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1.  Label-free detection of surface markers on stem cells by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscopy 
Biotechniques  2011;50(6):381-388.
Conventional fluorescent microscopy is routinely used to detect cell surface markers through fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. However, fluorophore-conjugation of antibodies alters binding properties such as strength and specificity of the antibody in ways often uncharacterized. The binding between antibody and antigen might not be in the native situation after such conjugation. Here, we present an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope as an effective method for label-free, real-time detection of cell surface markers and apply such a technique to analysis of Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 1 (SSEA1) on stem cells. Mouse stem cells express SSEA1 on their surfaces and the level of SSEA1 decreases when the cells start to differentiate. In this study, we immobilized mouse stem cells and non-stem cells (control) on a glass surface as a microarray and reacted the cell microarray with unlabeled SSEA1 antibodies. By monitoring the reaction with an OI-RD microscope in real time, we confirmed that the SSEA1 antibodies only bind to the surface of the stem cells while not to the surface of non-stem cells. From the binding curves, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the antibody with the SSEA1 markers on the stem cell surface. The results concluded that OI-RD microscope can be used to detect binding affinities between cell surface markers and unlabeled antibodies bound to the cells. The information could be another indicator to determine the cell stages.
PMCID: PMC3271734  PMID: 21781038
cell microarray; stem cell; label-free; oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD)
2.  Defining the pathway of cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit 
Molecular cell  2010;39(2):196-208.
In eukaryotic cells the final maturation of ribosomes occurs in the cytoplasm, where trans-acting factors are removed and critical ribosomal proteins are added for functionality. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of cytoplasmic maturation, ordering the known steps into a coherent pathway. Maturation is initiated by the ATPase Drg1. Downstream, assembly of the ribosome stalk is essential for the release of Tif6. The stalk recruits GTPases during translation. Because the GTPase Efl1, which is required for the release of Tif6, resembles the translation elongation factor eEF2, we suggest that assembly of the stalk recruits Efl1, triggering a step in 60S biogenesis that mimics aspects of translocation. Efl1 could thereby provide a mechanism to functionally check the nascent subunit. Finally, the release of Tif6 is a prerequisite for the release of the nuclear export adapter Nmd3. Establishing this pathway provides an important conceptual framework for understanding ribosome maturation.
PMCID: PMC2925414  PMID: 20670889
ribosome; ribosome biogenesis; EFL1; NMD3; TIF6
3.  Ribosome stalk assembly requires the dual-specificity phosphatase Yvh1 for the exchange of Mrt4 with P0 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;186(6):849-862.
The step by step assembly process from preribosome in the nucleus to translation-competent 60S ribosome subunit in the cytoplasm is revealed (also see Kemmler et al. in this issue).
The ribosome stalk is essential for recruitment of translation factors. In yeast, P0 and Rpl12 correspond to bacterial L10 and L11 and form the stalk base of mature ribosomes, whereas Mrt4 is a nuclear paralogue of P0. In this study, we show that the dual-specificity phosphatase Yvh1 is required for the release of Mrt4 from the pre-60S subunits. Deletion of YVH1 leads to the persistence of Mrt4 on pre-60S subunits in the cytoplasm. A mutation in Mrt4 at the protein–RNA interface bypasses the requirement for Yvh1. Pre-60S subunits associated with Yvh1 contain Rpl12 but lack both Mrt4 and P0. These results suggest a linear series of events in which Yvh1 binds to the pre-60S subunit to displace Mrt4. Subsequently, P0 loads onto the subunit to assemble the mature stalk, and Yvh1 is released. The initial assembly of the ribosome with Mrt4 may provide functional compartmentalization of ribosome assembly in addition to the spatial separation afforded by the nuclear envelope.
PMCID: PMC2753163  PMID: 19797078
4.  Reengineering Ribosome Export 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2009;20(5):1545-1554.
Large cargoes require multiple receptors for efficient transport through the nuclear pore complex. The 60S ribosomal subunit is one of the bulkiest transport cargoes, and in yeast three different receptors, Crm1, Mex67/Mtr2, and Arx1, collaborate in its export. However, only Crm1, recruited by the adapter Nmd3, appears to be conserved for 60S export in higher eukaryotes. We asked if export of the large subunit requires specific receptors. We made protein fusions between mutant Nmd3 and various export receptors. Surprisingly, fusions of Mex67, the tRNA exportin Los1, Mtr2, Cse1, or Msn5 to Nmd3, lacking its Crm1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES), all functioned in export. Furthermore, these chimeric proteins supported 60S export even in the presence of the Crm1 inhibitor leptomycin B, indicating that export was now independent of Crm1. These results suggest that there is not a requirement for a specific export receptor for the large subunit, as recruitment of any receptor will suffice. Finally we show that the addition of an NES directly to the 60S ribosomal subunit protein Rpl3 promotes export. These results imply remarkable flexibility in the export pathway for the 60S subunit and help explain how different export receptors could have evolved in different eukaryotic lineages.
PMCID: PMC2649259  PMID: 19144820
5.  Arx1 Is a Nuclear Export Receptor for the 60S Ribosomal Subunit in Yeast 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(2):735-744.
We previously showed that nuclear export of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit relies on Nmd3 in a Crm1-dependent manner. Recently the general mRNA export factor, the Mtr2/Mex67 heterodimer, was shown to act as an export receptor in parallel with Crm1. These observations raise the possibility that nuclear export of the 60S subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires multiple export receptors. Here, we show that the previously characterized 60S subunit biogenesis factor, Arx1, also acts as an export receptor for the 60S subunit. We found that deletion of ARX1 was synthetic lethal with nmd3 and mtr2 mutants and was synthetic sick with several nucleoporin mutants. Deletion of ARX1 led to accumulation of pre-60S particles in the nucleus that were enriched for Nmd3, Crm1, Mex67, and Mtr2, suggesting that in the absence of Arx1, 60S export is impaired even though the subunit is loaded with export receptors. Finally, Arx1 interacted with several nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid as well as in vitro assays. These results show that Arx1 can directly bridge the interaction between the pre-60S particle and the NPC and thus is a third export receptor for the 60S subunit in yeast.
PMCID: PMC2230582  PMID: 18077551

Results 1-5 (5)