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1.  Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom 
Journal of pediatric epilepsy  2012;1(4):211-219.
Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 patients had surgical fields that allowed for complete identification of the electrodes over the area of resection. Eight of 15 patients were seizure free after a follow up of 1.7 to 8 yr. Only one seizure-free patient had complete resection of all seizure onset associated tissue. Seizure free patients had resection of 64.1% of the seizure onset electrode associated tissue, compared to 35.2% in the not seizure free patients (p=0.05). Resection of tissue associated with infrequent seizure onsets did not appear to be important for seizure freedom. Resecting ≥ 90% of the electrodes from the predominant seizure contacts predicted post-operative seizure freedom (p=0.007). The best predictor of seizure freedom was resecting ≥ 90% of tissue involved in majority of a patient’s seizures. Resection of tissue under infrequent seizure onset electrodes was not necessary for seizure freedom.
doi:10.3233/PEP-12033
PMCID: PMC3930198  PMID: 24563805
Epilepsy; epilepsy surgery; cortical dysplasia; neocortical epilepsy; intracranial electroencephalography
2.  Interictal EEG spikes identify the region of seizure onset in some, but not all pediatric epilepsy patients 
Epilepsia  2009;51(4):592-601.
Purpose
The role of sharps and spikes, interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), in guiding epilepsy surgery in children remains controversial, particularly with intracranial EEG (IEEG). While ictal recording is the mainstay of localizing epileptic networks for surgical resection, current practice dictates removing regions generating frequent IEDs if they are near the ictal onset zone. Indeed, past studies suggest an inconsistent relationship between IED and seizure onset location, though these studies were based upon relatively short EEG epochs.
Methods
We employ a previously validated, computerized spike detector, to measure and localize IED activity over prolonged, representative segments of IEEG recorded from 19 children with intractable, mostly extra temporal lobe epilepsy. Approximately 8 hours of IEEG, randomly selected thirty-minute segments of continuous interictal IEEG per patient were analyzed over all intracranial electrode contacts.
Results
When spike frequency was averaged over the 16-time segments, electrodes with the highest mean spike frequency were found to be within the seizure onset region in 11 of 19 patients. There was significant variability between individual 30-minute segments in these patients, indicating that large statistical samples of interictal activity were required for improved localization. Low voltage fast EEG at seizure onset was the only clinical factor predicting IED localization to the seizure onset region.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that automated IED detection over multiple representative samples of IEEG may be of utility in planning epilepsy surgery for children with intractable epilepsy. Further research is required to better determine which patients may benefit from this technique a priori.
doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02306.x
PMCID: PMC2907216  PMID: 19780794
Spike density; intracranial EEG; Seizure onset; Pediatric Epilepsy

Results 1-2 (2)