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author:("Sudi, jyotiba")
1.  Both Rare and De Novo Copy Number Variants Are Prevalent in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum but Not in Cerebellar Hypoplasia or Polymicrogyria 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(10):e1003823.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH), and polymicrogyria (PMG) are severe congenital brain malformations with largely undiscovered causes. We conducted a large-scale chromosomal copy number variation (CNV) discovery effort in 255 ACC, 220 CBLH, and 147 PMG patients, and 2,349 controls. Compared to controls, significantly more ACC, but unexpectedly not CBLH or PMG patients, had rare genic CNVs over one megabase (p = 1.48×10−3; odds ratio [OR] = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89–5.39). Rare genic CNVs were those that impacted at least one gene in less than 1% of the combined population of patients and controls. Compared to controls, significantly more ACC but not CBLH or PMG patients had rare CNVs impacting over 20 genes (p = 0.01; OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.69–5.18). Independent qPCR confirmation showed that 9.4% of ACC patients had de novo CNVs. These, in comparison to inherited CNVs, preferentially overlapped de novo CNVs previously observed in patients with autism spectrum disorders (p = 3.06×10−4; OR = 7.55; 95% CI = 2.40–23.72). Interestingly, numerous reports have shown a reduced corpus callosum area in autistic patients, and diminished social and executive function in many ACC patients. We also confirmed and refined previously known CNVs, including significantly narrowing the 8p23.1-p11.1 duplication present in 2% of our current ACC cohort. We found six novel CNVs, each in a single patient, that are likely deleterious: deletions of 1p31.3-p31.1, 1q31.2-q31.3, 5q23.1, and 15q11.2-q13.1; and duplications of 2q11.2-q13 and 11p14.3-p14.2. One ACC patient with microcephaly had a paternally inherited deletion of 16p13.11 that included NDE1. Exome sequencing identified a recessive maternally inherited nonsense mutation in the non-deleted allele of NDE1, revealing the complexity of ACC genetics. This is the first systematic study of CNVs in congenital brain malformations, and shows a much higher prevalence of large gene-rich CNVs in ACC than in CBLH and PMG.
Author Summary
Here, we systematically test the genetic etiology of three common developmental brain malformations: agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH), and polymicrogyria (PMG) by copy number variation (CNV) analysis in a large cohort of brain malformation patients and controls. We found significantly more ACC but not CBLH or PMG patients with rare genic CNVs over one megabase and with rare CNVs impacting over 20 genes when compared with controls. De novo CNVs were found in 9.4% of ACC patients, and interestingly many such CNVs overlapped with de novo CNVs observed in autism. Notably, numerous studies have demonstrated a reduction in the corpus callosum area in autistic brains. Our analysis also refined previously known large CNVs that cause these malformations, and identified six novel CNVs that are likely deleterious. One ACC patient had inherited a deletion from the father which, through exome sequencing, was found to uncover a recessive nonsense mutation in NDE1 on the non-deleted allele inherited from the mother. Our study is the first to systematically evaluate the burden of rare genic CNVs in congenital brain malformations and shows that large gene-rich CNVs are more common in ACC than in CBLH and PMG.
PMCID: PMC3789824  PMID: 24098143
2.  Maternal asthma and microRNA regulation of soluble HLA-G in the airway. 
We previously reported an interaction between maternal asthma and the child’s HLA-G genotype on the child’s subsequent risk for asthma. The implicated SNP at +3142 disrupted a target site for the microRNA (miR)-152 family. We hypothesized that the interaction effect may be mediated by these miRs
The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis in adults with asthma who are a subset of the same subjects who participated in our earlier family-based studies.
We measured soluble (s)HLA-G concentrations in bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (N=36) and plasma (N=57) from adult asthmatics with and without a mother with asthma, and HLA-G and miR-152 family (miR-148a, -148b, and -152) transcript levels in airway epithelial cells from the same individuals.
miR-148b levels were significantly elevated in airway epithelial cells from asthmatics with an asthmatic mother compared to asthmatics without an asthmatic mother, and +3142 genotypes were associated with sHLA-G concentrations in BAL fluid among asthmatic individuals with an asthmatic mother but not among those with a non-asthmatic mother. Neither effect was observed in the plasma (sHLA-G) or white blood cells (miRNA).
These combined results are consistent with +3142 allele-specific targeting of HLA-G by the miR-152 family, and support our hypothesis that miRNA regulation of sHLA-G in the airway is influenced by both the asthma status of the subject’s mother and the subject’s genotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effects of maternal asthma on the gene regulatory landscape in the airways of her children persist into adulthood.
PMCID: PMC3779062  PMID: 23534973
Asthma; maternal asthma; microRNA; Human Leukocyte Antigen
3.  Duplication 16p11.2 in a Child with Infantile Seizure Disorder 
Submicroscopic recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangements are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. The common 16p11.2 region includes 24 known genes, of which 22 are expressed in the developing human fetal nervous system. As yet, the mechanisms leading to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and the broader phenotypes associated with deletion or duplication of 16p11.2 have not been clarified. Here we report a child with spastic quadriparesis, refractory infantile seizures, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia, and microcephaly, and a de novo 598 Kb 16p11.2 microduplication. Family history is negative for any of these features in parents and immediate family members. Sequencing analyses showed no mutations in DOC2A, QPRT, and SEZ6L2, genes within the duplicated 16p11.2 region that have been implicated in neuronal function and/or seizure related phenotypes. The child’s clinical course is consistent with a rare seizure disorder called malignant migrating partial seizure disorder of infancy, raising the possibility that duplication or disruption of genes in the 16p11.2 interval may contribute to this severe disorder.
PMCID: PMC3160635  PMID: 20503337
Autism; seizure; 16p11.2; microarrays; DOC2A; QPRT; SEZ6L2
4.  Targeted loss of Arx results in a developmental epilepsy mouse model and recapitulates the human phenotype in heterozygous females 
Brain  2009;132(6):1563-1576.
Mutations in the X-linked aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) have been linked to structural brain anomalies as well as multiple neurocognitive deficits. The generation of Arx-deficient mice revealed several morphological anomalies, resembling those observed in patients and an interneuron migration defect but perinatal lethality precluded analyses of later phenotypes. Interestingly, many of the neurological phenotypes observed in patients with various ARX mutations can be attributed, in part, to interneuron dysfunction. To directly test this possibility, mice carrying a floxed Arx allele were generated and crossed to Dlx5/6CRE-IRES-GFP(Dlx5/6CIG) mice, conditionally deleting Arx from ganglionic eminence derived neurons including cortical interneurons. We now report that Arx−/y;Dlx5/6CIG (male) mice exhibit a variety of seizure types beginning in early-life, including seizures that behaviourally and electroencephalographically resembles infantile spasms, and show evolution through development. Thus, this represents a new genetic model of a malignant form of paediatric epilepsy, with some characteristics resembling infantile spasms, caused by mutations in a known infantile spasms gene. Unexpectedly, approximately half of the female mice carrying a single mutant Arx allele (Arx−/+;Dlx5/6CIG) also developed seizures. We also found that a subset of human female carriers have seizures and neurocognitive deficits. In summary, we have identified a previously unrecognized patient population with neurological deficits attributed to ARX mutations that are recapitulated in our mouse model. Furthermore, we show that perturbation of interneuron subpopulations is an important mechanism underling the pathogenesis of developmental epilepsy in both hemizygous males and carrier females. Given the frequency of ARX mutations in patients with infantile spasms and related disorders, our data unveil a new model for further understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders.
PMCID: PMC2685924  PMID: 19439424
Epilepsy; development; conditional knockout; genetic model; interneurons
5.  Microcephaly, sensorineural deafness and Currarino triad with duplication–deletion of distal 7q 
European Journal of Pediatrics  2009;169(4):475-481.
Currarino syndrome (CS) is a peculiar form of caudal regression syndrome [also known as autosomal dominant sacral agenesis (OMIM no. 176450)] characterised by (1) partial absence of the sacrum with intact first sacral vertebra, (2) a pre-sacral mass and (3) anorectal anomalies (Currarino triad). We studied a 3-year-old girl with Currarino triad who had additional systemic features and performed array comparative genomic hybridisation to look for chromosomal abnormalities. This girl had the typical spectrum of anomalies of the CS including (a) partial sacral agenesis (hemisacrum with remnants of only sacral S1–S2 vertebrae and a residual S3 vertebral body) associated with complete coccygeal agenesis, (b) pre-intrasacral dermoid, (c) intra-dural lipoma, (d) ectopic anus and (e) tethered cord. She had, in addition, pre- and post-natal growth impairment (<3rd percentile), severe microcephaly (<−3 SD) with normal gyration pattern and lack of cortical thickening associated with a hypoplastic inferior vermis, facial dysmorphism, sensorineural deafness and decreased serum levels of IGF-1. A de novo 10.3-Mb duplication of 7q34–q35 and an 8.8-Mb deletion on 7q36 were identified in this patient. The Homeobox HLXB9 (CS) gene is contained within the deletion accounting for the CS phenotype including microcephaly. The spectrums of associated abnormalities in the IGF-1 deficiency growth retardation with sensorineural deafness and mental retardation syndrome (OMIM no. 608747) are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with distal 7q chromosomal imbalance and features of CS triad (including microcephaly) and the first documented case of a patient with normal gyration pattern microcephaly. The spectrum of associated anomalies in this newly recognised phenotype complex consists of growth failure, typical facial anomalies with additional (previously unreported) nervous system abnormalities (e.g. sensorineural deafness) and somatomedin C deficiency.
PMCID: PMC2820683  PMID: 19838731
Caudal regression syndrome; Absence of sacrum; Pre-sacral mass; Anorectal anomalies; Microcephaly; Sensorineural deafness; IGF-1 deficiency
6.  A de novo 1p34.2 microdeletion identifies the synaptic vesicle gene RIMS3 as a novel candidate for autism 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2009;47(2):81-90.
A child with autism and mild microcephaly was found to have a de novo 3.3 Mb microdeletion on chromosome 1p34.2p34.3. The hypothesis is tested that this microdeletion contains one or more genes that underlie the autism phenotype in this child and in other children with autism spectrum disorders.
To search for submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements in the child, array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) was performed using a 19 K whole genome human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and the Illumina 610-Quad BeadChip microarray. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to construct functional biological networks to identify candidate autism genes. To identify putative functional variants in candidate genes, mutation screening was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based Sanger sequencing in 512 unrelated autism patients and 462 control subjects.
A de novo 3.3 Mb deletion containing ∼43 genes in chromosome 1p34.2p34.3 was identified and subsequently confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Literature review and bioinformatics analyses identified Regulating Synaptic Membrane Exocytosis 3 (RIMS3) as the most promising autism candidate gene. Mutation screening of this gene in autism patients identified five inherited coding variants, including one (p.E177A) that segregated with the autism phenotype in a sibship, was predicted to be deleterious, and was absent in 1161 controls.
This case report and mutation screening data suggest that RIMS3 is an autism causative or contributory gene. Functional studies of RIMS3 variants such as p.E177A should provide additional insight into the role of synaptic proteins in the pathophysiology of autism.
PMCID: PMC2921284  PMID: 19546099
autism; microcephaly; mental retardation; copy number variants; synapse; molecular genetics; neurosciences; psychiatry
7.  Association and Mutation Analyses of 16p11.2 Autism Candidate Genes 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(2):e4582.
Autism is a complex childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Microdeletion or duplication of a ∼500–700-kb genomic rearrangement on 16p11.2 that contains 24 genes represents the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with autism. The role of common and rare 16p11.2 sequence variants in autism etiology is unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To identify common 16p11.2 variants with a potential role in autism, we performed association studies using existing data generated from three microarray platforms: Affymetrix 5.0 (777 families), Illumina 550 K (943 families), and Affymetrix 500 K (60 families). No common variants were identified that were significantly associated with autism. To look for rare variants, we performed resequencing of coding and promoter regions for eight candidate genes selected based on their known expression patterns and functions. In total, we identified 26 novel variants in autism: 13 exonic (nine non-synonymous, three synonymous, and one untranslated region) and 13 promoter variants. We found a significant association between autism and a coding variant in the seizure-related gene SEZ6L2 (12/1106 autism vs. 3/1161 controls; p = 0.018). Sez6l2 expression in mouse embryos was restricted to the spinal cord and brain. SEZ6L2 expression in human fetal brain was highest in post-mitotic cortical layers, hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus. Association analysis of SEZ6L2 in an independent sample set failed to replicate our initial findings.
We have identified sequence variation in at least one candidate gene in 16p11.2 that may represent a novel genetic risk factor for autism. However, further studies are required to substantiate these preliminary findings.
PMCID: PMC2644762  PMID: 19242545
8.  Novel Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities detected in Autism Spectrum Disorder 
Biological psychiatry  2008;63(12):1111-1117.
One genetic mechanism known to be associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is chromosomal abnormalities. The identification of copy number variants (CNV) i.e. microdeletions and microduplications that are undetectable at the level of traditional cytogenetic analysis allows the potential association of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances and human disease.
We performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) utilizing a 19K whole genome tiling path bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) microarray on 397 unrelated subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Common CNV were excluded using a control group comprised of 372 individuals from the NIMH Genetics Initiative Control samples. Confirmation studies were performed on all remaining CNV using FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization), microsatellite analysis and/or quantitative PCR analysis.
A total of 51 CNV were confirmed in 46 ASD subjects. Three maternal interstitial duplications of 15q11-q13 known to be associated with ASD were identified. The other 48 CNV ranged in size from 189 kb to 5.5 Mb and contained from 0 to ~40 RefSeq genes. Seven CNV were de novo and 44 were inherited.
51 autism-specific CNV were identified in 46/397 ASD patients using a 19K BAC microarray for an overall rate of 11.6%. These microdeletions and microduplications cause gene dosage imbalance in 272 genes many of which could be considered as candidate genes for autism.
PMCID: PMC2440346  PMID: 18374305
autism; array comparative genomic hybridization; microdeletions; microduplications

Results 1-8 (8)