Defects of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related to many diseases and tumors. However, only a few studies have examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as related to these processes. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and extent of autophagy and ER stress-related markers in HCC and their influence on clinical characteristics and prognosis for each protein.
The expression of autophagy-related markers (LC3 and Beclin-1) and ER stress-related markers (GRP78 and CHOP) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissues from completely resected specimens of 190 HCC patients. Their influence on clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated using the chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Correlations of each protein were determined by Spearman's correlation analysis.
LC3 expression was not correlated with TNM, BCLC stage, or Edmonson-Steiner grading, whereas it was correlated with longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.039) and tended to be related with longer time to recurrence (TTR) (p=0.068) although it did not show statistical significance. Multivariate analysis indicated that LC3 expression was a significantly independent prognostic factor of OS (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80; p-value=0.009) and TTR (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33–0.90; p=0.017). Expression of LC3 in advanced stages of TNM (III) (p=0.045) and Edmonson-Steiner Grades (III and IV) (p=0.043) was correlated with longer survival, but not in the early stages. A positive correlation was not observed between the expression of autophagy-related markers and ER stress-related markers.
Our results suggest that the expression and extent of LC3 might be a strong prognostic factor of HCC, especially in patients with surgical resection.
Reactive oxygen species, produced by oxidative stress, initiate and promote many metabolic diseases through activation/suppression of redox-sensitive transcription factors. NF-κB and Nrf2 are important regulators of oxidation resistance and contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We identified MafK, a novel transcriptional regulator that modulates NF-κB activity. MafK knockdown reduced NF-κB activation, whereas MafK overexpression enhanced NF-κB function. MafK mediated p65 acetylation by CBP upon LPS stimulation, thereby facilitating recruitment of p65 to NF-κB promoters such as IL-8 and TNFα. Consistent with these results, MafK-depleted mice showed prolonged survival with a reduced hepatic inflammatory response after LPS and D-GalN injection. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which MafK controls NF-κB activity via CBP-mediated p65 acetylation.
Pd(II)-Insertion into β-methylene C(sp3)–H bonds was enabled by a mutually-repulsive and electron-rich quinoline ligand. Ligand tuning has led to the development of a method that allows for installation of an aryl group on a range of acyclic and cyclic amides containing β-methylene C(sp3)–H bonds.
There is mounting evidence indicating an important role for complement in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, or ischemic stroke. The role of the alternative complement pathway in ischemic stroke has not been investigated, and there is conflicting data on the role of the terminal pathway. Here we show that compared to wild type mice, mice deficient in the alternative pathway protein factor B, or mice treated with the alternative pathway inhibitor CR2-fH, have improved outcomes after 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24 hours reperfusion. Factor B-deficient or CR2-fH treated mice were protected in terms of improved neurological function and reduced cerebral infarct, demyelination, P-selectin expression, neutrophil infiltration and microthrombi formation. Mice deficient in both the classical and lectin pathways (C1q/MBL deficient) were also protected from cerebral IRI, and there was no detectable C3d deposition in the ipsilateral brain of these mice. These data demonstrate that alternative pathway is not alone sufficient to initiate complement activation, and indicate the alternative pathway propagates cerebral injury via amplification of the cascade. Deficiency of C6, a component of the terminal cytolytic membrane attack complex (MAC), had no effect on outcome after ischemic stroke, indicating the MAC is not involved in mediating injury in this model. We additionally show that the protective effect of fB deficiency and CR2-fH treatment is sustained in the sub-acute stage of infarct development, adding to the clinical relevance of these findings.
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the various solvent fractions (hexane, butanol, chloroform and water) from the ethanol extract of P. vulgaris var. lilacina in activated macrophages. The hexane fraction exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities, inducing inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, the hexane fraction from P. vulgaris var. lilacina significantly inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results indicate that P. vulgaris var. lilacina has an anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina; anti-inflammation; NO; PGE2; NF-κB
In this study, we investigate the proliferation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rat model of depression, the effects of electroacupunture (EA) on depressive-like symptoms and the corresponding signaling pathways.
SD rats were subjected to 4 weeks of CUS to induce depressive-like behaviors. EA was performed at the Du-20 (Bai-Hui) and GB-34 (Yang-Ling-Quan) acupoints. Rats were injected with BrdU and the brains were cut into sections. Double-labeling with BrdU/Sox2 and p-ERK/Nestin was performed to demonstrate the in vivo proliferation of adult NSCs in hippocampus and ERK activation in NSCs. Hippocampal microdialysates of different groups were collected to observe the in vitro effects on NSCs.
After 8 treatments, EA generated a clear antidepressant effect on the stressed rats and promoted the NSC proliferation. ERK activation might be involved in the antidepressant-like effects of EA treatment. Hippocampal microdialysates from EA-treated stressed rats influenced NSCs to form larger neural spheres and exhibit higher p-ERK level in vitro, compared to the untreated stressed rats. Meanwhile, the antidepressant-like effects of EA involved contribution from both acupoint specificity and electrical stimulus.
EA might interfere with the hippocampal microenvironment and enhance the activation of ERK signaling pathways. This could mediate, at least in part, the beneficial effects of EA on NSC proliferation and depressive-like behaviors.
Electroacupuncture; Depression; Neural stem cell; p-ERK; Hippocampal dentate gyrus; Microdialysis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes at the translational level. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs play critical roles in central nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions. However, their expression and functions in status epilepticus (SE) have not been well characterized thus far. Here, by using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized miRNA expression profile in rat hippocampus at 24 hours following SE induced by amygdala stimulation. After confirmation by qRT-PCR, six miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in brain after SE. Subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that most of the predicted target genes for these six miRNAs were related to neuronal apoptosis. We then investigated the dynamic changes of these six miRNAs at different time-point (4 hours, 24 hours, 1 week and 3 weeks) after SE. Meanwhile, neuronal survival and apoptosis in the hippocampus after SE were evaluated by Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP end-labeling assay. We found that the expression of miR-874-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-345-3p, miR-365-5p, and miR-764-3p were significantly increased from 24 hours to 1 week, whereas miR-99b-3p level was markedly decreased from 24 hours to 3 weeks after SE. Further analysis revealed that the levels of miR-365-5p and miR-99b-3p were significantly correlated with neuronal apoptosis after SE. Taken together, our data suggest that miRNAs are important modulators of SE-induced neuronal apoptosis. These findings also open new avenues for future studies aimed at developing strategies against neuronal apoptosis after SE.
In order to understand and rationally construct homochiral self-assembled structures from racemic molecules, two novel crystalline metal-organic frameworks with chiral cavities were developed. The homochirality of the layers in both MOFs was achieved by forming strong coordinate bonds between the C3-symmetric cyclotriveratrylene and Zn4O(CO2)6 cluster. By changing weak π-π interactions between organic building blocks, the achiral assembly of ZnCTV-1 was successfully transformed into a chiral assembly in ZnCTV-2. This study demonstrated a possible route for designing the synthesis of chiral MOF through weak interactions.
Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 (DK119) isolated from the fermented Korean cabbage food was used as a probiotic to determine its antiviral effects on influenza virus. DK119 intranasal or oral administration conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. The antiviral protective efficacy was observed in a dose and route dependent manner of DK119 administration. Mice that were treated with DK119 showed high levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a low degree of inflammation upon infection with influenza virus. Depletion of alveolar macrophage cells in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages completely abrogated the DK119-mediated protection. Modulating host innate immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production pattern appeared to be possible mechanisms by which DK119 exhibited antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. These results indicate that DK119 can be developed as a beneficial antiviral probiotic microorganism.
A 78-year-old male who was undergoing prolonged glucocorticoid treatment experienced cough and expectoration for 2 weeks. Galactomannan antigen analysis and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggested a diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. DNA sequencing indicated that Emericella nidulans var. echinulata was the causative agent. A combination of voriconazole and micafungin successfully treated the illness.
The results of studies that evaluated predictive factors for rebleeding in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding in these patients. A consecutive 312 patients presenting symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Clinical and demographic characteristics and endoscopic findings were evaluated for potential factors associated with 30-day rebleeding using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 176 patients were included (male, 80.1%; mean age, 59.7±16.0 yr). Rebleeding within 7 and 30 days occurred in 21 (11.9%) and 27 (15.3%) patients, respectively. We found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 10.29; 95% CI, 2.84-37.33; P<0.001), tachycardia (pulse>100 beats/min) during the admission (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.25-11.49; P=0.019), and Forrest classes I, IIa, and IIb (OR, 6.14; 95% CI, 1.36-27.66; P=0.018) were significant independent predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding. However, neither Rockall nor Blatchford scores showed statistically significant relationships with 30-day rebleeding in a multivariate analysis. CKD, hemodynamic instability during hospitalization, and an endoscopic high-risk appearance are significantly independent predictors of 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These factors may be useful for clinical management of such patients.
Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding; Rebleeding; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Predictive Factors
Targeted therapy is becoming an increasingly important component in the treatment of cancer. How to accurately monitor targeted therapy has been crucial in clinical practice. The traditional approach to monitor treatment through imaging has relied on assessing the change of tumor size by refined World Health Organization criteria, or more recently, by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. However, these criteria, which are based on the change of tumor size, show some limitations for evaluating targeted therapy. Currently, genetic alterations are identified with prognostic as well as predictive potential concerning the use of molecularly targeted drugs. Conversely, considering the limitations of invasiveness and the issue of expression heterogeneity, molecular imaging is better able to assay in vivo biologic processes noninvasively and quantitatively, and has been a particularly attractive tool for monitoring treatment in clinical cancer practice. This review focuses on the applications of different kinds of molecular imaging including positron emission tomography-, magnetic resonance imaging-, ultrasonography-, and computed tomography-based imaging strategies on monitoring targeted therapy. In addition, the key challenges of molecular imaging are addressed to successfully translate these promising techniques in the future.
molecular imaging; targeted therapy; PET; MRI; US; CT
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV.
One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence.
OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence.
OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains.
Polio; OPV; Mexico; Sewage; PCR
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as major innate immune mediators, may be involved in clearance of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits. Recently, a novel TLR9 signaling pathway has been uncovered, which is functionally associated with the immune inflammatory response and reducing Aβ burden in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mice. Therefore, TLR9 might represent a reasonable functional candidate gene for AD.
Our study investigated 1,133 sporadic late-onset AD (LOAD) and 1,159 healthy controls matched for sex and age in a large Han Chinese population. One selected functional rs187084 polymorphism within the TLR9 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction in a case–control associated study. The TLR9 rs187084 variant homozygote GG was significantly associated with a decreased LOAD risk after adjusting for age, gender, and ApoE ϵ4 status by logistic regression analysis (P = 0.035). Our result showed significant evidence of the interaction of ApoE ϵ4 with rs187084. When we further stratified our data by the ApoE ϵ4 status, we detected significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of rs187084 between LOAD patients and controls in ApoE ϵ4 carriers (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, we examined TLR9 expression in peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry, and the GG genotype of the TLR9 rs187084 polymorphism was associated with a higher TLR9 expression than two other genotypes in LOAD patients.
Our findings support the hypothesis that the TLR9 polymorphism may modify LOAD risk in the Han Chinese population.
Alzheimer’s disease; Polymorphisms; TLR9; rs187084; Expression; Association study
Human DNA polymerase iota (pol ι) possesses high error-prone DNA replication features and performs translesion DNA synthesis. It may be specialized and strictly regulated in normal mammalian cells. Dysregulation of pol ι may contribute to the acquisition of a mutator phenotype. However, there are few reports describing the transcription regulatory mechanism of pol ι, and there is controversy regarding its role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we performed the deletion and point-mutation experiment, EMSA, ChIP, RNA interference and western blot assay to prove that c-Jun activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates the transcription of pol ι in normal and cancer cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated related protein (ATR) promote early JNK activation in response to DNA damage and consequently enhance the expression of pol ι, indicating that the novel role of JNK signal pathway is involved in DNA damage response. Furthermore, associated with elevated c-Jun activity, the overexpression of pol ι is positively correlated with the clinical tumor grade in 97 bladder cancer samples and may contribute to the hypermutagenesis. The overexpressed pol ι-involved mutagenesis is dependent on JNK/c-Jun pathway in bladder cancer cells identifying by the special mutation spectra. Our results support the conclusion that dysregulation of pol ι by JNK/c-Jun is involved in carcinogenesis and offer a novel understanding of the role of pol ι or c-Jun in mutagenesis.
The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses.
This study was performed to determine the accuracy of proton magnetic spectroscopy (1H-MRS) lipid peak as a noninvasive tool for quantitative in vivo detection of brain cell death. Seven day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. For treatment, cycloheximide was given immediately after hypoxic ischemia (HI). Lipid peak was measured using 1H-MRS at 24 hr after HI, and then brains were harvested for fluorocytometric analyses with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescent probe JC-1, and for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and lactate. Increased lipid peak at 1.3 ppm measured with 1H-MRS, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) at 24 hr after HI were significantly improved with cycloheximide treatment. Significantly reduced brain ATP and increased lactate levels observed at 24 hr after HI showed a tendency to improve without statistical significance with cycloheximide treatment. Lipid peak at 1.3 ppm showed significant positive correlation with both apoptotic and necrotic cells and loss of ΔΨ, and negative correlation with normal live cells. Lipid peak at 1.3 ppm measured by 1H-MRS might be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for quantitative in vivo detection of brain cell death after HI.
Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain; Animals; Newborn; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Flow Cytometry
Controlling positional selectivity of C–H activation in molecules possessing multiple inequivalent C–H bonds is one of the most important challenges in developing synthetically useful C–H activation reactions. One widely used approach utilizes σ-chelating directing groups to achieve ortho-selectivity through conformational rigid five- or six-membered cyclic pre-transition states (TS).1–14 We envisioned that an “end-on” chelating template capable of delivering catalysts to previously inaccessible remote meta-C–H bonds via a macrocyclic cyclophane-like pre-TS could overcome the limitations imposed by traditional ortho-directing groups. Herein, we report a class of readily removable nitrile-containing templates that direct the activation of distal meta-C–H bonds (≥ 10 bonds away) of a tethered arene. We attribute this new mode of C–H activation to the weak “end-on” coordination of the linear nitrile group to metal center, as previously observed by Schwarz in the study of remote C–H activation of alkyl nitriles in gas phase.15, 16 The coordination geometry relieves the strain of the cyclophane-like pre-transition state of the meta-C–H activation event. Remarkably, this template overrides electronic and steric biases and ortho-directing effects with two broadly useful classes of arene substrates (toluene derivatives and hydrocinnamic acids), thus constituting a fundamentally new mode of directed C–H activation that is anticipated to be widely adopted.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accounts for the major cause of dementia, and the increasing worldwide prevalence of AD is a major public health concern. Increasing epidemiological studies suggest that diet and nutrition might be important modifiable risk factors for AD. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, B vitamins, polyphenols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are beneficial to AD, and consumptions of fish, fruits, vegetables, coffee, and light-to-moderate alcohol reduce the risk of AD. However, many of the results from randomized controlled trials are contradictory to that of epidemiological studies. Dietary patterns summarizing an overall diet are gaining momentum in recent years. Adherence to a healthy diet, the Japanese diet, and the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of AD. This paper will focus on the evidence linking many nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns to AD.
Reactions that convert carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bonds into carbon–carbon (C–C) or carbon–heteroatom (C–Y) bonds are attractive tools for organic chemists, potentially expediting the synthesis of target molecules through new disconnections in retrosynthetic analysis. Despite extensive inorganic and organometallic study of the insertion of homogeneous metal species into unactivated C–H bonds, practical applications of this technology in organic chemistry are still rare. Only in the past decade have metal-catalyzed C–H functionalization reactions become more widely utilized in organic synthesis.
Research in the area of homogeneous transition metal–catalyzed C–H functionalization can be broadly grouped into two subfields. They reflect different approaches and goals and thus have different challenges and opportunities. One approach involves reactions of completely unfunctionalized aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which we refer to as “first functionalization.” Here the substrates are nonpolar and hydrophobic and thus interact very weakly with polar metal species. To overcome this weak affinity and drive metal-mediated C–H cleavage, chemists often use hydrocarbon substrates in large excess (for example, as solvent). Because highly reactive metal species are needed in first functionalization, controlling the chemoselectivity to avoid over-functionalization is often difficult. Additionally, because both substrates and products are comparatively low-value chemicals, developing cost-effective catalysts with exceptionally high turnover numbers that are competitive with alternatives (including heterogeneous catalysts) is challenging. Although an exciting field, first functionalization is beyond the scope of this Account.
The second subfield of C–H functionalization involves substrates containing one or more pre-existing functional groups, termed “further functionalization.” One advantage of this approach is that the existing functional group (or groups) can be used to chelate the metal catalyst and position it for selective C–H cleavage. Precoordination can overcome the paraffin nature of C–H bonds by increasing the effective concentration of the substrate so that it needn't be used as solvent. From a synthetic perspective, it is desirable to use a functional group that is an intrinsic part of the substrate so that extra steps for installation and removal of an external directing group can be avoided. In this way, dramatic increases in molecular complexity can be accomplished in a single stroke through stereo- and site-selective introduction of a new functional group. Although reactivity is a major challenge (as with first functionalization), the philosophy in further functionalization differs—the major challenge is developing reactions that work with predictable selectivity in intricately functionalized contexts on commonly occurring structural motifs.
In this Account, we focus on an emergent theme within the further functionalization literature: the use of commonly occurring functional groups to direct C–H cleavage through weak coordinations. We discuss our motivation for studying Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization assisted by weakly coordinating functional groups and chronicle our endeavors to bring reactions of this type to fruition. Through this approach, we have developed reactions with a diverse range of substrates and coupling partners, with the broad scope likely stemming from higher reactivity of the less stable cyclopalladated intermediates held in place by weak coordinations.
B13 is a ceramide analogue and apoptosis inducer with potent cytotoxic activity. A series of arylpropyl sulfonamide analogues of B13 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity using MTT assays in prostate cancer PC-3 and leukemia HL-60 cell lines. Some compounds (4, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 20) showed stronger activities than B13 in both tumor cell lines, and compound (15) gave the most potent activity with IC50 values of 29.2 and 20.7 µM, for PC-3and HL-60 cells, respectively. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis was performed to build highly reliable and predictive CoMSIA models with cross-validated q2 values of 0.816 and 0.702, respectively. Our results suggest that long alkyl chains and a 1R, 2R configuration of the propyl group are important for the cytotoxic activities of arylpropyl sulfonamides. Moreover, the introduction of small hydrophobic groups in the phenyl ring and sulfonamide group could increase biological activity.
Arylpropanol; Ceramide; Cytotoxicity; QSAR
AIM: To investigate the causes of missed diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC) or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) in Chongqing, China.
METHODS: The present study summarizes 103 cases of EGC/HGIN detected by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and pathological analysis from January 2010 to December 2011. Dimethyl silicone oil was administrated orally 15 min before the EGD procedures. The stomach was cleaned by repeated washing with saline when the gastroscope entered the stomach cavity. Suspected EGC lesions were subject to conventional biopsy sampling and pathological examinations. The correlation between lesion locations, endoscopic morphology of cancerous sites, training level of the examiners, pathological biopsies, and missed diagnosis was analyzed.
RESULTS: Twenty-three cases were missed among the 103 cases (22.23%) of EGC/HGIN. The rate of missed EGC in the gastroesophageal junction (8/19, 42.1%) was significantly higher than at other sites (15/84, 17.86%) (χ2 = 5.253, P = 0.022). In contrast, the rate of missed EGC in the lower stomach body (2/14, 14.29%) was lower than at other sites (21/89, 23.6%), but there were no significant differences (χ2 = 0.289, P = 0.591). The rate of missed EGC in the gastric antrum (5/33, 15.15%) was lower than at other sites (18/70, 25.71%), but there were no significant differences (χ2 = 1.443, P = 0.230). Endoscopists from less prestigious hospitals were more prone to not diagnosing EGC than those from more prestigious hospitals (χ2 = 4.261, P = 0.039). When the number of biopsies was < 4, the rate of missed diagnosis was higher (20/23, 89.96%) than for when there were > 4 biopsies (3/23, 13.04%) (P < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in the rate of missed diagnosis in patients with 1-3 biopsy specimens (χ2 = 0.141, P = 0.932).
CONCLUSION: Endoscopists should have a clear understanding of the anatomical characteristics of the esophagus/stomach, and endoscopic identification of early lesions increases with the number of biopsies.
Missed diagnosis; Early gastric cancer; High-grade intraepithelial neoplasia; Endoscopic diagnosis; Biopsies
Congenital or familial erythrocytosis/polycythemia can have many causes, and an emerging cause is genetic disruption of the oxygen-sensing pathway that regulates the ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene. More specifically, recent studies have identified erythrocytosis-associated mutations in the HIF2A gene, which encodes for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2α (HIF-2α), as well as in two genes that encode for proteins that regulate it, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 2 (PHD2) and the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL). We report here the identification of two new heterozygous HIF2A missense mutations, M535T and F540L, both associated with erythrocytosis. Met-535 has previously been identified as a residue mutated in other patients with erythrocytosis, although the mutation of this particular residue to Thr has not been reported. In contrast, Phe-540 has not been reported as a residue mutated in erythrocytosis, and we present evidence here that this mutation impairs interaction of HIF-2α with both VHL and PHD2.
erythropoietin; erythrocytosis; Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2α; oxygen-sensing; prolyl hydroxylation
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors of suicide ideation in general population. A total of 1,116 adults were sampled with randomization in an urban area. After excluding 116 participants due to incomplete answer, 1,000 participants (500 males; mean age 39.6 ± 11.6) completed self-report questionnaire including the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and questions on weekday sleep duration. Results showed higher scores on the BSI were related with higher scores on the STAXI, CES-D, a family history of psychiatric illness, and short or long sleep duration (≤ 5 or ≥ 10 hr) (adjusted R2 = 0.151, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.008, respectively). The predictive power of the STAXI scores, the presence of psychiatric family history and short or long sleep duration was stronger in the high CES-D group with scores of 16 or higher (adjusted R2 = 0.275, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that suicide idea in general population may be related with the presence of family history for psychiatric illness, depressive mood, high anger and short or long sleep duration.
General Population; Risk Factor; Suicide Idea
Malacoplakia is a chronic inflammatory disease. The disease mainly affects the urinary bladder, although involvement of extravesical sites is increasingly being documented. Most frequently involved is the urinary tract, particularly the urinary bladder, although the testis, epididymis, lungs, bone, colon, prostate, female genital organs, and retroperitoneum can also be involved. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old man with a scrotal mass with histology that was specific for malacoplakia of the epididymis. The histologic workup demonstrated extensive involvement of the epididymis by diffuse infiltrates of large histiocytes with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, which were diagnostic of malakoplakia. This is the first case of epididymal malacoplakia in our country and the first case of epididymal malacoplakia without concurrent involvement of the testis. There have been few reports of this condition worldwide.