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1.  Electrographic Status Epilepticus is Associated with Mortality and Worse Short-Term Outcome in Critically Ill Children 
Critical care medicine  2013;41(1):210-218.
Objectives
Electrographic seizures (ES) and electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) are common in critically ill children. We aimed to determine whether ES and ESE are associated with higher mortality or worse short-term neurologic outcome.
Design
Prospective observational study.
Setting
Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary children’s hospital.
Patients
Non-neonatal children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute encephalopathy underwent continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring. EEGs were scored as (1) no seizures, (2) ES, or (3) ESE. Covariates included age, acute neurologic disorder category, prior neurodevelopmental status, sex, and EEG background category. Outcomes were mortality and worsening of Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) from pre-admission to PICU discharge. Chi-squared analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between ES or ESE and mortality or short-term neurologic outcome, using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).
Interventions
None
Main Results
Two hundred children underwent cEEG. Eighty-four (42%) had seizures which were categorized as ES in 41 (20.5%) and ESE in 43 (21.5%). Thirty-six subjects (18%) died and 88 subjects (44%) had PCPC worsening. In multivariable analysis ESE was associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 5.1; 95%CI 1.4, 18, p=0.01) and PCPC worsening (OR 17.3; 95%CI 3.7, 80, p<0.001) while ES was not associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 1.3; 95%CI 0.3, 5.1; p=0.74) or PCPC worsening (OR 1.2; 95%CI 0.4, 3.9; p=0.77).
Conclusions
ESE, but not ES, is associated with mortality and worse short-term neurologic outcome in critically ill children with acute encephalopathy.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182668035
PMCID: PMC3531581  PMID: 23164815
EEG Monitoring; Seizure; Status Epilepticus; Pediatric; Outcome; Non-Convulsive Seizure
2.  EEG Monitoring in Critically Ill Children: Indications and Strategies 
Pediatric Neurology  2012;46(3):158-161.
Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring often detects non-convulsive seizures in critically ill children, but is resource intense and has not been shown to improve outcome. As institutions develop clinical pathways for monitoring, it is important to consider how seemingly minor variations may have a substantial impact on resource utilization and cost. We performed a one month prospective observational study in which each patient in a 45-bed pediatric intensive care unit was screened for potential monitoring indications. 247 patients were screened. Minor differences in monitoring indications would have a substantial impact on resource utilization. We then calculated the number of monitoring days that would be required each month based on two strategies that differed in monitoring duration. The prolonged-targeted and brief-targeted strategies would have required 106 and 33 monitoring days, respectively. Based on published non-convulsive seizure occurrence data, these strategies would detect 0.14, and 0.43 patients with seizures per monitoring day performed, respectively. A brief-targeted strategy provides a high yield for non-convulsive seizure identification, but would fail to diagnose some patients with seizures.
doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.12.009
PMCID: PMC3286021  PMID: 22353290
EEG Monitoring; Non-Convulsive Seizure; Pediatric
3.  Outcome prediction by motor and pupillary responses in children treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest 
Objective
Clinical neurologic signs considered predictive of adverse outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) may have a different prognostic value in the setting of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We aimed to determine the prognostic value of motor and pupillary responses in children treated with TH after CA.
Design
Prospective cohort study.
Setting
Pediatric ICU in tertiary care hospital.
Patients
Children treated with TH after CA.
Measurements and Main Results
Thirty-five children treated with TH after CA were prospectively enrolled. Examinations were performed by emergency medicine physicians and intensive care unit bedside nurses. Examinations were performed after resuscitation, 1 hour after achievement of hypothermia, during the last hour of hypothermia, 1 hour after achievement of normothermia, after 24 hours of normothermia, and after 72 hours of normothermia. The primary outcome was unfavorable outcome at ICU discharge, defined as a Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) score of 4–6 at hospital discharge. The secondary outcome was death (PCPC = 6). The associations between exam responses and unfavorable outcomes (as both PCPC 4,5,6 and PCPC 6) are presented as positive predictive values (PPV), for both all subjects and subjects not receiving paralytics. Statistical significance for these comparisons was determined using Fisher’s exact test. At all examination times and examination categories PPV is higher for the unfavorable outcome PCPC 4,5,6 than PCPC 6. By normothermia hour 24, absent motor and pupil responses were highly predictive of unfavorable outcome (PCPC 4,5,6) (PPV 100% and p<0.03 for all categories), while at earlier times the predictive value was lower.
Conclusions
Absent motor and pupil responses are more predictive of unfavorable outcome when defined more broadly than when defined as only death. Absent motor and pupil responses during hypothermia and soon after return of spontaneous circulation were not predictive of unfavorable outcome while absent motor and pupil responses once normothermic were predictive of unfavorable short-term outcome. Further study is needed using more robust short-term and long-term outcome measures.
doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182196a7b
PMCID: PMC3264396  PMID: 21499174
Therapeutic Hypothermia; Neurological Examination; Pediatric; Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; Cardiac Arrest; Prognosis
4.  Impact of Continuous EEG Monitoring on Clinical Management in Critically Ill Children 
Neurocritical care  2011;15(1):70-75.
Background
Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in critically ill patients, most often to detect non-convulsive seizures. While cEEG is non-invasive and feasible in the critical care setting, it is also expensive and labor intensive, and there has been little study of its impact on clinical care. We aimed to determine prospectively the impact of cEEG on clinical management in critically ill children.
Methods
Critically ill children (non-neonates) with acute encephalopathy underwent cEEG. Study enrollment and data collection were prospective.
Results
100 children were studied. EEG monitoring led to specific clinical management changes in 59 children. These included initiating or escalating anti-seizure medications in 43 due to seizure detection, demonstrating that a specific event (subtle movement or vital sign change) was not a seizure in 21, or obtaining urgent neuroimaging that led to a clinical change in 3. In the remaining 41 children, cEEG ruled out the presence of non-convulsive seizures but did not lead to a specific change in clinical management.
Conclusions
EEG monitoring led to changes in clinical management in the majority of patients, suggesting it may have an important role in management of critically ill children. Further study is needed to determine whether the management changes elicited by cEEG improve outcome.
doi:10.1007/s12028-010-9380-z
PMCID: PMC3134111  PMID: 20499208
Seizure; Status epilepticus; Pediatric; Critically Ill; Electroencephalogram; EEG monitoring
5.  Electrographic Seizures During Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy 
Journal of child neurology  2011;26(6):724-728.
Electrographic seizures are common in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but detailed data are not available regarding seizure incidence during therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and timing of electrographic seizures in term neonates undergoing whole-body therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as detected by conventional full-array electroencephalography for 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and 24 hours of normothermia. Clinical and electroencephalography data were collected from 26 consecutive neonates. Electroencephalograms were reviewed by 2 pediatric neurophysiologists. Electrographic seizures occurred in 17 of 26 (65%) patients. Seizures were entirely nonconvulsive in 8 of 17 (47%), status epilepticus occurred in 4 of 17 (23%), and seizure onset was in the first 48 hours in 13 of 17 (76%) patients. Electrographic seizures were common, were often nonconvulsive, and had onset over a broad range of times in the first days of life.
doi:10.1177/0883073810390036
PMCID: PMC3102150  PMID: 21447810
hypothermia; induced; infant; seizures; electroencephalography; hypoxia-ischemia; brain
6.  Levetiracetam for Treatment of Neonatal Seizures 
Journal of child neurology  2011;26(4):465-470.
Neonatal seizures are often refractory to treatment with initial antiseizure medications. Consequently, clinicians turn to alternatives such as levetiracetam, despite the lack of published data regarding its safety, tolerability, or efficacy in the neonatal population. We report a retrospectively identified cohort of 23 neonates with electroencephalographically confirmed seizures who received levetiracetam. Levetiracetam was considered effective if administration was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction within 24 hours. Levetiracetam was initiated at a mean conceptional age of 41 weeks. The mean initial dose was 16 ± 6 mg/kg and the mean maximum dose was 45 ± 19 mg/kg/day. No respiratory or cardiovascular adverse effects were reported or detected. Levetiracetam was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction in 35% (8 of 23), including seizure termination in 7. Further study is warranted to determine optimal levetiracetam dosing in neonates and to compare efficacy with other antiseizure medications.
doi:10.1177/0883073810384263
PMCID: PMC3082578  PMID: 21233461
neonatal seizures; status epilepticus; levetiracetam; anticonvulsant
7.  Short-Term Outcome Prediction by Electroencephalographic Features in Children Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest 
Neurocritical care  2011;14(1):37-43.
Background
Electroencephalographic (EEG) features may provide objective data regarding prognosis in children resuscitated from cardiac arrest (CA), but therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may impact its predictive value. We aimed to determine whether specific EEG features were predictive of short-term outcome in children treated with TH after CA, both during hypothermia and after return to normothermia.
Methods
Thirty-five children managed with a standard clinical TH algorithm after CA were prospectively enrolled. EEG recordings were scored in a standardized manner and categorized. EEG category 1 consisted of continuous and reactive tracings. EEG category 2 consisted of continuous but unreactive tracings. EEG category 3 included those with any degree of discontinuity, burst suppression, or lack of cerebral activity. The primary outcome was unfavorable short-term outcome defined as Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 4–6 (severe disability, vegetative, death) at hospital discharge. Univariate analyses of the association between EEG category and outcome was performed using logistic regression.
Results
For tracings obtained during hypothermia, patients with EEGs in categories 2 or 3 were far more likely to have poor outcome than those in category 1 (OR 10.7, P = 0.023 and OR 35, P = 0.004, respectively). Similarly, for tracings obtained during normothermia, patients with EEGs in categories 2 or 3 were far more likely to have poor outcomes than those in category 1 (OR 27, P = 0.006 and OR 18, P = 0.02, respectively).
Conclusions
A simple EEG classification scheme has predictive value for short-term outcome in children undergoing TH after CA.
doi:10.1007/s12028-010-9450-2
PMCID: PMC3086560  PMID: 20890677
Therapeutic hypothermia; Outcome; Pediatric; Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; Heart arrest; Prognosis
8.  Interobserver reproducibility of electroencephalogram interpretation in critically ill children 
Purpose
Correct outcome prediction after cardiac arrest in children may improve clinical decision making and family counseling. Various investigators have used EEG to predict outcome with varying success, but one limiting issue is the potential lack of reproducibility of EEG interpretation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate interobserver agreement using standardized terminology in the interpretation of EEG tracings obtained from critically ill children following cardiac arrest.
Methods
3 pediatric neurophysiologists scored 74 EEG samples using standardized categories, terminology, and interpretation rules. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa and intra-class correlation coefficients.
Results
Agreement was substantial for the categories of continuity, burst suppression, sleep architecture, and overall rating. Agreement was moderate for seizure occurrence and inter-ictal epileptiform discharge type. Agreement was fair for inter-ictal epileptiform discharge presence, beta activity, predominant frequency, and fastest frequency. Agreement was slight for maximum voltage and focal slowing presence.
Conclusions
The variability of inter-rater agreement suggests that some EEG features are superior to others for use in a predictive algorithm. Using only reproducible EEG features is needed to ensure the most accurate and consistent predictions. Since even seizure identification had only moderate agreement, studies of non-convulsive seizures in critically ill patients must be conducted and interpreted cautiously.
doi:10.1097/WNP.0b013e3182051123
PMCID: PMC3107383  PMID: 21221016
Electroencephalogram; Interobserver variability; Seizure; Pediatric; Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; Cardiac Arrest

Results 1-8 (8)