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1.  Pharmacological evaluation of the semi-purified fractions from the soft coral Eunicella singularis and isolation of pure compounds 
Gorgonians of the genus Eunicella are known for possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antiproliferative and antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effect of the organic extract and its semi-purified fractions from the white gorgonian Eunicella singularis and the isolation and identification of pure compound(s) from the more effective fraction.
Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated, using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test and in comparison to the reference drug Acetylsalicylate of Lysine. The gastroprotective activity was determined using HCl/EtOH induced gastric ulcers in rats. The purification of compound(s) from the more effective fraction was done by two chromatographic methods (HPLC and MPLC). The structure elucidation was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMBC, HMQC and NOESY) and by comparison with data reported in the literature.
The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions from Eunicella singularis showed in a dependent dose manner an important anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol fraction, the percentage of inhibition of edema, 3 h after carrageenan injection was 66.12%, more effective than the reference drug (56.32%). In addition, this ethanolic fraction showed an interesting gastroprotective effect compared to the reference drugs, ranitidine and omeprazol. The percentage of inhibition of gastric ulcer induced by HCl/ethanol in rats was 70.27%. The percentage of the reference drugs (ranitidine and omeprazol) were 65 and 87.53%, respectively. The purification and structure elucidation of compound(s) from this ethanolic fraction were leading to the isolation of five sterols: cholesterol (5α-cholest-5-en-3β-ol) (1); ergosterol (ergosta-5,22-dien-3β-ol) (2); stigmasterol (24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3b-ol) (3); 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta 6,22-dien-3β-ol (4) and 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6-ene (5); and one diterpenoid: palmonine D (6).
Based on data presented here, we concluded that diterpenoids and sterols detected in the ethanolic fraction can be responsible for its pharmacological activity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40199-014-0064-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4172910  PMID: 25199994
Eunicella singularis; Anti-inflammatory activity; Gastroprotective effect; Marine natural product; Diterpenoid; Sterols
2.  Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pyrazolopyrimidopyrimidine derivatives: anti-inflammatory agents with gastroprotective effect in rats 
Medicinal Chemistry Research  2013;23(3):1591-1598.
We report the synthesis of new anti-inflammatory 1,7-dihydropyrazolo[3′,4′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidine 5 from aminocyanopyrazole. All compounds were characterized by physical, chemical and spectral studies. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of the resulting products showed that compounds 5a, b, f (50–100 mg/kg, i.p) are active anti-inflammatory agents in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay, and their effects are comparable to that of acetylsalicylic–lysine (300 mg/kg, i.p.), used as a reference drug. The nature of substituent (Y, R3) had a pronounced effect on the anti-inflammatory activity. Studies of structure–activity relationships have led to selection of compound ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-7-imino-N1-phenyl-1,7-dihydropyrazolo[3′,4′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, 5f which exhibited the most potent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, the compounds 5a, b, f showed a significant gastroprotective effect against HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer.
PMCID: PMC3905175  PMID: 24489456
Aminocyanopyrazole; Anti-inflammatory; Gastroprotective; Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; Dihydropyrazolo[3′,4′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidine
3.  Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge 
Without doubt, natural products have been, and still are, the cornerstone of the health care armamentarium. Of all natural sources, the marine environment is clearly the last great frontier for pharmaceutical and medical research.
This work progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with pharmacological activities. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract and its semi-purified fractions (F2, F3) from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and their in vitro antiproliferative effects by their potential cytotoxic activity using the MTT colorimetric method and clonogenic inhibition against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma, HCT15, colon cell carcinoma and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma).
The fractions F2 and F3 showed interesting anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities in a dose dependent manner.
The present study indicates that the methanolic extrac and its fractions from Spongia officinalis are a significant source of compounds with the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.
PMCID: PMC3441879  PMID: 22587650
Spongia officinalis; Anti-inflammatory activity; Antiproliferative activity
4.  Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis 
This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation.
PMCID: PMC3407508  PMID: 22494441
Spongia officinalis; Anticonvulsant activity; Analgesic activity

Results 1-4 (4)