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1.  Systems-pharmacology dissection of a drug synergy in imatinib-resistant CML 
Nature chemical biology  2012;8(11):905-912.
Occurrence of the BCR-ABLT315I gatekeeper mutation is among the most pressing challenges in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several BCR-ABL inhibitors have multiple targets and pleiotropic effects that could be exploited for their synergistic potential. Testing combinations of such kinase inhibitors identified a strong synergy between danusertib and bosutinib that exclusively affected CML cells harboring BCR-ABLT315I. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we applied a systems-level approach comprising phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and chemical proteomics. Data integration revealed that both compounds targeted Mapk pathways downstream of BCR-ABL, resulting in impaired activity of c-Myc. Using pharmacological validation, we assessed that the relative contributions of danusertib and bosutinib could be mimicked individually by Mapk inhibitors and collectively by downregulation of c-Myc through Brd4 inhibition. Thus, integration of genome- and proteome-wide technologies enabled the elucidation of the mechanism by which a new drug synergy targets the dependency of BCR-ABLT315I CML cells on c-Myc through nonobvious off targets.
PMCID: PMC4038039  PMID: 23023260
2.  The CRAPome: a Contaminant Repository for Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry Data 
Nature methods  2013;10(8):730-736.
Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is now a widely used approach for the identification of protein-protein interactions. However, for any given protein of interest, determining which of the identified polypeptides represent bona fide interactors versus those that are background contaminants (e.g. proteins that interact with the solid-phase support, affinity reagent or epitope tag) is a challenging task. While the standard approach is to identify nonspecific interactions using one or more negative controls, most small-scale AP-MS studies do not capture a complete, accurate background protein set. Fortunately, negative controls are largely bait-independent. Hence, aggregating negative controls from multiple AP-MS studies can increase coverage and improve the characterization of background associated with a given experimental protocol. Here we present the Contaminant Repository for Affinity Purification (the CRAPome) and describe the use of this resource to score protein-protein interactions. The repository (currently available for Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and computational tools are freely available online at
PMCID: PMC3773500  PMID: 23921808
3.  IFITs: Emerging Roles as Key Anti-Viral Proteins 
Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins, which are strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The molecular mechanism of IFIT anti-viral activity has been studied in some detail, including the recently discovered direct binding of viral nucleic acid, the binding to viral and host proteins, and the possible involvement in anti-viral immune signal propagation. The unique structures of some members of the IFIT family have been solved to reveal an internal pocket for non-sequence-specific, but conformation- and modification-specific, nucleic acid binding. This review will focus on recent discoveries, which link IFITs to the anti-viral response, intrinsic to the innate immune system.
PMCID: PMC3948006  PMID: 24653722
IFIT; innate immune system; anti-viral immune response; TPR; PAMPs
4.  Perturbation of the mutated EGFR interactome identifies vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms 
A ‘lung cancer'-specific mutant EGFR interactome was generated by a global analysis of protein–protein interactions and phosphorylation. After functional screening, nine proteins were identified as essential for the viability of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells.
The interactome of lung cancer-associated mutant forms of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), consisting of 263 proteins, was built by integrating protein–protein interactions and tyrosine phosphorylation.Systematic perturbations of the network nodes revealed a core network of 14 proteins, 9 of which were shown to be specifically associated with survival of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells.Cells with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors showed differential dependence on the core network proteins.A drug network associated with the core network proteins led to the identification of two compounds, midostaurin and lestaurtinib, that could overcome drug resistance through direct EGFR inhibition when combined with erlotinib.
We hypothesized that elucidating the interactome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) forms that are mutated in lung cancer, via global analysis of protein–protein interactions, phosphorylation, and systematically perturbing the ensuing network nodes, should offer a new, more systems-level perspective of the molecular etiology. Here, we describe an EGFR interactome of 263 proteins and offer a 14-protein core network critical to the viability of multiple EGFR-mutated lung cancer cells. Cells with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had differential dependence of the core network proteins based on the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance. Of the 14 proteins, 9 are shown to be specifically associated with survival of EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines. This included EGFR, GRB2, MK12, SHC1, ARAF, CD11B, ARHG5, GLU2B, and CD11A. With the use of a drug network associated with the core network proteins, we identified two compounds, midostaurin and lestaurtinib, that could overcome drug resistance through direct EGFR inhibition when combined with erlotinib. Our results, enabled by interactome mapping, suggest new targets and combination therapies that could circumvent EGFR TKI resistance.
PMCID: PMC4039310  PMID: 24189400
epidermal growth factor receptor; interactome; lung cancer; proteomics; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
5.  A Target-Disease Network Model of Second-Generation BCR-ABL Inhibitor Action in Ph+ ALL 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77155.
Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is in part driven by the tyrosine kinase bcr-abl, but imatinib does not produce long-term remission. Therefore, second-generation ABL inhibitors are currently in clinical investigation. Considering different target specificities and the pronounced genetic heterogeneity of Ph+ ALL, which contributes to the aggressiveness of the disease, drug candidates should be evaluated with regard to their effects on the entire Ph+ ALL-specific signaling network. Here, we applied an integrated experimental and computational approach that allowed us to estimate the differential impact of the bcr-abl inhibitors nilotinib, dasatinib, Bosutinib and Bafetinib. First, we determined drug-protein interactions in Ph+ ALL cell lines by chemical proteomics. We then mapped those interactions along with known genetic lesions onto public protein-protein interactions. Computation of global scores through correlation of target affinity, network topology, and distance to disease-relevant nodes assigned the highest impact to dasatinib, which was subsequently confirmed by proliferation assays. In future, combination of patient-specific genomic information with detailed drug target knowledge and network-based computational analysis should allow for an accurate and individualized prediction of therapy.
PMCID: PMC3795025  PMID: 24130846
6.  Optimisation of Downscaled Tandem Affinity Purifications to Identify Core Protein Complexes 
Journal of integrated OMICS  2012;2(1):55-68.
In this study we show that via stable, retroviral-expression of tagged EGFR del (L747-S752 deletion mutant) in the PC9 lung cancer cell line and stable doxycycline-inducible expression of tagged Grb2 using a Flp-mediated recombination HEK293 cell system, the SH-TAP can be downscaled to 5 to 12.5 mg total protein input (equivalent to 0.5 - 1 × 15 cm culture plate or 4 - 8 × 106 cells). The major constituents of the EGFR del complex (USB3B, GRB2, ERRFI, HSP7C, GRP78, HSP71) and the Grb2 complex (ARHG5, SOS1, ARG35, CBL, CBLB, PTPRA, SOS2, DYN2, WIPF2, IRS4) were identified. Adjustment of the quantity of digested protein injected into the mass spectrometer reveals that optimisation is required as high quantities of material led to a decrease in protein sequence coverage and the loss of some interacting proteins. This investigation should aid other researchers in performing tandem affinity purifications in general, and in particular, from low quantities of input material.
PMCID: PMC3785125  PMID: 24077984
EGFR; Grb2; Orbitrap; TAP; downscale
7.  Affinity Purification Strategies for Proteomic Analysis of Transcription Factor Complexes 
Journal of Proteome Research  2013;12(9):4018-4027.
Affinity purification (AP) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has been successful in elucidating protein molecular networks of mammalian cells. These approaches have dramatically increased the knowledge of the interconnectivity present among proteins and highlighted biological functions within different protein complexes. Despite significant technical improvements reached in the past years, it is still challenging to identify the interaction networks and the subsequent associated functions of nuclear proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). A straightforward and robust methodology is therefore required to obtain unbiased and reproducible interaction data. Here we present a new approach for TF AP-MS, exemplified with the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). Utilizing the advantages of a double tag and three different MS strategies, we conducted a total of six independent AP-MS strategies to analyze the protein–protein interactions of C/EBPalpha. The resultant data were combined to produce a cohesive C/EBPalpha interactome. Our study describes a new methodology that robustly identifies specific molecular complexes associated with transcription factors. Moreover, it emphasizes the existence of TFs as protein complexes essential for cellular biological functions and not as single, static entities.
PMCID: PMC3768224  PMID: 23937658
affinity purifications; transcription factors; mass spectrometry
8.  Experimental characterization of the human non-sequence-specific nucleic acid interactome 
Genome Biology  2013;14(7):R81.
The interactions between proteins and nucleic acids have a fundamental function in many biological processes, including gene transcription, RNA homeostasis, protein translation and pathogen sensing for innate immunity. While our knowledge of the ensemble of proteins that bind individual mRNAs in mammalian cells has been greatly augmented by recent surveys, no systematic study on the non-sequence-specific engagement of native human proteins with various types of nucleic acids has been reported.
We designed an experimental approach to achieve broad coverage of the non-sequence-specific RNA and DNA binding space, including methylated cytosine, and tested for interaction potential with the human proteome. We used 25 rationally designed nucleic acid probes in an affinity purification mass spectrometry and bioinformatics workflow to identify proteins from whole cell extracts of three different human cell lines. The proteins were profiled for their binding preferences to the different general types of nucleic acids. The study identified 746 high-confidence direct binders, 139 of which were novel and 237 devoid of previous experimental evidence. We could assign specific affinities for sub-types of nucleic acid probes to 219 distinct proteins and individual domains. The evolutionarily conserved protein YB-1, previously associated with cancer and drug resistance, was shown to bind methylated cytosine preferentially, potentially conferring upon YB-1 an epigenetics-related function.
The dataset described here represents a rich resource of experimentally determined nucleic acid-binding proteins, and our methodology has great potential for further exploration of the interface between the protein and nucleic acid realms.
PMCID: PMC4053969  PMID: 23902751
10.  Cell biology: A key driver of therapeutic innovation 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2012;199(4):571-575.
All processes associated with cellular function are likely to contribute to disease. Particularly in the cancer field, most major therapeutic innovations have originated from the elucidation of basic molecular mechanisms by academic researchers. Recent breakthroughs in molecularly targeted drug discovery have made it clear that it is the depth with which a biological process is understood that empowers its translation. We propose that early, more strategic, support of cutting-edge academic research by industry may be more effective for translational purposes than the current model of a late selection of community-evolved projects.
PMCID: PMC3494851  PMID: 23148230
11.  A Web Resource for Improved Analysis of AP-MS Protein Interaction Data 
Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is now a widely used approach for the identification of protein-protein interactions. However, for any given protein of interest, determining which of the identified polypeptides represent bona fide interactors versus those that are background contaminants (e.g. proteins that interact with the solid-phase support, affinity reagent or epitope tag) is a challenging task. While the standard approach is to identify nonspecific interactions using one or more negative controls, most small-scale AP-MS studies do not capture a complete, accurate background protein set. Fortunately, since negative controls are largely bait-independent, we reasoned that the negative controls generated by the proteomics research community could be developed as a resource for scoring AP-MS data.
Here we present the Contaminant Repository for Affinity Purification (The CRAPome), currently containing AP-MS data from 343 control purifications conducted by 11 different research groups ( Users employ an intuitive graphical user interface to explore the database, by either querying one protein at a time, downloading background contaminant lists for selected experimental conditions, or uploading their own data (alongside their own negative controls when available) and performing data analysis. The CRAPome database scores contaminants vs. true interactors based on semi-quantitative mass spectrometry data (normalized spectral counts) embedded in most mass spectrometry experiments. The Significance Analysis of INTeractome (SAINT) scoring scheme, in addition to a simpler Fold Change calculation (FC score) are used to score user-supplied data and return a ranked list of putative interactors. We also describe database structure and composition, provide examples of the use of this resource to filter contaminants with properly chosen controls, and demonstrate the utility of the scoring scheme for identifying bona fide interaction partners. The CRAPome accommodates a variety of purification schemes and, while currently focused on human data, will be expanded to other species.
PMCID: PMC3635329
12.  The Growing Arsenal of ATP-Competitive and Allosteric Inhibitors of BCR–ABL 
Cancer research  2012;72(19):4890-4895.
The BCR–ABL fusion kinase is the driving mutation of chronic myelogenous leukemias and is also expressed in a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Recent advances in elucidating the structure, regulation, and signaling of BCR–ABL have led to the identification of allosteric sites that are distant from the ATP-binding pocket and are critical for BCR–ABL–dependent oncogenic transformation. Here, we review the available data regarding the molecular mechanism of action and the specificity of ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BCR–ABL. In addition, we discuss how targeting of allosteric sites could provide new opportunities to inhibit resistant BCR–ABL mutants, either alone or in combination with conventional ATP-competitive inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC3517953  PMID: 23002203
13.  Mig6 Is a Sensor of EGF Receptor Inactivation that Directly Activates c-Abl to Induce Apoptosis during Epithelial Homeostasis 
Developmental Cell  2012;23(3):547-559.
A fundamental aspect of epithelial homeostasis is the dependence on specific growth factors for cell survival, yet the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We found an “inverse” mode of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling that directly links ErbB receptor inactivation to the induction of apoptosis. Upon ligand deprivation Mig6 dissociates from the ErbB receptor and binds to and activates the tyrosine kinase c-Abl to trigger p73-dependent apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. Deletion of Errfi1 (encoding Mig6) and inhibition or RNAi silencing of c-Abl causes impaired apoptosis and luminal filling of mammary ducts. Mig6 activates c-Abl by binding to the kinase domain, which is prevented in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) by Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation on c-Abl-Tyr488. These results reveal a receptor-proximal switch mechanism by which Mig6 actively senses EGF deprivation to directly activate proapoptotic c-Abl. Our findings challenge the common belief that deprivation of growth factors induces apoptosis passively by lack of mitogenic signaling.
Graphical Abstract
► EGFR inactivation triggers “inverse signaling” by Mig6-mediated activation of Abl ► Mig6 is a bimodal switch that attenuates EGFR (+EGF) or activates c-Abl (-EGF) ► Mig6 activation of Abl regulates cell death during mammary epithelial homeostasis
Hopkins et al. show that tyrosine kinase signaling directly links EGF receptor (ErbB) inactivation to the induction of apoptosis. Inactivation dissociates ErbBs from the Mig6 tumor suppressor, which then binds and activates c-Abl to trigger p73-dependent apoptosis. This mechanism controls mammary epithelial homeostasis and may also contribute to oncogene addiction.
PMCID: PMC3657149  PMID: 22975324
16.  Targeting the SH2-Kinase Interface in Bcr-Abl Inhibits Leukemogenesis 
Cell  2011;147(2):306-319.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is caused by the constitutively active tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl and treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib. However, emerging TKI resistance prevents complete cure. Therefore, alternative strategies targeting regulatory modules of Bcr-Abl in addition to the kinase active site are strongly desirable. Here, we show that an intramolecular interaction between the SH2 and kinase domains in Bcr-Abl is both necessary and sufficient for high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Disruption of this interface led to inhibition of downstream events critical for CML signaling and, importantly, completely abolished leukemia formation in mice. Furthermore, disruption of the SH2-kinase interface increased sensitivity of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants to TKI inhibition. An engineered Abl SH2-binding fibronectin type III monobody inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity both in vitro and in primary CML cells, where it induced apoptosis. This work validates the SH2-kinase interface as an allosteric target for therapeutic intervention.
PMCID: PMC3202669  PMID: 22000011
17.  Targeting the SH2-Kinase Interface in Bcr-Abl Inhibits Leukemogenesis 
Cell  2011;147(2):306-319.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is caused by the constitutively active tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl and treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib. However, emerging TKI resistance prevents complete cure. Therefore, alternative strategies targeting regulatory modules of Bcr-Abl in addition to the kinase active site are strongly desirable. Here, we show that an intramolecular interaction between the SH2 and kinase domains in Bcr-Abl is both necessary and sufficient for high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Disruption of this interface led to inhibition of downstream events critical for CML signaling and, importantly, completely abolished leukemia formation in mice. Furthermore, disruption of the SH2-kinase interface increased sensitivity of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants to TKI inhibition. An engineered Abl SH2-binding fibronectin type III monobody inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity both in vitro and in primary CML cells, where it induced apoptosis. This work validates the SH2-kinase interface as an allosteric target for therapeutic intervention.
Graphical Abstract
► The SH2-kinase domain interface is necessary for high catalytic activity of Bcr-Abl ► This intramolecular interaction is critical for Bcr-Abl-dependent leukemogenesis ► Disrupting this interaction potentiates the effects of clinical kinase inhibitors ► Targeting of the SH2-kinase interface with a monobody inhibits Bcr-Abl allosterically
Intramolecular interaction between two domains of Bcr-Abl is essential for its oncogenic activity. Disrupting the interaction prevents leukemia, even in cases where Bcr-Abl has become resistant to existing kinase inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC3202669  PMID: 22000011
18.  Functional Dissection of the TBK1 Molecular Network 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e23971.
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and inducible IκB-kinase (IKK-i) are central regulators of type-I interferon induction. They are associated with three adaptor proteins called TANK, Sintbad (or TBKBP1) and NAP1 (or TBKBP2, AZI2) whose functional relationship to TBK1 and IKK-i is poorly understood. We performed a systematic affinity purification–mass spectrometry approach to derive a comprehensive TBK1/IKK-i molecular network. The most salient feature of the network is the mutual exclusive interaction of the adaptors with the kinases, suggesting distinct alternative complexes. Immunofluorescence data indicated that the individual adaptors reside in different subcellular locations. TANK, Sintbad and NAP1 competed for binding of TBK1. The binding site for all three adaptors was mapped to the C-terminal coiled-coil 2 region of TBK1. Point mutants that affect binding of individual adaptors were used to reconstitute TBK1/IKK-i-deficient cells and dissect the functional relevance of the individual kinase-adaptor edges within the network. Using a microarray-derived gene expression signature of TBK1 in response virus infection or poly(I∶C) stimulation, we found that TBK1 activation was strictly dependent on the integrity of the TBK1/TANK interaction.
PMCID: PMC3169550  PMID: 21931631
19.  Systems medicine and integrated care to combat chronic noncommunicable diseases 
Genome Medicine  2011;3(7):43.
We propose an innovative, integrated, cost-effective health system to combat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular, chronic respiratory, metabolic, rheumatologic and neurologic disorders and cancers, which together are the predominant health problem of the 21st century. This proposed holistic strategy involves comprehensive patient-centered integrated care and multi-scale, multi-modal and multi-level systems approaches to tackle NCDs as a common group of diseases. Rather than studying each disease individually, it will take into account their intertwined gene-environment, socio-economic interactions and co-morbidities that lead to individual-specific complex phenotypes. It will implement a road map for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine based on a robust and extensive knowledge management infrastructure that contains individual patient information. It will be supported by strategic partnerships involving all stakeholders, including general practitioners associated with patient-centered care. This systems medicine strategy, which will take a holistic approach to disease, is designed to allow the results to be used globally, taking into account the needs and specificities of local economies and health systems.
PMCID: PMC3221551  PMID: 21745417
20.  CD14 is a coreceptor of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2010;207(12):2689-2701.
CD14 interacts with and is essential for the functions of endosomal TLR7 and TLR9 in mice.
Recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system requires proteins that detect conserved molecular patterns. Nucleic acids are recognized by cytoplasmic sensors as well as by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It has become evident that TLRs require additional proteins to be activated by their respective ligands. In this study, we show that CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) constitutively interacts with the MyD88-dependent TLR7 and TLR9. CD14 was necessary for TLR7- and TLR9-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and for TLR9-dependent innate immune responses in mice. CD14 associated with TLR9 stimulatory DNA in precipitation experiments and confocal imaging. The absence of CD14 led to reduced nucleic acid uptake in macrophages. Additionally, CD14 played a role in the stimulation of TLRs by viruses. Using various types of vesicular stomatitis virus, we showed that CD14 is dispensable for viral uptake but is required for the triggering of TLR-dependent cytokine responses. These data show that CD14 has a dual role in nucleic acid–mediated TLR activation: it promotes the selective uptake of nucleic acids, and it acts as a coreceptor for endosomal TLR activation.
PMCID: PMC2989773  PMID: 21078886
21.  Initial characterization of the human central proteome 
BMC Systems Biology  2011;5:17.
On the basis of large proteomics datasets measured from seven human cell lines we consider their intersection as an approximation of the human central proteome, which is the set of proteins ubiquitously expressed in all human cells. Composition and properties of the central proteome are investigated through bioinformatics analyses.
We experimentally identify a central proteome comprising 1,124 proteins that are ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in human cells using state of the art mass spectrometry and protein identification bioinformatics. The main represented functions are proteostasis, primary metabolism and proliferation. We further characterize the central proteome considering gene structures, conservation, interaction networks, pathways, drug targets, and coordination of biological processes. Among other new findings, we show that the central proteome is encoded by exon-rich genes, indicating an increased regulatory flexibility through alternative splicing to adapt to multiple environments, and that the protein interaction network linking the central proteome is very efficient for synchronizing translation with other biological processes. Surprisingly, at least 10% of the central proteome has no or very limited functional annotation.
Our data and analysis provide a new and deeper description of the human central proteome compared to previous results thereby extending and complementing our knowledge of commonly expressed human proteins. All the data are made publicly available to help other researchers who, for instance, need to compare or link focused datasets to a common background.
PMCID: PMC3039570  PMID: 21269460
22.  A Computational Approach to Analyze the Mechanism of Action of the Kinase Inhibitor Bafetinib 
PLoS Computational Biology  2010;6(11):e1001001.
Prediction of drug action in human cells is a major challenge in biomedical research. Additionally, there is strong interest in finding new applications for approved drugs and identifying potential side effects. We present a computational strategy to predict mechanisms, risks and potential new domains of drug treatment on the basis of target profiles acquired through chemical proteomics. Functional protein-protein interaction networks that share one biological function are constructed and their crosstalk with the drug is scored regarding function disruption. We apply this procedure to the target profile of the second-generation BCR-ABL inhibitor bafetinib which is in development for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Beside the well known effect on apoptosis, we propose potential treatment of lung cancer and IGF1R expressing blast crisis.
Author Summary
Protein interaction data are accumulating rapidly and, although imperfect and incomplete, they provide a valuable global description of the complex interplay of proteins in a human cell. In parallel, modern proteomics technologies make it possible to measure in an unbiased manner the protein targets of a drug. Such data reveal multiple targets in a view that contrasts with a previously prevalent paradigm that drugs had single – or a very limited number of – targets. In this context of newly available systems level data and more precise and complete information about drug interactions, it is natural to try to determine the global perturbation exerted by a drug on a human cell to identify potential side effects and additional indications. We present a computational method that aims at making such predictions and apply it to bafetinib, a recently developed leukemia drug. We show that meaningful predictions of additional applications to other cancers or resistant cases and likely side effects are obtained that are not straightforward to determine with existing algorithms. Our method has a strong potential to be applicable to other drugs.
PMCID: PMC2987840  PMID: 21124949
23.  A chemical and phosphoproteomic characterization of dasatinib action in lung cancer 
Nature chemical biology  2010;6(4):291-299.
We describe a strategy to comprehend signaling pathways active in lung cancer cells and targeted by dasatinib employing chemical proteomics to identify direct interacting proteins combined with immunoaffinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides corresponding to activated tyrosine kinases. We identified nearly 40 different kinase targets of dasatinib. These include SFK members (LYN, SRC, FYN, LCK, YES), non-receptor tyrosine kinases (FRK, BRK, ACK), and receptor tyrosine kinases (Ephrin receptors, DDR1, EGFR). Using quantitative phosphoproteomics we identified peptides corresponding to autophosphorylation sites of these tyrosine kinases that are inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by dasatinib. Using drug resistant gatekeeper mutants, we show that SFK kinases, particularly SRC and FYN, as well as EGFR are relevant targets for dasatinib action. The combined mass spectrometry based approach described here provides a system-level view of dasatinib action in cancer cells and suggests both functional targets and rationale combinatorial therapeutic strategies.
PMCID: PMC2842457  PMID: 20190765
24.  A potent and highly specific FN3 monobody inhibitor of the Abl SH2 domain 
Interactions between SH2 domains and phosphotyrosine sites regulate tyrosine kinase signaling networks. Selective perturbation of these interactions is challenging due to the high homology among the 120 human SH2 domains. Using an improved phage-display selection system, we generated a small antibody-mimic or ‘monobody’, termed HA4, that bound to the Abl kinase SH2 domain with low nanomolar affinity. SH2 protein microarray analysis and mass spectrometry of intracellular HA4 interactors demonstrated HA4's exquisite specificity, and a crystal structure revealed how this specificity is achieved. HA4 disrupted intramolecular interactions of Abl involving the SH2 domain and potently activated the kinase in vitro. Within cells, HA4 inhibited processive phosphorylation activity of Abl and also STAT5 activation. This work provides a design guideline for highly specific and potent inhibitors of a protein interaction domain and demonstrates their utility in mechanistic and cellular investigations.
PMCID: PMC2926940  PMID: 20357770
25.  Report on EU–USA Workshop: How Systems Biology Can Advance Cancer Research (27 October 2008)☆ 
Molecular oncology  2008;3(1):9-17.
The main conclusion is that systems biology approaches can indeed advance cancer research, having already proved successful in a very wide variety of cancer-related areas, and are likely to prove superior to many current research strategies. Major points include: Systems biology and computational approaches can make important contributions to research and development in key clinical aspects of cancer and of cancer treatment, and should be developed for understanding and application to diagnosis, biomarkers, cancer progression, drug development and treatment strategies.Development of new measurement technologies is central to successful systems approaches, and should be strongly encouraged. The systems view of disease combined with these new technologies and novel computational tools will over the next 5–20 years lead to medicine that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (P4 medicine).Major initiatives are in progress to gather extremely wide ranges of data for both somatic and germ-line genetic variations, as well as gene, transcript, protein and metabolite expression profiles that are cancer-relevant. Electronic databases and repositories play a central role to store and analyze these data. These resources need to be developed and sustained.Understanding cellular pathways is crucial in cancer research, and these pathways need to be considered in the context of the progression of cancer at various stages. At all stages of cancer progression, major areas require modelling via systems and developmental biology methods including immune system reactions, angiogenesis and tumour progression.A number of mathematical models of an analytical or computational nature have been developed that can give detailed insights into the dynamics of cancer-relevant systems. These models should be further integrated across multiple levels of biological organization in conjunction with analysis of laboratory and clinical data.Biomarkers represent major tools in determining the presence of cancer, its progression and the responses to treatments. There is a need for sets of high-quality annotated clinical samples, enabling comparisons across different diseases and the quantitative simulation of major pathways leading to biomarker development and analysis of drug effects.Education is recognized as a key component in the success of any systems biology programme, especially for applications to cancer research. It is recognized that a balance needs to be found between the need to be interdisciplinary and the necessity of having extensive specialist knowledge in particular areas.A proposal from this workshop is to explore one or more types of cancer over the full scale of their progression, for example glioblastoma or colon cancer. Such an exemplar project would require all the experimental and computational tools available for the generation and analysis of quantitative data over the entire hierarchy of biological information. These tools and approaches could be mobilized to understand, detect and treat cancerous processes and establish methods applicable across a wide range of cancers.
PMCID: PMC2930781  PMID: 19383362
Systems biology; EU-USA workshop; Cancer

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