the metabolic events, anti-PR3 challenge, in the absence of plasma components, provoked delayed, dose-dependent increase in transendothelial protein leakage. We conclude that anti-PR3 antibodies are potent inductors of the preformed phosphoinositide hydrolysis–related signal tranduction pathway in human endothelial cells. Associated metabolic events and the loss of endothelial barrier properties suggest that anti-PR3–induced activation of endothelial cells may contribute to the pathogenetic sequelae of autoimmune vasculitis characterizing WG.
PMCID: PMC2212153  PMID: 9463400

Results 1-6 (6)