Sulfatases hydrolytically cleave sulfate esters through a unique catalytic aldehyde, which is introduced by a posttranslational oxidation. To profile active sulfatases in health and disease, activity-based proteomic tools are needed. Herein, quinone methide (QM) traps directed against sulfatases are evaluated as activity-based proteomic probes (ABPPs). Starting from a p-fluoromethylphenyl sulfate scaffold, enzymatically generated QM traps can inactivate bacterial aryl sulfatases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and human steroid sulfatase. However, multiple enzyme-generated QMs form, diffuse, and non-specifically label purified enzyme. In complex proteomes, QM labelling is sulfatase-dependent but also non-specific. Thus, fluoromethylphenyl sulfates are poor ABPPs for sulfatases.
Quinone methide; Enzyme inhibitor; Suicide inhibitor; Sulfatase probe; Activity-based proteomics
► We mapped all known mature CHO miRNAs to two CHO-K1 reference genomes. ► 212 unique genomic miRNA loci and the respective precursor miRNA sequences were identified. ► The genomic loci of 4 polycistronic miRNA cluster were confirmed by PCR. ► The identified sequences were analyzed for SNPs and conservation compared to mouse. ► Sequence data have been prepared for submission to miRBase miRNA sequence repository.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently entered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture technology, due to their severe impact on the regulation of cellular phenotypes. Applications of miRNAs that are envisioned range from biomarkers of favorable phenotypes to cell engineering targets. These applications, however, require a profound knowledge of miRNA sequences and their genomic organization, which exceeds the currently available information of ∼400 conserved mature CHO miRNA sequences. Based on these recently published sequences and two independent CHO-K1 genome assemblies, this publication describes the computational identification of CHO miRNA genomic loci. Using BLAST alignment, 415 previously reported CHO miRNAs were mapped to the reference genomes, and subsequently assigned to a distinct genomic miRNA locus. Sequences of the respective precursor-miRNAs were extracted from both reference genomes, folded in silico to verify correct structures and cross-compared. In the end, 212 genomic loci and pre-miRNA sequences representing 319 expressed mature miRNAs (approximately 50% of miRNAs represented matching pairs of 5′ and 3′ miRNAs) were submitted to the miRBase miRNA repository. As a proof-of-principle for the usability of the published genomic loci, four likely polycistronic miRNA cluster were chosen for PCR amplification using CHO-K1 and DHFR (-) genomic DNA. Overall, these data on the genomic context of miRNA expression in CHO will simplify the development of tools employing stable overexpression or deletion of miRNAs, allow the identification of miRNA promoters and improve detection methods such as microarrays.
MicroRNA; microRNA stemloops; Chinese hamster ovary; Cell engineering
For the improved production of vaccines and therapeutic proteins, a detailed understanding of the metabolic dynamics during batch or fed-batch production is requested. To study the new human cell line AGE1.HN, a flexible metabolic flux analysis method was developed that is considering dynamic changes in growth and metabolism during cultivation. This method comprises analysis of formation of cellular components as well as conversion of major substrates and products, spline fitting of dynamic data and flux estimation using metabolite balancing. During batch cultivation of AGE1.HN three distinct phases were observed, an initial one with consumption of pyruvate and high glycolytic activity, a second characterized by a highly efficient metabolism with very little energy spilling waste production and a third with glutamine limitation and decreasing viability. Main events triggering changes in cellular metabolism were depletion of pyruvate and glutamine. Potential targets for the improvement identified from the analysis are (i) reduction of overflow metabolism in the beginning of cultivation, e.g. accomplished by reduction of pyruvate content in the medium and (ii) prolongation of phase 2 with its highly efficient energy metabolism applying e.g. specific feeding strategies. The method presented allows fast and reliable metabolic flux analysis during the development of producer cells and production processes from microtiter plate to large scale reactors with moderate analytical and computational effort. It seems well suited to guide media optimization and genetic engineering of producing cell lines.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00449-010-0502-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Growth phases; Cell culture; Kinetics; Production; Mammalian cell; Metabolic engineering
The effect of factor XIII on endothelial barrier function was studied in a model of cultured monolayers of porcine aortic endothelial cells and saline-perfused rat hearts. The thrombin-activated plasma factor XIII (1 U/ml) reduced albumin permeability of endothelial monolayers within 20 min by 30 ± 7% (basal value of 5.9 ± 0.4 × 10−6 cm/s), whereas the nonactivated plasma factor XIII had no effect. Reduction of permeability to the same extent, i.e., by 34 ± 9% could be obtained with the thrombin-activated A subunit of factor XIII (1 U/ml), whereas the iodoacetamide-inactivated A subunit as well as the B subunit had no effect on permeability. Endothelial monolayers exposed to the activated factor XIII A exhibited immunoreactive deposition of itself at interfaces of adjacent cells; however, these were not found on exposure to nonactivated factor XIII A or factor XIII B. Hyperpermeability induced by metabolic inhibition (1 mM potassium cyanide plus 1 mM 2-deoxy-d-glucose) was prevented in the presence of the activated factor XIII A. Likewise, the increase in myocardial water content in ischemic-reperfused rat hearts was prevented in its presence. This study shows that activated factor XIII reduces endothelial permeability. It can prevent the loss of endothelial barrier function under conditions of energy depletion. Its effect seems related to a modification of the paracellular passageways in endothelial monolayers.
edema; endothelial permeability; heart; ischemia-reperfusion; recombinant human factor XIII
Anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) have a high specifity for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), and their role in activating leukocytes is well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the influence of PR3-ANCA and murine monoclonal antibodies on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Priming of HUVECs with tumor necrosis factor α induced endothelial upregulation of PR3 message and surface expression of this antigen, as measured by Cyto-ELISA, with a maximum occurrence after 2 h. Primed cells responded to low concentrations of both antibodies (25 ng–2.5 μg/ml), but not to control immunoglobulins, with pronounced, dose-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis, as assessed by accumulation of inositol phosphates. The signaling response peaked after 20 min, in parallel with the appearance of marked prostacyclin and platelet-activating factor synthesis. The F(ab)2 fragment of ANCA was equally potent as ANCA itself. Disrupture of the endothelial F-actin content by botulinum C2 toxin to avoid antigen–antibody internalization did not affect the response. In addition to the metabolic events, anti-PR3 challenge, in the absence of plasma components, provoked delayed, dose-dependent increase in transendothelial protein leakage. We conclude that anti-PR3 antibodies are potent inductors of the preformed phosphoinositide hydrolysis–related signal tranduction pathway in human endothelial cells. Associated metabolic events and the loss of endothelial barrier properties suggest that anti-PR3–induced activation of endothelial cells may contribute to the pathogenetic sequelae of autoimmune vasculitis characterizing WG.
Somatic neural and neural crest stem cells are promising sources for cellular therapy of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of practical considerations such as inadequate accessibility of the source material, the application of neural crest stem cells is strictly limited. The secondary palate is a highly regenerative and heavily innervated tissue, which develops embryonically under direct contribution of neural crest cells. Here, we describe for the first time the presence of nestin-positive neural crest-related stem cells within Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell-neurite complexes located in the hard palate of adult Wistar rats. After isolation, palatal neural crest-related stem cells (pNC-SCs) were cultivated in the presence of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor under serum-free conditions, resulting in large amounts of neurospheres. We used immunocytochemical techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression profile of pNC-SCs. In addition to the expression of neural crest stem cell markers such as Nestin, Sox2, and p75, we detected the expression of Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc. pNC-SCs differentiated efficiently into neuronal and glial cells. Finally, we investigated the potential expression of stemness markers within the human palate. We identified expression of stem cell markers nestin and CD133 and the transcription factors needed for reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells: Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc. These data show that cells isolated from palatal rugae form neurospheres, are highly plastic, and express neural crest stem cell markers. In addition, pNC-SCs may have the ability to differentiate into functional neurons and glial cells, serving as a starting point for therapeutic studies. Stem Cells 2009;27:1899–1910
Neural crest; Sox2; Klf4; Oct4; c-Myc; Novel human stem cell source; Tissue stem cells