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1.  A Census of Human Soluble Protein Complexes 
Cell  2012;150(5):1068-1081.
Cellular processes often depend on stable physical associations between proteins. Despite recent progress, knowledge of the composition of human protein complexes remains limited. To close this gap, we applied an integrative global proteomic profiling approach, based on chromatographic separation of cultured human cell extracts into more than one thousand biochemical fractions which were subsequently analyzed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry, to systematically identify a network of 13,993 high-confidence physical interactions among 3,006 stably-associated soluble human proteins. Most of the 622 putative protein complexes we report are linked to core biological processes, and encompass both candidate disease genes and unnanotated proteins to inform on mechanism. Strikingly, whereas larger multi-protein assemblies tend to be more extensively annotated and evolutionarily conserved, human protein complexes with 5 or fewer subunits are far more likely to be functionally un-annotated or restricted to vertebrates, suggesting more recent functional innovations.
PMCID: PMC3477804  PMID: 22939629
2.  High-Throughput Immunofluorescence Microscopy Using Yeast Spheroplast Cell-Based Microarrays 
We have described a protocol for performing high-throughput immunofluorescence microscopy on microarrays of yeast cells. This approach employs immunostaining of spheroplasted yeast cells printed as high-density cell microarrays, followed by imaging using automated microscopy. A yeast spheroplast microarray can contain more than 5,000 printed spots, each containing cells from a given yeast strain, and is thus suitable for genome-wide screens focusing on single cell phenotypes, such as systematic localization or co-localization studies or genetic assays for genes affecting probed targets. We demonstrate the use of yeast spheroplast microarrays to probe microtubule and spindle defects across a collection of yeast strains harboring tetracycline-down-regulatable alleles of essential genes.
PMCID: PMC3654672  PMID: 21104056
Yeast; immunofluorescence; high-throughput microscopy; cell microarrays; microtubule
3.  Systematic Definition of Protein Constituents along the Major Polarization Axis Reveals an Adaptive Reuse of the Polarization Machinery in Pheromone-Treated Budding Yeast 
Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the ‘shmoo’) by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.
Upon sensing mating pheromone, budding yeast cells form a mating projection (the ‘shmoo’) that serves as a model for polarized cell growth, involving cytoskeletal/cytosolic restructuring and directed vesicular transport. We developed a cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring localization of the yeast proteome during polarized growth. We find major organelles ordered along the polarization axis, localize 74 proteins to the growth tip, and observe adaptive reuse of general polarization machinery.
PMCID: PMC2651748  PMID: 19053807
Proteomics; polarized growth; subcellular localization; pheromone response; yeast
4.  A map of human protein interactions derived from co-expression of human mRNAs and their orthologs 
The human protein interaction network will offer global insights into the molecular organization of cells and provide a framework for modeling human disease, but the network's large scale demands new approaches. We report a set of 7000 physical associations among human proteins inferred from indirect evidence: the comparison of human mRNA co-expression patterns with those of orthologous genes in five other eukaryotes, which we demonstrate identifies proteins in the same physical complexes. To evaluate the accuracy of the predicted physical associations, we apply quantitative mass spectrometry shotgun proteomics to measure elution profiles of 3013 human proteins during native biochemical fractionation, demonstrating systematically that putative interaction partners tend to co-sediment. We further validate uncharacterized proteins implicated by the associations in ribosome biogenesis, including WBSCR20C, associated with Williams–Beuren syndrome. This meta-analysis therefore exploits non-protein-based data, but successfully predicts associations, including 5589 novel human physical protein associations, with measured accuracies of 54±10%, comparable to direct large-scale interaction assays. The new associations' derivation from conserved in vivo phenomena argues strongly for their biological relevance.
PMCID: PMC2387231  PMID: 18414481
interactions; mass spectrometry; networks; proteomics; systems biology
5.  A high-accuracy consensus map of yeast protein complexes reveals modular nature of gene essentiality 
BMC Bioinformatics  2007;8:236.
Identifying all protein complexes in an organism is a major goal of systems biology. In the past 18 months, the results of two genome-scale tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) assays in yeast have been published, along with corresponding complex maps. For most complexes, the published data sets were surprisingly uncorrelated. It is therefore useful to consider the raw data from each study and generate an accurate complex map from a high-confidence data set that integrates the results of these and earlier assays.
Using an unsupervised probabilistic scoring scheme, we assigned a confidence score to each interaction in the matrix-model interpretation of the large-scale yeast mass-spectrometry data sets. The scoring metric proved more accurate than the filtering schemes used in the original data sets. We then took a high-confidence subset of these interactions and derived a set of complexes using MCL. The complexes show high correlation with existing annotations. Hierarchical organization of some protein complexes is evident from inter-complex interactions.
We demonstrate that our scoring method can generate an integrated high-confidence subset of observed matrix-model interactions, which we subsequently used to derive an accurate map of yeast complexes. Our results indicate that essentiality is a product of the protein complex rather than the individual protein, and that we have achieved near saturation of the yeast high-abundance, rich-media-expressed "complex-ome."
PMCID: PMC1940025  PMID: 17605818
6.  How complete are current yeast and human protein-interaction networks? 
Genome Biology  2006;7(11):120.
How can protein-interaction networks can be made more complete?
We estimate the full yeast protein-protein interaction network to contain 37,800-75,500 interactions and the human network 154,000-369,000, but owing to a high false-positive rate, current maps are roughly only 50% and 10% complete, respectively. Paradoxically, releasing raw, unfiltered assay data might help separate true from false interactions.
PMCID: PMC1794583  PMID: 17147767
7.  Systematic profiling of cellular phenotypes with spotted cell microarrays reveals mating-pheromone response genes 
Genome Biology  2006;7(1):R6.
Spotted cell microarrays were developed for measuring cellular phenotypes on a large scale and used to identify genes involved in the response of yeast to mating pheromone.
We have developed spotted cell microarrays for measuring cellular phenotypes on a large scale. Collections of cells are printed, stained for subcellular features, then imaged via automated, high-throughput microscopy, allowing systematic phenotypic characterization. We used this technology to identify genes involved in the response of yeast to mating pheromone. Besides morphology assays, cell microarrays should be valuable for high-throughput in situ hybridization and immunoassays, enabling new classes of genetic assays based on cell imaging.
PMCID: PMC1431703  PMID: 16507139

Results 1-7 (7)