Inflammation is an important contributor to pediatric and adult neurodegeneration. Understanding the genetic determinants of neuroinflammation provides valuable insight into disease mechanism. We characterize a disorder of recurrent immune-mediated neurodegeneration. We report two sisters who presented with neurodegeneration triggered by infections. The proband, a previously healthy girl, presented at 22.5 months with ataxia and dysarthria following mild gastroenteritis. MRI at onset showed a symmetric signal abnormality of the cerebellar and peritrigonal white matter. Following a progressive course of partial remissions and relapses, she died at 5 years of age. Her older sister had a similar course following varicella infection, she died within 13 months. Both sisters had unremarkable routine laboratory testing, with exception of a transient mild cytopenia in the proband 19 months after presentation. Exome sequencing identified a biallelic perforin1 mutation (PRF1; p.R225W) previously associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). In contrast to FHL, these girls did not have hematopathology or cytokine overproduction. However, 3 years after disease onset, the proband had markedly deficient interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) production. These observations extend the spectrum of disease associated with perforin mutations to immune-mediated neurodegeneration triggered by infection and possibly due to primary immunodeficiency.
exome sequencing; neurodegeneration; cerebellar white matter; familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; interleukin-1 beta
Chronic bacterial lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While a range of bacteria are known to be capable of establishing residence in the CF lung, only a small number have a clearly established link to deteriorating clinical status. The two bacteria with the clearest roles in CF lung disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). A number of common adaptations by P. aeruginosa strains to chronic lung infection in CF have been well described. Typically, initial isolates of P. aeruginosa are nonmucoid and display a range of putative virulence determinants. Upon establishment of chronic infection, subsequent isolates ultimately show a reduction in putative virulence determinants, including swimming motility, along with an acquisition of the mucoid phenotype and increased levels of antimicrobial resistance. Infections by BCC are marked by an unpredictable, but typically worse, clinical outcome. However, in contrast to P. aeruginosa infections in CF, studies describing adaptive changes in BCC bacterial phenotype during chronic lung infections are far more limited. To further enhance our understanding of chronic lung infections by BCC bacteria in CF, we assessed the swimming motility phenotype in 551 isolates of BCC bacteria from cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections between 1981 and 2007. These data suggest that swimming motility is not typically lost by BCC during chronic infection, unlike as seen in P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, while we observed a statistically significant link between mucoidy and motility, we did not detect any link between motility phenotype and clinical outcome. These studies highlight the need for further work to understand the adaptive changes of BCC bacteria during chronic infection in the CF lung.
Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination.
Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world.
We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe).
We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs.
Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world.
Innate immunity; immune development; infectious disease; global; LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; MDP, Muramyl dipeptide; NOD, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein; PCA, Principal-component analysis; PGN, Peptidoglycan; Poly I:C, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; PRR, Pattern-recognition receptor; R848, Resiquimod; TLR, Toll-like receptor
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria are highly virulent, typically multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and other immunocompromised individuals. B. vietnamiensis is more often susceptible to aminoglycosides than other BCC species, and strains acquire aminoglycoside resistance during chronic CF infection and under tobramycin and azithromycin exposure in vitro, apparently from gain of antimicrobial efflux as determined through pump inhibition. The aims of the present study were to determine if oxidative stress could also induce aminoglycoside resistance and provide further observations in support of a role for antimicrobial efflux in aminoglycoside resistance in B. vietnamiensis.
Here we identified hydrogen peroxide as an additional aminoglycoside resistance inducing agent in B. vietnamiensis. After antibiotic and hydrogen peroxide exposure, isolates accumulated significantly less [3H] gentamicin than the susceptible isolate from which they were derived. Strains that acquired aminoglycoside resistance during infection and after exposure to tobramycin or azithromycin overexpressed a putative resistance-nodulation-division (RND) transporter gene, amrB. Missense mutations in the repressor of amrB, amrR, were identified in isolates that acquired resistance during infection, and not in those generated in vitro.
These data identify oxidative stress as an inducer of aminoglycoside resistance in B. vietnamiensis and further suggest that active efflux via a RND efflux system impairs aminoglycoside accumulation in clinical B. vietnamiensis strains that have acquired aminoglycoside resistance, and in those exposed to tobramycin and azithromycin, but not hydrogen peroxide, in vitro. Furthermore, the repressor AmrR is likely just one regulator of the putative AmrAB-OprM efflux system in B. vietnamiensis.
Burkholderia vietnamiensis; Aminoglycoside; Azithromycin; Hydrogen peroxide; Efflux; AmrB; AmrR
The gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary cause of chronic respiratory infections in individuals with the heritable disease cystic fibrosis (CF). These infections can last for decades, during which time P. aeruginosa has been proposed to acquire beneficial traits via adaptive evolution. Because CF lacks an animal model that can acquire chronic P. aeruginosa infections, identifying genes important for long-term in vivo fitness remains difficult. However, since clonal, chronological samples can be obtained from chronically infected individuals, traits undergoing adaptive evolution can be identified. Recently we identified 24 P. aeruginosa gene expression traits undergoing parallel evolution in vivo in multiple individuals, suggesting they are beneficial to the bacterium. The goal of this study was to determine if these genes impact P. aeruginosa phenotypes important for survival in the CF lung. By using a gain-of-function genetic screen, we found that 4 genes and 2 operons undergoing parallel evolution in vivo promote P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. These genes/operons promote biofilm formation by increasing levels of the non-alginate exopolysaccharide Psl. One of these genes, phaF, enhances Psl production via a post-transcriptional mechanism, while the other 5 genes/operons do not act on either psl transcription or translation. Together, these data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa has evolved at least two pathways to over-produce a non-alginate exopolysaccharide during long-term colonization of the CF lung. More broadly, this approach allowed us to attribute a biological significance to genes with unknown function, demonstrating the power of using evolution as a guide for targeted genetic studies.
HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected mothers from areas in the world with a high burden of infectious disease suffer higher infectious morbidity and mortality than their HIV unexposed uninfected (HUU) peers. Vaccination provides protection from infection. The possibility exists that altered response to vaccination contributes to the higher rate of infection in HEU than in HUU infants. While short-term, cross-sectional studies support this notion, it is unclear whether or not HEU infants develop long-term protective immune responses following the WHO extended program on immunization (EPI). Vaccine-specific antibody responses were compared between HEU and HUU infants from 2 weeks until 2 years of age in a longitudinal South African cohort. Total IgG and antibodies specific for Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B virus (HepB), and measles virus were measured at multiple time points throughout the first 2 years of life. Prevaccine antibodies (maternal antibodies passively acquired) specific for tetanus were lower in HEU than in HUU infants, while prevaccine antibodies to HepB were higher in HEU than in HUU infants. Both groups responded similarly to tetanus, Hib, and HepB vaccination. HEU demonstrated stronger pertussis vaccine responses, developing protective titers 1 year earlier than HUU patients, and maintained higher anti-tetanus titers at 24 months of age. Vaccine-induced antibodies to measles virus were similar in both groups at all time points. Our results suggest that the current EPI vaccination program as practiced in South Africa leads to the development of vaccine-specific antibody responses that are equivalent in HEU and HUU infants. However, our data also suggest that a large fraction of both HEU and HUU South African infants have antibody titers for several infectious threats that remain below the level of protection for much of their first 2 years of life.
The first year of life represents a time of marked susceptibility to infections; this is particularly true for regions in sub-Saharan Africa. As innate immunity directs the adaptive immune response, the observed increased risk for infection as well as a suboptimal response to vaccination in early life may be due to less effective innate immune function. In this study, we followed a longitudinal cohort of infants born and raised in South Africa over the first year of life, employing the most comprehensive analysis of innate immune response to stimulation published to date. Our findings reveal rapid changes in innate immune development over the first year of life. This is the first report depicting dramatic differences in innate immune ontogeny between different populations in the world, with important implications for global vaccination strategies.
A major challenge to clinical therapy of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) pulmonary infections is their innate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials, including polycationic agents such as aminoglycosides, polymyxins, and cationic peptides. To identify genetic loci associated with this phenotype, a transposon mutant library was constructed in B. multivorans ATCC 17616 and screened for increased susceptibility to polymyxin B. Compared to the parent strain, mutant 26D7 exhibited 8- and 16-fold increases in susceptibility to polymyxin B and colistin, respectively. Genetic analysis of mutant 26D7 indicated that the transposon inserted into open reading frame (ORF) Bmul_2133, part of a putative hopanoid biosynthesis gene cluster. A strain with a mutation in another ORF in this cluster, Bmul_2134, was constructed and named RMI19. Mutant RMI19 also had increased polymyxin susceptibility. Hopanoids are analogues of eukaryotic sterols involved in membrane stability and barrier function. Strains with mutations in Bmul_2133 and Bmul_2134 showed increased permeability to 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine in the presence of increasing concentrations of polymyxin, suggesting that the putative hopanoid biosynthesis genes are involved in stabilizing outer membrane permeability, contributing to polymyxin resistance. Results from a dansyl-polymyxin binding assay demonstrated that polymyxin B does not bind well to the parent or mutant strains, suggesting that Bmul_2133 and Bmul_2134 contribute to polymyxin B resistance by a mechanism that is independent of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding. Through this work, we propose a role for hopanoid biosynthesis as part of the multiple antimicrobial resistance phenotype in Bcc bacteria.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung disease and major risk factor for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among preterm infants. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in oxidative injury responses in the lungs. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene have been associated with RSV infection in children. However, it is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by BPD or prematurity. In this study, we analyzed two population-based cohorts of preterm infants at risk for BPD as well as ethnicity-matched infants born at term, to test whether the TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly (rs4986790) and Thr399Ile (rs4986791) are independently associated with BPD or premature birth. In a Canadian cohort (n = 269) composed of a majority of Caucasian preterm infants (BPD incidence of 38%), the TLR4-299 heterozygous genotype was significantly under-represented in infants without BPD (1.6% of infants versus 12% in infants with severe BPD) after adjusting for twins, ethnicity, gestational age, birth weight and gender (p = 0.014). This association was not replicated in a Finnish cohort (n = 434) of premature singletons or first-born siblings of Caucasian descent, although the incidence of BPD was substantially lower in this latter population (15%). We did not detect a significant association (>2-fold) between TLR4 genotypes and prematurity (p>0.05). We conclude that these TLR4 genotypes may have, at best, a modest influence on BPD severity in some populations of high-risk preterm infants. Further studies are warranted to clarify how clinical heterogeneity may impact genetic susceptibility to BPD.
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria can cause devastating chronic infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Of particular concern is “cepacia syndrome,” a rapidly progressive and usually fatal decline in health, characterized by a necrotizing bacteremic pneumonia. An important component of defense against bloodstream infections is the bactericidal action of serum. Traditional methods to determine the capacity of bacterial isolates to resist the bactericidal effects of serum are relatively low-throughput viability assays. In this study, we developed a novel growth-based assay for serum susceptibility, which allows for high throughput analysis. We applied this assay to a range of clinical isolates of BCC as well as isolates comprising the BCC experimental strain panel. Our data demonstrate that isolates from all species of BCC examined can possess serum resistant or serum sensitive/intermediate phenotypes. Of particular clinical significance, we also found no direct link between the last saved pulmonary isolate from patients who subsequently developed “cepacia syndrome” and their capacity to resist the inhibitory effects of human serum, suggesting serum resistance cannot be used as a marker of an isolate’s capacity to escape from the lung and cause bacteremia.
Burkholderia cepacia complex; serum; cystic fibrosis; complement; Bioscreen; cepacia syndrome
Prematurely born infants are highly vulnerable to infections and also exhibit a high susceptibility to organ damage from inflammation.
To investigate homeostatic immune control early in life, we used advanced multi-parameter flow cytometry to compare responses to multiple Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in single cells and mononuclear cell populations, between term and preterm neonates born before 29 weeks of gestation.
Preterm neonates showed globally attenuated TLR-stimulated IL-6, IFN-α and to a lesser extent TNF-α responses, but relative preservation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses in monocytes and dendritic cell subtypes. Remarkably, preterm neonates were also profoundly deficient in the common IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines p40 subunit, critical for immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens in mice. Consistent with an increased susceptibility to infections from the lack of IL-12/IL-23 in human newborns, significantly lower serum p40 concentrations were observed at birth in infants who developed early-onset sepsis.
This study is the first detailed analysis of multiple TLR function in neonates born at extreme prematurity. While attenuation of pro-inflammatory pathways may protect against tissue-damaging immunity early in life, this previously unrecognized p40 immune deficiency appears to considerably increase susceptibility to infection in human preterm newborns.
IL-12/23p40; cord blood; toll-like receptor; innate immunity; neonates
Background. Infants born prematurely are highly vulnerable to infections and also exhibit a high susceptibility to organ damage due to inflammation.
Methods. To investigate homeostatic immune control early in life, we used advanced multiparameter flow cytometry to compare responses to multiple Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in single cells and mononuclear cell populations in term neonates versus preterm neonates born before 29 weeks of gestation.
Results. Preterm neonates had globally attenuated TLR-stimulated interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-α, and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor-α responses but demonstrated relative preservation of anti-inflammatory IL10 responses in monocytes and dendritic cell subtypes. Remarkably, preterm neonates were also profoundly deficient in the common IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines' p40 subunit, which is critical for immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens in mice. Consistent with the increased susceptibility to infections resulting from the lack of IL-12/IL-23 in human newborns, significantly lower serum p40 concentrations were observed at birth in infants who developed early-onset sepsis.
Conclusion. To our knowledge, this study is the first detailed analysis of multiple TLR function in neonates born extremely premature. Although attenuation of proinflammatory pathways may protect against tissue-damaging immunity early in life, this previously unrecognized p40 immune deficiency appears to result in considerably increased susceptibility to infection in human preterm newborns.
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that can cause severe disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and other immunocompromised individuals and are typically multidrug resistant. Here we observed that unlike other BCC species, most environmental and clinical Burkholderia vietnamiensis isolates were intrinsically susceptible to aminoglycosides but not to cationic antimicrobial peptides or polymyxin B. Furthermore, strains acquired aminoglycoside resistance during chronic CF infection, a phenomenon that could be induced under tobramycin or azithromycin pressure in vitro. In comparing susceptible and resistant B. vietnamiensis isolates, no gross differences in lipopolysaccharide structure were observed, all had lipid A-associated 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose residues, and all were resistant to the permeabilizing effects of aminoglycosides, a measure of drug entry via self-promoted uptake. However, susceptible isolates accumulated 5 to 6 times more gentamicin than a resistant isolate, and aminoglycoside susceptibility increased in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. B. vietnamiensis is therefore unusual among BCC bacteria in its susceptibility to aminoglycosides and capacity to acquire resistance. Aminoglycoside resistance appears to be due to decreased cellular accumulation as a result of active efflux.
Autosomal recessive interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 deficiencies impair Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin-1 receptor-mediated immunity. We documented the clinical features and outcome of 48 patients with IRAK-4 deficiency and 12 patients with MyD88 deficiency, from 37 kindreds in 15 countries. The clinical features of IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency were indistinguishable. There were no severe viral, parasitic, and fungal diseases, and the range of bacterial infections was narrow. Noninvasive bacterial infections occurred in 52 patients, with a high incidence of infections of the upper respiratory tract and the skin, mostly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The leading threat was invasive pneumococcal disease, documented in 41 patients (68%) and causing 72 documented invasive infections (52.2%). P. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus documented invasive infections also occurred (16.7% and 16%, respectively, in 25% and 25% of patients). Systemic signs of inflammation were usually weak or delayed. The first invasive infection occurred before the age of 2 years in 53 (88.3%) and in the neonatal period in 19 (32.7%) patients. Multiple or recurrent invasive infections were observed in most survivors (n = 36/50, 72%).
The Burkholderia cepacia complex is an important group of pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although evidence for patient-to-patient spread is clear, microbial factors facilitating transmission are poorly understood. To identify microbial clones with enhanced transmissibility, we evaluated B. cepacia complex isolates from patients with CF from throughout Canada. A total of 905 isolates from the B. cepacia complex were recovered from 447 patients in 8 of the 10 provinces; 369 (83%) of these patients had genomovar III and 43 (9.6%) had B. multivorans (genomovar II). Infection prevalence differed substantially by region (22% of patients in Ontario vs. 5% in Quebec). Results of typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that strains of B. cepacia complex from genomovar III are the most potentially transmissible and that the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker is a robust marker for transmissibility.
Burkholderia cepacia complex; cystic fibrosis; epidemiology; genomovar; Canada
Innate immunodeficiency has recently been reported resulting from the Q293X IRAK-4 mutation, with consequent defective TLR/IL-1R signalling. Here we report a method for the rapid allele-specific detection of this mutation and demonstrate both cell-type specificity and ligand specificity in defective IRAK-4-deficient cellular responses, indicating differential roles for this protein in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary dermal fibroblasts, and in LPS, IL-1β and TNF-α signalling. We demonstrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional defects, despite NF-κB signalling and intact MyD88-independent signalling, and propose that dysfunctional Complex 1 (IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1) signalling, as a consequence of IRAK-4-deficiency, generates specific defects in mitogen-activated protein kinase activation that could underpin this patient’s innate immunodeficiency. These studies demonstrate the importance of studying primary human cells bearing a clinically relevant mutation; they underscore the complexity of innate immune signalling and illuminate novel roles for IRAK-4 and the fundamental importance of accessory pro-inflammatory signalling to normal human innate immune responses and immunodeficiencies.
Human; Immunodeficiency diseases; Inflammation
The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of chronic airway infections in individuals with the heritable disease cystic fibrosis (CF). After prolonged colonization of the CF lung, P. aeruginosa becomes highly resistant to host clearance and antibiotic treatment; therefore, understanding how this bacterium evolves during chronic infection is important for identifying beneficial adaptations that could be targeted therapeutically. To identify potential adaptive traits of P. aeruginosa during chronic infection, we carried out global transcriptomic profiling of chronological clonal isolates obtained from 3 individuals with CF. Isolates were collected sequentially over periods ranging from 3 months to 8 years, representing up to 39,000 in vivo generations. We identified 24 genes that were commonly regulated by all 3 P. aeruginosa lineages, including several genes encoding traits previously shown to be important for in vivo growth. Our results reveal that parallel evolution occurs in the CF lung and that at least a proportion of the traits identified are beneficial for P. aeruginosa chronic colonization of the CF lung.
Deadly diseases like AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis are the result of long-term chronic infections. Pathogens that cause chronic infections adapt to the host environment, avoiding the immune response and resisting antimicrobial agents. Studies of pathogen adaptation are therefore important for understanding how the efficacy of current therapeutics may change upon prolonged infection. One notorious chronic pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that causes long-term infections in individuals with the heritable disease cystic fibrosis (CF). We used gene expression profiles to identify 24 genes that commonly changed expression over time in 3 P. aeruginosa lineages, indicating that these changes occur in parallel in the lungs of individuals with CF. Several of these genes have previously been shown to encode traits critical for in vivo-relevant processes, suggesting that they are likely beneficial adaptations important for chronic colonization of the CF lung.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, initially contacts host cells with elements of its outer cell wall, or capsule. We have shown that capsular material from the surface of M. tuberculosis competitively inhibits the nonopsonic binding of whole M. tuberculosis bacilli to macrophages in a dose-dependent manner that is not acting through a global inhibition of macrophage binding. We have further demonstrated that isolated M. tuberculosis capsular proteins mediate a major part of this inhibition. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the capsular proteins showed the presence of a wide variety of protein species, including proportionately high levels of the Cpn60.2 (Hsp65, GroEL2) and DnaK (Hsp70) molecular chaperones. Both of these proteins were subsequently detected on the bacterial surface. To determine whether these molecular chaperones play a role in bacterial binding, recombinant Cpn60.2 and DnaK were tested for their ability to inhibit the association of M. tuberculosis bacilli with macrophages. We found that recombinant Cpn60.2 can inhibit ∼57% of bacterial association with macrophages, while DnaK was not inhibitory at comparable concentrations. Additionally, when polyclonal F(ab′)2 fragments of anti-Cpn60.2 and anti-DnaK were used to mask the surface presentation of these molecular chaperones, a binding reduction of ∼34% was seen for anti-Cpn60.2 F(ab′)2, while anti-DnaK F(ab′)2 did not significantly reduce bacterial association with macrophages. Thus, our findings suggest that while M. tuberculosis displays both surface-associated Cpn60.2 and DnaK, only Cpn60.2 demonstrates adhesin functionality with regard to macrophage interaction.
Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is widely accepted as an essential event for defence against infection. Many TLRs utilize a common signalling pathway that relies on activation of the kinase IRAK4 and the transcription factor NFκB for the rapid expression of immunity genes.
21 K DNA microarray technology was used to evaluate LPS-induced (TLR4) gene responses in blood monocytes from a child with an IRAK4-deficiency. In vitro responsiveness to LPS was confirmed by real-time PCR and ELISA and compared to the clinical predisposition of the child and IRAK4-deficient mice to Gram negative infection.
We demonstrated that the vast majority of LPS-responsive genes in IRAK4-deficient monocytes were greatly suppressed, an observation that is consistent with the described role for IRAK4 as an essential component of TLR4 signalling. The severely impaired response to LPS, however, is inconsistent with a remarkably low incidence of Gram negative infections observed in this child and other children with IRAK4-deficiency. This unpredicted clinical phenotype was validated by demonstrating that IRAK4-deficient mice had a similar resistance to infection with Gram negative S. typhimurium as wildtype mice. A number of immunity genes, such as chemokines, were expressed at normal levels in human IRAK4-deficient monocytes, indicating that particular IRAK4-independent elements within the repertoire of TLR4-induced responses are expressed.
Sufficient defence to Gram negative immunity does not require IRAK4 or a robust, 'classic' inflammatory and immune response.
Three structural features of lipid A (addition of palmitate [C16 fatty acid], addition of aminoarabinose [positively charged amino sugar residue], and retention of 3-hydroxydecanoate [3-OH C10 fatty acid]) were determined for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 86), from the environment (n = 13), and from patients with other conditions (n = 14). Among P. aeruginosa CF isolates, 100% had lipid A with palmitate, 24.6% with aminoarabinose, and 33.3% retained 3-hydroxydecanoate. None of the isolates from the environment or from patients with other conditions displayed these modifications. These results indicate that unique lipid A modifications occur in clinical P. aeruginosa CF isolates.
We demonstrate that all nine species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can express the mucoid phenotype. A survey of clinical isolates showed that strains of B. cenocepacia, the most virulent species of the complex, are most frequently nonmucoid. Additionally, isolates from patients with chronic infections can convert from mucoid to nonmucoid.
Burkholderia multivorans is a prominent B. cepacia complex (BCC) species causing infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Despite infection control measures being introduced to reduce the spread of BCC there is a continued emergence of infections by B. multivorans. Our objective was to analyze a global collection of B. multivorans isolates, comparing those from environmental and clinical sources with those from reported outbreaks. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 107 B. multivorans isolates to provide a detailed analysis of the global population biology of this species. MLST resolved 64 B. multivorans sequence types. Twelve of these were globally distributed and associated with human infection; two of these (ST-21 and ST-375) were also composed of environmental isolates. These global lineages included strains previously linked to large outbreaks (e.g., French epidemic clone ST-16). Though few environmental isolates of B. multivorans were available for analysis, of six strains identified, three were identical to strains recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. Although the ability of B. multivorans to cause CF outbreaks is known, our report here concerning the existence of globally distributed B. multivorans CF strains is a new observation for this emerging B. cepacia complex pathogen and suggests that certain strain types may be better adapted to human infection than others. Common transmission-associated risk factors were not obviously linked to the globally distributed strains; however, the overlap in strains recovered from water environments, industrial products, and human infection suggests that environmental sources may be an important reservoir for infection with B. multivorans.
Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), found in many environments, are associated with clinical infections. Examining diverse species and strains from different environments with multilocus sequence typing, we identified >20% of 381 clinical isolates as indistinguishable from those in the environment. This finding links the natural environment with the emergence of many Bcc infections.
MLST; Burkholderia cepacia complex; epidemiology; identical; genotype; environmental; clinical; global; widespread; dispatch
A single multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed for precise characterization of the opportunistic pathogens of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a group composed of at least nine closely related species. Seven conserved housekeeping genes were selected after a comparison of five Burkholderia species, and a collection of strains was subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis using a nested PCR amplification approach for each gene. MLST differentiated all nine current BCC species and identified 114 sequence types within a collection of 119 strains. No differentiation was found between strains recovered from environmental or clinical sources. The improved resolution in strain identification offered by MLST was able to identify previously characterized epidemic strain lineages and also demonstrated the presence of four novel potential species groups within the complex. There was also evidence for recombination having an important role in the recent evolution of individual BCC species. This highly transferable, validated, MLST scheme provides a new means to assist in species identification as well as unambiguous strain discrimination of the BCC by a single approach. It is also the first MLST scheme designed at the outset to incorporate multiple species and should facilitate global epidemiological investigations of the BCC.