The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) expression is increased in diverse human cancers and plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the clinical significance of CDC20 expression in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of CDC20 in GC. The CDC20 mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of CDC20 protein in 131 clinicopathologically characterized GC cases. The relationship between CDC20 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed by appropriate statistics. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlation between CDC20 expression and prognosis of GC patients. The relative mRNA expression of CDC20 were significantly higher in GC tumor tissues than in the corresponding noncancerous tissues (P<0.001). Simultaneously, CDC20 protein expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P=0.02), histological grade (P=0.037), lymph node involvement (P=0.009), and TNM stage (P=0.015). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high CDC20 expression had poor overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that high CDC20 expression was an independent predictor of overall survival. In conclusion, our data indicated that CDC20 upregulation was associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in GC. CDC20 was identified for the first time as an independent marker for predicting the clinical outcome of GC patients.
CDC20; immunohistochemistry; gastric cancer
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis.
This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization.
A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression.
Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%), followed by the lack of time (13.4%) and language barrier (15.0%). Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%), advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%), and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%), while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators.
Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research utilization. The BARRIERS Scale should consider funding and involvement of patients in research utilization.
In response to stress conditions, many mammalian mRNAs accumulate in stress granules (SGs) together with numerous RNA-binding proteins that control mRNA turnover and translation. However, the signaling cascades that modulate the presence of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in SGs are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the localization of human antigen R (HuR), an mRNA-stabilizing RNA-binding protein, in SGs following exposure to the stress agent arsenite. Unexpectedly, the mobilization of HuR to SGs was prevented through the activation of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) by the vitamin K3 analog menadione. JAK3 phosphorylated HuR at tyrosine 200, in turn inhibiting HuR localization in SGs, reducing HuR interaction with targets SIRT1 and VHL mRNAs, and accelerating target mRNA decay. Our findings indicate that HuR is tyrosine-phosphorylated by JAK3, and link this modification to HuR subcytoplasmic localization and to the fate of HuR target mRNAs.
Genetic approaches to analyzing neuronal circuits and learning would benefit from a technology to first deliver a specific gene into presynaptic neurons, and then deliver a different gene into an identified subset of their postsynaptic neurons, connected by a specific synapse type. Here, we describe targeted gene transfer across a neocortical glutamatergic synapse, using as the model the projection from rat postrhinal to perirhinal cortex. The first gene transfer, into the presynaptic neurons in postrhinal cortex, used a virus vector and standard gene transfer procedures. The vector expresses an artificial peptide neurotransmitter containing a dense core vesicle targeting domain, a NMDA NR1 subunit binding domain (from a monoclonal antibody), and the His tag. Upon release, this peptide neurotransmitter binds to NMDA receptors on the postsynaptic neurons. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to these postsynaptic neurons in perirhinal cortex used a His tag antibody, as the peptide neurotransmitter contains the His tag. Confocal microscopy showed that with untargeted gene transfer, ~3 % of the transduced presynaptic axons were proximal to a transduced postsynaptic dendrite. In contrast, with targeted gene transfer, ≥20 % of the presynaptic axons were proximal to a transduced postsynaptic dendrite. Targeting across other types of synapses might be obtained by modifying the artificial peptide neurotransmitter to contain a binding domain for a different neurotransmitter receptor. This technology may benefit elucidating how specific neurons and subcircuits contribute to circuit physiology, behavior, and learning.
glutamatergic synapse; vesicular glutamate transporter 1 promoter; peptide neurotransmitter; antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer; herpes simplex virus vector
A network approach to brain and dynamics opens new perspectives towards understanding of its function. The functional connectivity from functional MRI recordings in humans is widely explored at large scale, and recently also at the voxel level. The networks of dynamical directed connections are far less investigated, in particular at the voxel level. To reconstruct full brain effective connectivity network and study its topological organization, we present a novel approach to multivariate Granger causality which integrates information theory and the architecture of the dynamical network to efficiently select a limited number of variables. The proposed method aggregates conditional information sets according to community organization, allowing to perform Granger causality analysis avoiding redundancy and overfitting even for high-dimensional and short datasets, such as time series from individual voxels in fMRI. We for the first time depicted the voxel-wise hubs of incoming and outgoing information, called Granger causality density (GCD), as a complement to previous repertoire of functional and anatomical connectomes. Analogies with these networks have been presented in most part of default mode network; while differences suggested differences in the specific measure of centrality. Our findings could open the way to a new description of global organization and information influence of brain function. With this approach is thus feasible to study the architecture of directed networks at the voxel level and individuating hubs by investigation of degree, betweenness and clustering coefficient.
Primary liver cancer and liver metastases are among the most frequent malignancies worldwide, with an increasing number of new cases and deaths every year. Traditional surgery is only suitable for a limited proportion of patients and imaging-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has achieved optimistic results for management of hepatic malignancy. This synopsis outlines the first clinical practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation therapy for hepatic malignancy, which was created by a joint task force of the Society of Chinese Interventional Ultrasound. The guidelines aim at standardizing the microwave ablation procedure and therapeutic efficacy assessment, as well as proposing the criteria for the treatment candidates.
Practice guidelines; Microwave radiation; Catheter ablation; Liver cancer; Ultrasound
The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) are altered under different conditions such as cancer, senescence, and aging. Here, we have identified differentially expressed miRNAs in skeletal muscle from young and old rhesus monkeys using RNA sequencing. In old muscle, several miRNAs were upregulated, including miR-451, miR-144, miR-18a and miR-15a, while a few miRNAs were downregulated, including miR-181a and miR-181b. A number of novel miRNAs were also identified, particularly in old muscle. We also examined the impact of caloric restriction (CR) on miRNA abundance by reverse transcription (RT) followed by real-time, quantitative (q)PCR analysis and found that CR rescued the levels of miR-181b and chr1:205580546, and also dampened the age-induced increase in miR-451 and miR-144 levels. Our results reveal that there are changes in expression of known and novel miRNAs with skeletal muscle aging and that CR may reverse some of these changes to a younger phenotype.
gene expression; posttranscriptional gene regulation; muscle aging; muscle diseases
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including both mammals and birds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) localises to the surface of T. gondii tachyzoites and modulates the interactions between parasite and host cells. In this study, the protective efficacy of recombinant T. gondii PDI (rTgPDI) as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated. rTgPDI was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Five groups of animals (10 animals/group) were immunised with 10, 20, 30, 40 μg of rTgPDI per mouse or with PBS as a control group. All immunisations were performed via the nasal route at 1, 14 and 21 days. Two weeks after the last immunisation, the immune responses were evaluated by lymphoproliferative assays and by cytokine and antibody measurements. The immunised mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain on the 14th day after the last immunisation. Following the challenge, the tachyzoite loads in tissues were assessed, and animal survival time was recorded. Our results showed that the group immunised with 30 μg rTgPDI showed significantly higher levels of specific antibodies against the recombinant protein, a strong lymphoproliferative response and significantly higher levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-2 and IL-4 production compared with other doses and control groups. While no changes in IL-10 levels were detected. After being challenged with T. gondii tachyzoites, the numbers of tachyzoites in brain and liver tissues from the rTgPDI group were significantly reduced compared with those of the control group, and the survival time of the mice in the rTgPDI group was longer than that of mice in the control group. Our results showed that immunisation with rTgPDI elicited a protective immune reaction and suggested that rTgPDI might represent a promising vaccine candidate for combating toxoplasmosis.
AIM: To assess esophageal motility after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
METHODS: Twelve patients (6 men and 6 women) aged 53-64 years (mean age, 58 years) who underwent regular examination 3-12 mo after esophageal ESD for neoplasms of the esophageal body were included in this study. The ESD procedure was performed under deep sedation using a combination of propofol and fentanyl, and involved a submucosal injection to lift the lesion and use of a dual-knife and an insulated-tip knife to create a circumferential incision around the lesion extending into the submucosa. Esophageal motility was examined using a high-resolution manometry system. Dysphagia was graded using a five-point scale according to the Mellow and Pinkas scoring system. Patient symptoms and the results of esophageal manometry were then analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 12 patients enrolled, 1 patient had grade 2 dysphagia, 1 patient had grade 1 dysphagia, and 3 patients complained of sporadic dysphagia. Ineffective esophageal motility was observed in 5 of 6 patients with above semi-circumference of resection extension. Of these 5 patients, 1 patient complained of grade 2 dysphagia (with esophageal stricture), one patient complained of grade 1 dysphagia, and 3 patients complained of sporadic dysphagia. Normal esophageal body manometry was observed in all 6 patients with below semi-circumference of resection extension. The 6 patients with normal esophageal motility did not complain of dysphagia.
CONCLUSION: Extensive esophageal ESD may cause esophageal dysmotility in some patients, and might also have an influence on dysphagia although without esophageal stricture.
Esophageal neoplasm; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Dysphagia; Ineffective esophageal motility; Esophageal manometry
Primary restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move the limbs and unpleasant sensations in the legs, which affects 1.9%–4.6% adults. Pramipexole, a potent dopamine D2/3 agonist, is recommended as “effective” in the short-term and “possibly effective” in the long-term treatment of primary RLS in the European guidelines on management of RLS. In this meta-analysis, we summarized the efficacy and tolerability of pramipexole in treatment for primary RLS. Results of this meta-analysis showed a favorable effect of pramipexole versus placebo on RLS symptoms (mean change on International RLS Study Group Rating Scale [IRLS] score: mean difference [MD] = −5.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −7.79 to −4.41, P < 0.00001) and sleep quality (pooled standard mean difference [SMD] = −0.48, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.35, P < 0.00001). Nausea (relative risk [RR] = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.82 to 3.95, P < 0.001) and fatigue (RR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.93, P = 0.013) were the most common adverse events, but, by and large, pramipexole was well-tolerated in patients with primary RLS. Nevertheless, long-term studies and more evidence of head-to-head comparisons of pramipexole with other dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, and levodopa are needed.
restless legs syndrome; pramipexole; meta-analysis
Intercellular ligand-receptor recognitions are crucial natural interactions that initiate a number of biological and pathological events. We present here the simple construction of a unique class of biomimetic interfaces based on a graphene-mediated self-assembly of glycosyl anthraquinones to a screen-printed electrode for the detection of transmembrane glycoprotein receptors expressed on a hepatoma cell line. We show that an electroactive interface confined with densely clustered galactosyl ligands is able to ingeniously recognize the asialoglycoprotein receptors on live Hep-G2 cells employing simple electrochemical techniques. The only facility used is a personal laptop in connection with a cheap and portable electrochemical workstation.
The Fanconi anemia (FA) protein network is necessary for repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), but its control mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the network is regulated by a ubiquitin signaling cascade initiated by RNF8 and its partner, UBC13; and mediated by FAAP20, a component of the FA core complex. FAAP20 preferentially binds the ubiquitin product of RNF8-UBC13; and its recruitment to ICLs requires this ubiquitin-binding activity, RNF8 and UBC13. Both RNF8 and FAAP20 are required for recruitment of FA core complex and FANCD2 to ICLs, whereas RNF168 can modulate efficiency of the recruitment. RNF8 and FAAP20 are needed for efficient FANCD2 monoubiquitination, a key step of the FA network; RNF8 and FA core complex work in the same pathway to promote cellular resistance to ICLs. Thus, the RNF8-FAAP20 ubiquitin cascade is critical for recruiting FA core complex to ICLs and for normal function of the FA network.
RNF8; FAAP20; RNF168; UBC13; Fanconi Anemia; ubiquitin
Several members of the let-7 microRNA family are downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. They are thought to act as tumor suppressors by lowering growth-promoting and anti-apoptotic proteins. In order to measure cellular let-7 levels systematically, we have developed a highly sensitive let-7 reporter assay system based on the expression of a chimeric mRNA that contains the luciferase coding region and a 3′-untranslated region (UTR) bearing two let-7-binding sites. In cells expressing the reporter construct, termed pmirGLO-let7, luciferase activity was high when let-7 was absent, while luciferase activity was low when let-7 levels were elevated. The ovarian cancer cell lines BG-1 and UCI-101 were transfected with the let-7 reporter and surveyed with a library of kinase inhibitors in order to identify pathways affecting let-7 activity. Among the inhibitors causing changes in endogenous let-7 abundance, the lowering of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)β function specifically increased let-7 levels and lowered luciferase activity. Similarly, silencing GSK-3β increased both mature and primary-let-7 levels in BG-1 cells, and decreased BG-1 cell survival. Further studies identified p53 as a downstream effector of the GSK-3β-mediated repression of let-7 biosynthesis. Our studies highlight GSK-3β as a novel therapeutic target in ovarian tumorigenesis.
Here, we present the first report of a novel rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain named BIV, isolated from both in vitro and in vivo sources. The complete circular genome of BIV is 896 nucleotides in length. The data will help us to update current knowledge of the replication of PCV2 viruses in cell culture and of their molecular evolution, as well as their diagnosis.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal behaviors that resemble epileptic seizures but lack abnormal electrical activity. Recent studies suggest aberrant functional connectivity involving specific brain regions in PNES. Little is known, however, about alterations of topological organization of whole-brain functional and structural connectivity networks in PNES. We constructed functional connectivity networks from resting-state functional MRI signal correlations and structural connectivity networks from diffusion tensor imaging tractography in 17 PNES patients and 20 healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis was employed to compute network properties. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural connectivity networks. We found that PNES patients exhibited altered small-worldness in both functional and structural networks and shifted towards a more regular (lattice-like) organization, which could serve as a potential imaging biomarker for PNES. In addition, many regional characteristics were altered in structural connectivity network, involving attention, sensorimotor, subcortical and default-mode networks. These regions with altered nodal characteristics likely reflect disease-specific pathophysiology in PNES. Importantly, the coupling strength of functional-structural connectivity was decreased and exhibited high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate PNES patients from healthy controls, suggesting that the decoupling strength of functional-structural connectivity might be an important characteristic reflecting the mechanisms of PNES. This is the first study to explore the altered topological organization in PNES combining functional and structural connectivity networks, providing a new way to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNES.
Dysfunction of cardiac mitochondria appears to play a substantial role in cardiomyopathy or myocardial dysfunction and is a promising therapeutic target for many cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the effect of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor fasudil on cardiac mitochondria from rats in which diabetes was induced by a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and a sustained high-fat diet. Eight weeks after diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg STZ followed by a sustained high-fat diet, either fasudil (5 mg/kg bid) or equivalent volumes of saline (control) were administered over four weeks. Fasudil significantly protected against the histopathologic changes of cardiac mitochondria in diabetic rats. Fasudil significantly reduced the abundances of the Rho A, ROCK 1, and ROCK 2 proteins, restored the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in cardiac mitochondria, inhibited the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and decreased the total antioxidant capacity, as well as levels of malonyldialdehyde, hydroxy radical, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase in heart. Fasudil improved the structures of cardiac mitochondria and increased both SDH and MAO activities in cardiac mitochondria. These beneficial effects may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress caused by fasudil treatment.
Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor in which transient therapeutic responses are typically followed by recurrence with lethal chemoresistant disease. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic responses in diverse neuroblastomas using an unbiased mitochondrial functional assay. We defined the apoptotic set-point of neuroblastomas using responses to distinct BH3 death domains providing a BH3 response profile, and directly confirmed survival dependencies. We found that viable neuroblastoma cells and primary tumors are primed for death with tonic sequestration of Bim, a direct activator of apoptosis, by either Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, providing a survival dependency that predicts the activity of Bcl-2 antagonists. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor ABT-737 showed single agent activity against only Bim:Bcl-2 primed tumor xenografts. Durable complete regressions were achieved in combination with non-curative chemotherapy even for highest-risk molecular subtypes with MYCN amplification and activating ALK mutations. Furthermore, the use of unique isogenic cell lines from patients at diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that therapy resistance was not mediated by upregulation of Bcl-2 homologues or loss of Bim priming, but by repressed Bak/Bax activation. Together, our findings provide a classification system that identifies tumors with clinical responses to Bcl-2 antagonists, defines Mcl-1 as the principal mediator of Bcl-2 antagonist resistance at diagnosis, and isolates the therapy resistant phenotype to the mitochondria.
Bcl-2 homology proteins; mitochondrial profiling; animal models; Bcl-2 antagonist
In recent years, a disease caused by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has resulted in significant loss in rice production in Southern China and has spread quickly throughout East and Southeast Asia. This virus is transmitted by an insect vector, white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in a persistent propagative manner. Aside from rice, SRBSDV can also infect numerous Poaceae plants. However, the molecular mechanism of interaction between SRBSDV and its plant or insect vector remains unclear. In order to address this, we investigated the whole viral genome relative mRNA expression level in distinct hosts and monitored their expression level in real-time in rice plants.
In this study, a reliable, rapid, and sensitive method for detecting viral gene expression transcripts is reported. A SYBR Green I based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was adopted for the quantitative detection of SRBSDV gene expression in different hosts and real-time changes in gene expression in rice.
Compared to the relative mRNA expression level of the whole genome of SRBSDV, P3, P7-1, and P9-2 were dominantly expressed in rice and WBPH. Similarly, these genes also exhibited high expression levels in corn, suggesting that they have more important functions than other viral genes in the interaction between SRBSDV and hosts, and that they could be used as molecular detection target genes of SRBSDV. In contrast, the levels of P6 and P10 were relative low. Western blotting analysis partially was also verified our qPCR results at the level of protein expression. Analysis of the real-time changes in SRBSDV-infected rice plants revealed four distinct temporal expression patterns of the thirteen genes. Moreover, expression levels of P1 and other genes were significantly down-regulated on days 14 and 20, respectively.
SRBSDV genes showed similar expression patterns in distinct hosts (rice, corn, and WBPH), indicating that SRBSDV uses the same infection strategy in plant and insect hosts. P3, P7-1, and P9-2 were the dominantly expressed genes in the three tested hosts. Therefore, they are likely to be genes with the most crucial function and could be used as sensitive molecular detection targets for SRBSDV. Furthermore, real-time changes in SRBSDV genes provided a basis for understanding the mechanism of interaction between SRBSDV and its hosts.
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus; Viral gene expression; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Rice; Corn; White-backed planthopper; Real-time changes
We deciphered the genome of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, isolated from the Junggar Basin, a newly discovered great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China. The total length of assembly was 4,597,322 bp, and 4,265 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. It is the first Y. pestis genome from this plague focus.
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a Ginkgo biloba extract for patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on adults with early diabetic nephropathy which used Gingko biloba extract were included. The major databases were searched, and manufacturers of Gingko biloba products were contacted for information on any published or unpublished studies. Two authors independently extracted the data from the included studies. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0 software. Results. Sixteen RCTs were included. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (SCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The extract also improved hemorheology. The methodological quality in the included studies was low. The explicit generation of the allocation sequence was described in only 6 trials. None of the included trials were confirmed to use blinding. Three studies had observed adverse events. One study using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) reported mild cough in both groups. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions. Gingko biloba extract is a valuable drug which has prospect in treating early diabetic nephropathy, especially with high UAER baseline level. The safety for early diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. Long-term, double-blinded RCTs with large sample sizes are still needed to provide stronger evidence.
Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is involved in fibrotic disease. However, the exact pathogenic implications of the receptor in early alcoholic liver disease are still controversial. We constructed plasmid vectors encoding short-hairpin RNA against DDR2 to investigate its role in alcoholic liver disease in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line, HSC-T6, and in rats by MTT, RT-PCR and western blot analyses; immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Alcohol-induced upregulation of DDR2 was associated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, the transforming growth factor β1 signaling pathway and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; collagen deposition; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Inhibition of DDR2 decreased HSC-T6 cell proliferation and liver injury in rats with 10-week-induced alcoholic liver disease. DDR2 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of early-stage alcoholic liver disease. Silencing DDR2 may be effective in preventing early-stage alcoholic liver disease.
Long-term expression from helper virus-free Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors is required for many specific neural gene therapies and studies on neuronal physiology. We previously developed a promoter that supports long-term, neuron-specific expression by fusing the chicken ß-globin insulator (INS), followed by an upstream enhancer from the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, to a neurofilament heavy gene (NFH) promoter. Here, we examined the capability of specific transcription factors to further improve long-term expression from this promoter. Following a HSV-1 virus infection, the virus genome is localized to promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NB). At these sites, specific cellular transcription factors interact with HSV-1 encoded transcription factors, and together regulate HSV-1 gene expression. Importantly, lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1), CLOCK, and Co-Rest each activate HSV-1 gene expression. However, gene expression from HSV-1 vectors differs in a number of important aspects from the virus, including no HSV-1 genes are expressed. Nonetheless, these observations raise the possibility that specific transcription factors may improve long-term expression from specific promoters in HSV-1 vectors. Here, we show that overexpression of either LSD1 or CLOCK improves long-term expression from the INS-TH-NFH promoter, but overexpression of Co-Rest supports levels of long-term expression similar to those supported by a control vector. Further, overexpression of LSD1 is compatible with neuron-specific expression. Thus, overexpressing specific transcription factors can improve long-term expression from specific cellular promoters in HSV-1 vectors, and the chromatin structure of the vector has an important role in enabling expression.
herpes simplex virus vector; long-term expression; transcription factor; chromatin modifying enzyme; enhancer; striatal neuron
We report here for the first time the genome sequence of a rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain, CH-IVT1, isolated from PCV2-infected PK-15 cells. The complete circular genome of the CH-IVT1 is 605 nucleotides (nt) in length. The finding will help us to understand the molecular evolution of PCV2 and the relationship between PCV2 and PCV-associated diseases.